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Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. (CHAMP)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1485-8564
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. (CHAMP)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9688-5805
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. (Center for Developmental Research)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7009-5955
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden. (CHAMP)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2718-7402
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2015 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 1, no 3, 205-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Sleep has important consequences for a person's daytime functioning. Numerous studies have shown that insomnia predicts work absenteeism and work disability in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in adolescents. This study aims to explore whether symptoms of insomnia in adolescents predict school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known psychological risk factors for absenteeism.

Design: The study used a longitudinal design with 2 measurement points over 1 year.

Setting: The students completed questionnaires during school hours at baseline and again at follow-up.

Participants: Students in the 10th to 12th grades in a Swedish upper secondary school were followed prospectively for 1 year (age, 16-20 years; N = 353; 48.1% girls).

Measurements and results: We used logistic regression analyses, controlling for the known effects of psychological factors, and arrived at a model elucidating the role of insomnia. That is, besides symptoms of insomnia, the model included previous absenteeism, alcohol intoxication, school-related social phobia, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, somatic symptoms, and bully victimization. Symptoms of insomnia predicted school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known risk factors for absenteeism. Adolescents reporting severe symptoms of insomnia were almost 3 times more likely than adolescents reporting no or low symptoms to report problematic absenteeism 1 year later. We did not find any gender difference.

Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of sleep problems on adolescents' daytime functioning as measured by school absenteeism. Therefore, sleep may be an important target for preventive interventions with adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 1, no 3, 205-210 p.
Keyword [en]
Sleep, Insomnia, School absenteeism, Adolescence, Longitudinal
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46656DOI: 10.1016/j.sleh.2015.07.007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84940890895OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-46656DiVA: diva2:874576
Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Adolescents' sleep in a 24/7 society: Epidemiology and prevention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescents' sleep in a 24/7 society: Epidemiology and prevention
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sleep undergoes important changes during adolescence and many teenagers experience problems sleeping. These in turn affect adolescents´ academic, physical and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, there are some indications that sleep problems in this age group may be increasing, possibly as a consequence of societal changes, e.g., internet availability. Research on adolescents´ sleep is growing, but more epidemiological studies are needed to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep, long and short-term outcomes associated with it, and potential risk and protective factors to target in preventive interventions. The aim of this dissertation was to contribute to each of these goals; Study I investigated the longitudinal association between sleep problems, defined as symptoms of insomnia, and school absenteeism; Study II explored the prevalence of poor sleep, defined as sleep deficit, in an adolescent population and psychosocial and contextual factors associated with it, including emotional and behavioral problems, stress, sleep hygiene and technology use; finally, Study III evaluated the short-term effects of a novel universal school-based intervention to improve adolescents´ sleep health.

The findings show that poor sleep was strongly related to adolescents´ functioning, including emotional and behavioral problems and school attendance, and that sleep deficit was prevalent in adolescents. This supports the need for prevention. Moreover, sleep deficit was associated with stress, technology use and arousal at bedtime, which may represent important barriers to sleep. A preventive intervention targeting these barriers to promote adolescents´ sleep health was successful with the individuals most at risk. However, it remains to be seen whether these changes will be maintained after the intervention and whether incidence of sleep problems will be lower relative to a control group. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2017. 76 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Psychology, ISSN 1651-1328 ; 37
Keyword
Sleep problems, adolescents, sleep deficit, insomnia, sleep duration, technology, stress, prevention, epidemiology
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57856 (URN)978-91-7529-202-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-11, Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal 2, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
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Available from: 2017-05-30 Created: 2017-05-30 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved

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