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Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy
Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA), Utrecht, The Netherlands.
RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg, Germany; WHO/UNEP Reference Laboratory, Freiburg, Germany.
State Institute for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis of Food, Freiburg, Germany; WHO/UNEP Reference Laboratory, Freiburg, Germany.
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2013 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1678-1685Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Abstract [en]

Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Cote d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013. Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1678-1685
Keywords [en]
Dioxins; Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; Polychlorinated dibenzofurans; Toxic equivalents; Breastfeeding; Clay
National Category
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Analytical Chemistry; Enviromental Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47615DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.09.064ISI: 000314560500016PubMedID: 23159200Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84872263724OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-47615DiVA, id: diva2:900808
Available from: 2016-02-05 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2018-09-07Bibliographically approved

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Fiedler, Heidelore

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