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Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: Evidence from enacted events performed by self and others
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. (CHAMP)
Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. (ChAMP)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9862-3032
Department of Psychology, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
Department of Psychology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany.
2017 (English)In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to examine action memory as a form of episodic memory among school-aged subjects. Most research on action memory has focused on memory changes in adult populations. This study explored the action memory of children over time. A total of 410 school-aged child participants, comprising 201 girls and 208 boys in four age groups (8, 10, 12, 14), were included in this study. We studied two forms of action encoding, subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and experimenter-performed tasks (EPTs), which were compared with one verbal encoding task as a control condition. At retrieval, we used three memory tests (free recall, cued recall, and recognition). We observed significant differences in memory performance in children aged 8-14 years with respect to free recall and cued recall but not recognition. The largest memory enhancement was observed for the SPTs in the 8-14-year-old participants under all test conditions. Participants performed equally well on the free recall of SPTs and EPTs, whereas they displayed better performances on the cued recall and recognition of SPTs compared to EPTs. The strategic nature of SPTs and the distinction between item-specific information and relational information are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017. Vol. 25, no 1, p. 84-94
Keywords [en]
Developmental differences, episodic memory, action memory, enactment effect, school-aged children
National Category
Psychology Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47908DOI: 10.1080/09658211.2015.1126607ISI: 000392495000007PubMedID: 26711845Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84951871229OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-47908DiVA, id: diva2:900063
Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The power of action and knowledge in episodic memory for school-aged children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The power of action and knowledge in episodic memory for school-aged children
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Developmental and cognitive research suggests that there are age-related differ-ences in children’s episodic memory across school ages due to the development of knowledge, which in turn affects memory strategy use and information pro-cessing over time. However, there are controversial findings related to devel-opmental patterns and factors involved in children’s episodic memory function.

This dissertation studies action memory, a form of episodic memory, across school ages to explore developmental differences and children’s memory per-formance as related to different encoding conditions, retrieval modes, materi-als, and events. In study I, the effects of different encoding conditions (i.e., verbal tasks, VTs; experimenter-performed tasks, EPTs; and subject-performed tasks, SPTs) and memory tests (i.e., recall and recognition) were examined across school ages. This study found that the developmental pattern of action memory was more pronounced for enacted encoding than verbal encoding, the most pronounced in recall test than in recognition test. In study II, the recall period of enactment effects and the effects of task difficulty were investigated as functions of age and encoding conditions in school-aged children. The results revealed that enacted encoding not only outperformed verbal encoding but also that the response speed increased over the recall period, the effect being more noticeable in older than younger children. Moreover, the level of task difficulty can be regarded as an important factor affecting the pattern of memory output among school-aged children. Study III explored the effect of children’s declarative knowledge on memory performance by presenting knowledge-based cues such as objects and semantic integration items. Providing cues related to children’s prior knowledge in the encoding and test phases improved memory performance, especially in older children. The overall results indicated clear-cut developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages. Episodic memory functions differed as functions of age, encoding, testing instructions, and type of event. SPTs and EPTs can improve memory function, this improvement was more pronounced in SPTs than in EPTs. The positive impact of action memory on memory performance is discussed in terms of the cognitive mechanism, memory strategies, and information processing involved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University, 2018. p. 80
Series
Örebro Studies in Psychology, ISSN 1651-1328 ; 42
Keywords
Episodic memory, action memory, enactment effect, subject-performed tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, verbal tasks, school-aged children, memory strategies, information processing
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66903 (URN)978-91-7529-254-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-15, Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L3, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-08 Created: 2018-05-08 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved

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Badinlou, FarzanehKormi-Nouri, Reza

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