oru.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Occupational exposure to trichloramine and trihalomethanes: adverse respiratory and ocular effects among Swedish indoor swimming pool workers
Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Occupational exposure in swimming pool facilities related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been an issue for the last 15 years. Trichloramine (NCl3) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are DBPs formed in swimming pool water following a reaction between organic matter containing nitrogen or organic or inorganic matter, and chlorine. Due to its volatility, trichloramine can easily evaporate into the air and cause nausea and irritation of the eyes and upper airways. Symptoms are likely to be particularly pronounced in those suffering from asthma. Chloroform is the dominant THM in swimming pool atmospheres and is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as being possibly carcinogenic to humans. There are no adverse health effects reported among swimming pool employees due to occupational exposure levels of THMs found in the air at swimming pools.

There is no OEL for trichloramine adapted in Sweden, but some reference values and recommendations based on stationary measurements at the pool side are available. In 2006, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended a reference value for trichloramine of 500 μg/m3. The Swedish OEL for chloroform is 10 000 μg/m3.

This thesis describes research into the occupational exposure to airborne trichloramine and THMs in eight Swedish indoor swimming pool facilities and the investigation into the prevalence of adverse health effects, manifesting primarily as ocular and respiratory symptoms.

Concentrations of trichloramine and chloroform in Swedish indoor swimming pool facilities were found to be in the same range or lower compared to previous studies in other countries. The trichloramine concentrations varied between <1 and 240 μg/m3 for the personal sampling and between <1 and 640 μg/m3 for the stationary sampling. Personal trichloramine levels in the high-exposure group were more than 60% higher compared to the corresponding stationary measurements. The exposed group had a higher frequency of self-reported ocular and nasal symptoms compared to the controls. A significant difference in the concentration of exhaled FENO over a work shift with an increase in the exposed group, indicated acute airway inflammation due to respiratory irritant agent exposure. Although a dose-response effect could not be established, the results indicate an elevated risk of occupational health problems in indoor swimming pools and calls for an OEL to be established, based on personal sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university , 2016. , p. 45
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Research subject
Biomedicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51601OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-51601DiVA, id: diva2:951325
Presentation
2016-06-17, Universitetssjukhuset, Bohmanssonsalen, Södra Grev Rosengatan, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Occupational Exposure to Trichloramine and Trihalomethanes in Swedish Indoor Swimming Pools: Evaluation of Personal and Stationary Monitoring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational Exposure to Trichloramine and Trihalomethanes in Swedish Indoor Swimming Pools: Evaluation of Personal and Stationary Monitoring
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 1074-1084Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Chlorination is a method commonly used to keep indoor swimming pool water free from pathogens. However, chlorination of swimming pools produces several potentially hazardous by-products as the chlorine reacts with nitrogen containing organic matter. Up till now, exposure assessments in indoor swimming pools have relied on stationary measurements at the poolside, used as a proxy for personal exposure. However, measurements at fixed locations are known to differ from personal exposure.

Methods: Eight public swimming pool facilities in four Swedish cities were included in this survey. Personal and stationary sampling was performed during day or evening shift. Samplers were placed at different fixed positions around the pool facilities, at similar to 1.5 m above the floor level and 0-1 m from the poolside. In total, 52 personal and 110 stationary samples of trichloramine and 51 personal and 109 stationary samples of trihalomethanes, were collected.

Results: The average concentration of trichloramine for personal sampling was 71 mu g m(-3), ranging from 1 to 240 mu g m(-3) and for stationary samples 179 mu g m(-3), ranging from 1 to 640 mu g m(-3). The air concentrations of chloroform were well below the occupational exposure limit (OEL). For the linear regression analysis and prediction of personal exposure to trichloramine from stationary sampling, only data from personal that spent > 50% of their workday in the pool area were included. The linear regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient (r (2)) of 0.693 and a significant regression coefficient beta of 0.621; (95% CI = 0.329-0.912, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: The trichloramine exposure levels determined in this study were well below the recommended air concentration level of 500 mu g m(-3); a WHO reference value based on stationary sampling. Our regression data suggest a relation between personal exposure and area sampling of 1:2, implying an OEL of 250 mu g m(-3) based on personal sampling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2015
Keywords
exposure assessment, exposure assessment methodology, trichloramine, trihalomethanes
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Research subject
Public health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46443 (URN)10.1093/annhyg/mev045 (DOI)000362788900011 ()26155991 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84943573115 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

County council of Örebro

County council of Västmanland

County council of Värmland

County council of Södermanland

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
2. Respiratory and ocular symptoms among employees at Swedish indoor swimming pools
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Respiratory and ocular symptoms among employees at Swedish indoor swimming pools
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Basic Medicine
Research subject
Biomedicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51602 (URN)
Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-08 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Cover(84 kB)39 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 84 kBChecksum SHA-512
1186e28c51a50a12917eef0c46f8cae71462442a97722faca992d83a17b6133639dd73ff6e1c4ad6db1a0246aadb446065d95e4101b1c63692ed3ef779c7af15
Type coverMimetype application/pdf

Authority records BETA

Westerlund, Jessica

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Westerlund, Jessica
By organisation
School of Medical Sciences
Other Basic Medicine

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 237 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf