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Temperature measurements with a temporal scanner: systematic review and meta-analysis
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology in Örebro, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Radiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3253-8967
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden. (Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics)
Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology in Örebro, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro Rehab Center, Örebro, Sweden.
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Centre for Assessment of Medical Technology in Örebro, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9760-3785
2016 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 3, article id e009509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Systematic review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic accuracy of temporal artery thermometers (TAT).

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The index test consisted of temperature measurement with TAT. The reference test consisted of an estimation of core temperature.

Participants: Clinical patients as well as healthy participants, with or without fever.

Interventions: Literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and Web of Science. Three reviewers selected articles for full-text reading after which a further selection was made. Risk of bias was assessed with QUADAS-2. Pooled difference and limits of agreement (LoA) were estimated with an inverse variance weighted approach. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using hierarchical models. Quality of evidence was assessed according to the GRADE system.

Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was measurement accuracy expressed as mean difference ±95% LoA. A secondary outcome was sensitivity and specificity to detect fever. If tympanic thermometers were assessed in the same population as TAT, these results were recorded as well.

Results: 37 articles comprising 5026 participants were selected. Pooled difference was -0.19°C (95% LoA -1.16 to 0.77°C), with moderate quality of evidence. Pooled sensitivity was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.81) with a specificity of 0.94 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.97). The subgroup analysis revealed a trend towards underestimation of the temperature for febrile patients. There was a large heterogeneity among included studies with wide LoA which reduced the quality of evidence.

Conclusions: TAT is not sufficiently accurate to replace one of the reference methods such as rectal, bladder or more invasive temperature measurement methods. The results are, however, similar to those with tympanic thermometers, both in our meta-analysis and when compared with others. Thus, it seems that TAT could replace tympanic thermometers with the caveat that both methods are inaccurate.

Trial registration number: CRD42014008832.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, United Kingdom: BMJ Group , 2016. Vol. 6, no 3, article id e009509
Keywords [en]
Infectious diseases; Internal medicine; Primary care
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies General Practice
Research subject
Family Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49633DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009509ISI: 000374052300030PubMedID: 27033957Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84962407566OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-49633DiVA, id: diva2:918982
Available from: 2016-04-12 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved

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Geijer, HåkanUdumyan, RuzanNilsagård, Ylva

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