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Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5401-9255
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8071-4745
Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physiological Society , 2015. Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925
Keywords [en]
aging, C-reactive protein, exercise, fatty acids, inflammation, skeletal muscle
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46442DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00066.2015ISI: 000362959800009PubMedID: 26338453Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84946046698OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-46442DiVA, id: diva2:868290
Note

Funding Agency:

Swedish National Center for Research in Sports P2012/0102 P2014-0117

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Skeletal Muscle Mass & Function in Older Women: Health-Enhancing Influences of Combined Resistance Exercise & Diet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skeletal Muscle Mass & Function in Older Women: Health-Enhancing Influences of Combined Resistance Exercise & Diet
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Ageing is accompanied by a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength which may lead to impaired ability to perform activities of daily living in older adults. Although the exact cause of the gradual decline in muscle mass is unknown, identifying efficient strategies aiming to prevent age-related loss of muscle mass and strength is important in order to promote healthy ageing. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the effects of resistance training alone or combined with a healthy diet on skeletal muscle mass and function of healthy recreationally active older women and to determine mechanisms by which elevated systemic inflammation may contribute to the age-related decline of muscle mass in older adults. The combination of resistance training and a healthy diet induced gains in leg lean mass as well as greater gains in dynamic explosive force than resistance training alone in healthy recreationally active older women. The observed gains in leg lean mass were accompanied by increases in the size of type IIA muscle fibres together with down-regulation in gene expression of a pro-inflammatory factor (IL-1β) and upregulation in gene expression of a regulator of cellular growth (mTOR) in skeletal muscle of older women. Additionally, reduced muscle protein synthesis and size of muscle cells may mediate the detrimental effects of elevated circulating markers of inflammation on muscle mass in older adults. In conclusion, the present thesis depicts mechanistic links between elevated systemic marker of inflammation and muscle mass and provides new information on the effects of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass and strength in a group of healthy recreationally active older women. This knowledge is instrumental for development of strategies aiming to prevent age-related loss of muscle mass and function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2017. p. 79
Series
Örebro Studies in Sport Sciences, ISSN 1654-7535 ; 26
Keywords
Healthy ageing, Chronic inflammation, C-reactive protein, Omega-3 fatty acids, Resistance training, Physical function
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61234 (URN)978-91-7529-218-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-12, Örebro universitet, Hörsal G, Gymnastikhuset, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-23Bibliographically approved

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Strandberg, EmelieEdholm, PeterPonsot, ElodieWåhlin-Larsson, BrittaHellmén, ErikNilsson, AndreasEngfeldt, PeterKadi, Fawzi

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