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Metabolic, methodological and developmental aspects of body composition: Studies in women and children with special reference to early life mechanisms behind childhood obesity
Linköping university, Linköping, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5578-4776
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

In recent decades the number of children with overweight has increased worldwide. To understand the mechanisms behind this development, knowledge regarding metabolism and physiology in relation to the nutritional situation in early life is of importance. In particular, information about body composition development during early childhood is relevant. This thesis presents three studies in this area. In the pregnancy study serum samples, collected from 23 women before, during and after pregnancy, were analysed for serum levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin and used to assess insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in relation to the total body fat (TBF) content of the women. TBF (%) and leptin were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR before and during pregnancy. When HOMA-IR was regressed on TBF (%) the slope of the regression line was 0.111 in gestational week 32 and significantly (p<0.05) higher than the value before pregnancy, 0.046, indicating that healthy pregnancy enhances the relationship between body fatness and insulin resistance. In the HF-study hydration of fat-free mass (hydration factor, HF) was assessed in 12 newborns using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method and air displacement plethysmography (PeaPod). HF was 80.9% with a low biological variability (0.81% of average HF). In the longitudinal study the body density of 108 healthy fullterm infants (53 girls, 55 boys) was measured at one and 12 weeks of age using PeaPod. Body composition was calculated using two models (Fomon’s and Butte’s). BMI values for the mothers of the infants were assessed before pregnancy. Body composition and total energy expenditure using the DLW-method were assessed in 20 of these children at the age of 1.5 years, when their sleeping metabolic rate was measured using indirect calorimetry and their resting energy metabolism was calculated using prediction equations. Butte´s model gave significantly (p<0.05) lower values for TBF than Fomon´s model, and invalid results for five newborns. Using Fomon´s model, at one week of age girls contained 13.4 ± 3.7 % and boys contained 12.5 ± 4.0 % TBF. The corresponding figures at 12 weeks were 26.3 ± 4.2 % and 26.4 ± 5.1 %. The mothers’ BMI values before pregnancy were correlated with the body weight but not with the TBF (g,%) or fat-free mass (g) of their infants at one week of age. At 1.5 years of age girls (n=9) contained 28.0±2.8 % and boys (n=11) 28.3±3.7 % TBF. Between one and 12 weeks of age all infants increased their TBF content, while 13 children increased and seven children decreased their TBF content between the ages of 12 weeks and 1.5 years. The results demonstrated that predicting rather than measuring resting energy metabolism involves a risk for spurious correlations between TBF and physical activity level. The level of physical activity (x), was negatively correlated with [TBF (%) at 1.5 years minus TBF (%) at 12 weeks] (y), r=-0.52, p=0.02. In conclusion, the results suggest that the body fat content of a woman has a stimulating effect on the growth, rather than on the fat retention, of her foetus. They also show that the Fomon model is the best available model when calculating the body composition of infants from body density. Finally, the results indicate that physical activity at the age of 1.5 years is important regarding the rate at which the high level of body fat, typical of infancy, decreases in early childhood.

Abstract [sv]

Övervikt och fetma bland barn har under senare år blivit allt vanligare i många delar av världen. Studier av nutrition, metabolism och fysiologi under graviditet och de tidiga barnaåren är av vikt för att förstå vilka faktorer som ligger bakom denna utveckling. Speciellt viktigt är att studera hur kroppssammansättningen förändras tidigt i livet. Den här avhandlingen innehåller tre studier som berör detta ämnesområde. I en studie på gravida analyserades serumprover, insamlade från 23 kvinnor innan, under och efter deras graviditet, med avseende på halter av leptin, adiponektin och resistin. Via serumproverna fastställdes också kvinnornas insulinresistens (HOMA-IR). Dessa resultat relaterades sedan till mängden kroppsfett hos dessa kvinnor. Mängden kroppsfett (%) och leptin visade, före och under graviditet, en signifikant korrelation med HOMA-IR. En regressionsanalys av HOMA-IR (y) och % kroppsfett (x) i graviditetsvecka 32 gav ett k-värde (lutning) på 0,111, vilket i jämförelse med motsvarande k-värde före graviditet 0,046 var signifikant högre (p<0.05). Detta resultat visar att hos friska kvinnor potentierar graviditeten sambandet mellan kroppsfett och insulinresistens. I en studie av hydreringsgrad i fettfri kroppsvikt (HF) fastställdes HF i 12 nyfödda med hjälp av dubbelmärkt vatten och helkroppsplethysmografi (PeaPod). HF uppmättes till 80,9% med en låg biologisk variation (0,81 % av genomsnittlig HF). I en longitudinell studie mättes kroppsdensiteten med PeaPod hos 108 friska fullgångna spädbarn (53 flickor, 55 pojkar) när de var en respektive tolv veckor gamla. Deras kroppssammansättning beräknades med två olika modeller (Fomons och Buttes). Uppgift om mödrarnas pregravida BMI samlades in. Vid 1,5 års ålder mättes kroppssammansättning och total energiomsättning hos 20 av de 108 barnen. Vid detta tillfälle mättes även viloomsättningen med indirekt kalorimetri under sömn. Viloomsättningen predikterades även med en formel. Buttes modell gav signifikant (p<0.05) lägre nivå av kroppsfett (%) jämfört med Fomons modell och i fem fall erhölls inga resultat alls. Beräkningar med Fomons modell visade att vid en veckas ålder innehöll flickorna 13.4 ± 3.7 % och pojkarna 12.5 ± 4.0 % kroppsfett. Motsvarande värden vid 12 veckors ålder var 26.3 ± 4.2 % och 26.4 ± 5.1 %. Mödrarnas BMI innan graviditet korrelerade med kroppsvikt men inte med kroppsfett (g,%) eller fettfri vikt (g) hos deras barn vid en veckas ålder. Vid 1,5 års ålder innehöll flickorna (n=9) 28.0±2.8 % och pojkarna (n=11) 28.3±3.7 % kroppsfett. Mellan en och 12 veckors ålder ökade alla barnen sin kroppsfetthalt. Mellan 12 veckor och 1,5 år ökade kroppsfetthalten hos 13 barn medan den minskade hos 7. Resultat visar att predikterad viloomsättning ökar risken för att få en falsk korrelation mellan kroppsfetthalt och fysisk aktivitetsnivå jämfört med om man använder uppmätt viloomsättning. Den fysiska aktivitetsnivån vid 1,5 års ålder (x), var negativt korrelerad till förändring i kroppsfetthalt [kroppsfett (%) vid 1.5 år minus kroppsfett (%) vid 12 veckor] (y), r=-0.52, p=0.02. Sammanfattningsvis tyder resultaten på att kvinnors kroppsfetthalt har en stimulerande effekt på fostrets på totala tillväxt men inte på dess retention av kroppsfett. Dessutom visar resultaten att Fomons modell är den bästa tillgängliga när det gäller att beräkna kroppssammansättningen hos spädbarn från kroppsdensitet. Slutligen tyder resultaten på att den fysiska aktivitetsnivån vid 1,5 års ålder har betydelse för hur fort den höga kroppsfetthalten, som är typisk för spädbarnsperioden, sjunker under tidig barndom.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , 63 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1177
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48427ISBN: 978-91-7393-415-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-48427DiVA: diva2:904822
Public defence
2010-05-27, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Campus US, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2016-02-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women
2010 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 103, no 1, 50-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Healthy human pregnancy is associated with changes in food intake, body fatness, energy expenditure and insulin resistance. However, available knowledge is limited regarding the physiological basis of these changes. Published evidence suggests that so-called adipokines (i.e. leptin, adiponectin and resistin) have significant roles when such changes are established. We explored, throughout a complete pregnancy, relationships between total body fat (TBF), energy expenditure, insulin resistance (homeostasic model of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Such concentrations were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 8, 14, 20, 32 and 35, and 2 weeks postpartum in twenty-three healthy women. TBF, BMR (n 23) and HOMA-IR (n 17) were assessed before pregnancy in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum. TBF (%) was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.68-0.79, P < 0.01) and with serum leptin (r 0.85-0.88, P < 0.001) before and during pregnancy. Serum leptin was correlated with HOMA-IR (r 0.53-0.70, P < 0.05) before and during pregnancy. Serum adiponectin was inversely correlated with HOMA-IR in gestational week 32 (r - 0.52, P < 0.05). When HOMA-IR was regressed on TBF (%), the slope of the regression line was 0.046 before pregnancy, which was significantly (P < 0.05) different from the corresponding value, 0.111, in gestational week 32. The results indicate that pregnancy has an enhancing effect on the relationship between body fatness and insulin resistance. This effect, possibly mediated by leptin, may represent a mechanism by which offspring size is regulated in response to the nutritional situation of the mother.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2010
Keyword
Adipokines, body fat, energy expenditure, insulin resistance, pregnancy
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48423 (URN)10.1017/S0007114509991371 (DOI)000274575200008 ()19703326 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-75549089817 (Scopus ID)
Note

Original Publication: Britt Eriksson, Marie Löf, Hanna Olausson and Elisabet Forsum, Body fat, insulin resistance, energy expenditure and serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and resistin before, during and after pregnancy in healthy Swedish women., 2010, The British journal of nutrition, (103), 1, 50-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509991371 Copyright: Cambridge University Press http://www.cambridge.org/uk/

Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2016-03-02Bibliographically approved
2. Fat-free mass hydration in newborns: assessment and implications for body composition studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fat-free mass hydration in newborns: assessment and implications for body composition studies
Show others...
2011 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 5, 680-686 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Equipment (Pea Pod) for assessing infant body density accurately and conveniently has recently become available. This density can be converted to body composition using the “Fomon” or the “Butte” model. These models differ regarding the water content in fat-free mass (hydration factor, HF). We assessed HF and its biological variability in newborns and compared results calculated using the two models at one and 12 weeks. Body volume and body weight were measured in 12 infants less than 10 days old using Pea Pod. Their total body water was assessed using isotope dilution. Their HF was found to be 80.9% with low biological variability (0.81% of average HF). Further, Pea Pod was used to assess body density of 108 infants at one and 12 weeks of age. Values for body fat (%) calculated using the “Butte” model were significantly lower than when using the “Fomon” model at one week (p<0.05) and 12 weeks (p<0.01). The difference between the two models was particularly large at one week, probably due to their different HF-values. Our HF-value is in agreement with that in the “Fomon” model and our results support the conclusion that this model is preferable when calculating body composition in infants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48422 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02147.x (DOI)000289250200013 ()21226759 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79953770829 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-04-26 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2016-03-02Bibliographically approved
3. Body composition in full-term healthy infants measured with air displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks of age
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition in full-term healthy infants measured with air displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks of age
2010 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 4, 563-568 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To use Pea Pod, a device based on air displacement plethysmography, to study body composition of healthy, full-term infants born to well-nourished women with a western life-style. Methods: Body composition was assessed in 53 girls and 55 boys at 1 week (before 10 days of age) and at 12 weeks (between 77 and 91 days of age). Results: At 1 week girls contained 13.4 +/- 3.7% body fat and boys 12.5 +/- 4.0%. At 12 weeks, these figures were 26.3 +/- 4.2% (girls) and 26.4 +/- 5.1% (boys). Body fat (%) did not differ significantly between the genders. Body fat (%) at the two measurements was not correlated. At 1 week, the weight (r = 0.20, p = 0.044) and BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.007) of the infants, but not their body fat (g, %) or fat free mass (g), correlated with BMI before pregnancy in their mothers. Conclusions: Pea Pod has potential for use in studies investigating the effect of external (i.e. nutritional status) and internal (i.e. age, gender, gestational age at birth) factors on infant body composition. This may be of value when studying relationships between the nutritional situation during early life and adult health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
Keyword
Air displacement plethysmography, Body composition, Infants, Longitudinal study, Pea Pod
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48421 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2009.01665.x (DOI)000274951200022 ()20064135 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77649223288 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-03-12 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2016-03-02Bibliographically approved
4. Body composition and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-year-old children studied by means of the doubly labeled water method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-year-old children studied by means of the doubly labeled water method
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During recent decades the prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has increased and studies of the mechanisms involved are motivated. Previous research has shown a correlation between total body fat (TBF) (%) and physical activity level (PAL) but the assessment of PAL has often involved a risk for spurious correlations. Thus we compared PAL calculated using basal metabolic rate (BMR) predicted from equations, based on body weight (PALBMR) and associated with a risk for spurious correlations, with PAL calculated using sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) assessed using indirect calorimetry (PALSMR) in 20 healthy children aged 1.5 years. Total energy expenditure and body fatness were assessed using the doubly labelled water method. Body fatness of these children was also assessed at one week and three months of age. PALBMR was significantly (r=-0.48, p=0.03) correlated with TBF (%) while PALSMR was not. Furthermore, the increase in body fatness between three months and 1.5 years was significantly (r=-0.52, p=0.02) correlated with PALSMR at the age of 1.5 years. Our results indicate complex relationships between body fatness and physical activity in early life. When conducting studies in this area, resting energy metabolism should be measured rather than predicted using equations based on body weight.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-48428 (URN)
Available from: 2010-04-26 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2016-03-02Bibliographically approved

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