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Genetic and environmental effects on body mass index from infancy to the onset of adulthood: an individual-based pooled analysis of 45 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) study
Department of Social Research University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
Department of Social Research University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain.
Department of Social Research University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Department of Education, Mokpo National University, Jeonnam, South Korea.
Show others and affiliations
2016 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, no 2, 371-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to affect body mass index (BMI), but detailed understanding of how their effects differ during childhood and adolescence is lacking.

Objectives: We analyzed the genetic and environmental contributions to BMI variation from infancy to early adulthood and the ways they differ by sex and geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low levels (East Asia) of obesogenic environments.

Design: Data were available for 87,782 complete twin pairs from 0.5 to 19.5 y of age from 45 cohorts. Analyses were based on 383,092 BMI measurements. Variation in BMI was decomposed into genetic and environmental components through genetic structural equation modeling.

Results: The variance of BMI increased from 5 y of age along with increasing mean BMI. The proportion of BMI variation explained by additive genetic factors was lowest at 4 y of age in boys (a(2) = 0.42) and girls (a(2) = 0.41) and then generally increased to 0.75 in both sexes at 19 y of age. This was because of a stronger influence of environmental factors shared by co-twins in midchildhood. After 15 y of age, the effect of shared environment was not observed. The sex-specific expression of genetic factors was seen in infancy, but was most prominent at 13 y of age and older. The variance of BMI was highest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but the relative proportion of genetic variation to total variation remained roughly similar across different regions.

Conclusions: Environmental factors shared by co-twins affect BMI in childhood, but little evidence for their contribution was found in late adolescence. Our results suggest that genetic factors play a major role in the variation of BMI in adolescence among populations of different ethnicities exposed to different environmental factors related to obesity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bethesda, USA: American Society for Nutrition , 2016. Vol. 104, no 2, 371-379 p.
Keyword [en]
BMI, children, genetics, international comparisons, twins
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Research subject
Nutrition
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51483DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.130252ISI: 000381870200017PubMedID: 27413137Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84980329049OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-51483DiVA: diva2:951388
Note

Funding Agencies:

CODATwins project (Academy of Finland)  266592 

NIH  R01 HD068435  R01 MH062375  1R01ESO15150-01  HD081437  AA023322  RC2 HL103416 

California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program  7RT-0134H  8RT-0107H  6RT-0354H 

Special Fund for Health Scientific Research in the Public Welfare, China  201502006 

NIDA  DA011015  HD10333 

National Program for Research Infrastructure from the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, The Research Council for Health and Disease  

Velux Foundation  

US NIH grant  P01 AG08761 

Fund of Scientific Research, Flanders and Twins, a nonprofit Association for Scientific Research in Multiple Births (Belgium)  

ENGAGE-European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology, FP7-HEALTH-F4  201413 

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism  AA-12502  AA-00145  AA-09203 

Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in Complex Disease Genetics grant  213506  129680 

Academy of Finland grant  100499  205585  118555  141054  265240  263278  264146 

Osaka University's International Joint Research Promotion Program  

Cancer Research UK  C1418/A7974 

W T Grant Foundation  

University of London Central Research fund  

Medical Research Council  G81/343  G120/635 

Economic and Social Research Council  RES-000-22-2206 

Institute of Social Psychiatry  06/07-11 

Leverhulme Research Fellowship grant  RF/2/RFG/2008/0145 

Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom  

National Natural Science Foundation of China  81125007 

Medexpert Ltd., Budapest, Hungary  

European Research Council  240994  230374 

Michigan State University  

National Institute of Mental Health  R01-MH081813  R01-MH0820-54  R01-MH092377-02  R21-MH070542-01  R03-MH63851-01 

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development  R01-HD066040 

MSU Foundation  11-SPG-2518 

NIH grant  R21 AG039572 

MagW/ZonMW grant  904-61-090  985-10-002  912-10-020  904-61-193  480-04-004  463-06-001  451-04-034  400-05-717  Addiction-31160008  Middelgroot-911-09-032  Spinozapremie 56-464- 14192 

VU University's Institute for Health and Care Research  

Avera Institute, Sioux Falls, SD  

Australian National Health and Medical Research Council grant  437015  607358 

Bonnie Babes Foundation  BBF20704 

Financial Markets Foundation for Children grant  032-2007 

Victorian Government's Operational Infrastructure Support Program  

Portuguese agency for research (The Foundation for Science and Technology)  POCI/DES/56834/2004 

Fonds Quebecois de la Recherche sur la Societe et la Culture  

Fonds de la Recherche en Sante du Quebec  

Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada  

National Health Research Development Program  

Canadian Institutes for Health Research  

Sainte-Justine Hospital's Research Center  

Canada Research Chair Program  

National Research Foundation of Korea  NRF-371-2011-1 B00047 

UK Medical Research Council  G0901245 

UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant  31/D19086 

Kirikkale University Research grant  KKU 2009/43 

TUBITAK grant  114C117 

European Community  

National Institute for Health Research BioResource Clinical Research Facility and Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, United Kingdom  

National Institute of Mental Health grant  R01 MH58354 

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science  15H05105    5T32DA017637-11 

Available from: 2016-08-08 Created: 2016-08-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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