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Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins: Production, Use and International Regulations
Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. (MTM Research Centre)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1496-9245
2010 (English)In: Chlorinated Paraffins / [ed] Boer, Jacob, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer , 2010, Vol. 10, 1-40 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a group of synthetic organic chemicals consisting of n-alkanes with varying degrees of chlorination, usually between 40 and 70% by weight. There are no known natural sources of CPs. CPs are produced by chlorination of n-alkane feedstocks. CPs typically are viscous oils with low vapor pressures; they are practically insoluble in water but are soluble in chlorinated solvents or mineral oils. They are toxic to wildlife, long-lasting in the environment and build up in the tissues of organisms. Long-chain CPs are believed to be much less toxic to aquatic life than the related short- or medium-chain CPs. CPs consist of extremely complex mixtures allowing many possible positions for the chlorine atoms. Depending on the degree of chlorination, they are grouped into low (<50%) and high (>50%) chlorine containing. Depending on the chain length, the products are often subdivided into short-chain (C10–C13), medium-chain (C14–C17) and long-chain (C18–C30) CPs. CPs, including short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), are used worldwide in a wide range of applications such as plasticisers in plastics, extreme pressure additives in metalworking fluids, flame retardants and additives in paints. Their wide industrial applications probably provide the major source of environmental contamination. CPs may be released into the environment from improperly disposed metalworking fluids containing CPs or from polymers containing CPs. Loss of CPs by leaching from paints and coatings may also contribute to environmental contamination. The potential for loss during production and transport is expected to be less than that during product use and disposal. Despite many efforts, a global picture as to the definition of CPs, present production, uses and occurrences is still not yet obtained. Since about 20 years, SCCPs have become subject to regulation at national and international level due to their physical–chemical properties and adverse effects. Action has been initiated for severely restricting or banning production and use of certain CPs. The latest activities include the listing of SCCPs under the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Protocol of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Longe-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention and ongoing discussions on including SCCPs to the Stockholm Convention on POPs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer , 2010. Vol. 10, 1-40 p.
Series
The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, 10
Keyword [en]
Chlorinated paraffins, definitions, regulation, risk assessment, releases
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47605DOI: 10.1007/698_2010_58ISBN: 978-3-642-10760-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-47605DiVA: diva2:900780
Available from: 2016-02-05 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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