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The Three Models  Approach: A Pedagogical Proposal on How to Increase Critical Literacy in the Subject of English on Upper-Secondary Level
Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

This degree project essay aims to create ways for promoting critical literacy by teaching

persuasive, manipulative, authentic texts in the subject of English at upper-secondary level in

Sweden. In the essay, the syllabus of the English subject is critiqued for not explicitly stating

what it means to take a critical approach towards sources and media; it is claimed that the

meaning of critical examination only is implied in the syllabus for English 7. Therefore, the

psychological perspective on reading seems to be dominant in the syllabus. However, this

essay proposes, from a sociological perspective on reading, that critical reading and analysis

of persuasive, manipulative, authentic texts could function as an explicit content in all

English courses at upper-secondary level in Swedish upper-secondary school. Moreover, the

essay suggests that critical reading in a Swedish educational context is particularly important

because of the population’s common trust in media.

The essay builds on Norman Fairclough’s view that critical dimensions of education

are necessary in a democratic society in order to promote active citizenship. As a means to

increase critical aspects of language teaching into the subject of English as a second or

foreign language, this essay presents the three models approach. The three models approach

combines traditions of informal logic (the Toulmin model and fallacy analysis) with critical

discourse analysis and is created specifically for analysis of persuasive and manipulative,

authentic texts in the EFL and ESL classroom. Ultimately, the three models approach

promotes critical literacy and critical language awareness (CLA) in the sense of

understanding language as an instrument of power. However, building on Rod Ellis’ taskbased

language teaching and concept of consciousness-raising, as well as Richard Schmidt’s

noticing hypothesis, the three models approach, paying close attention to arguments and word

choice, also forwards incidental language learning through tasks that demand conscious

noticing of language features and structures.

Additionally, the essay critiques Ellis’ principles of instructed language teaching for

leaving out critical aspects of language learning and teaching. The essay upholds that both

language awareness (in the grammatical sense) and critical language awareness (in the sense

of understanding language as power) are important in second language courses, something

that is also emphasized in the three models approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 40 p.
Keyword [en]
English pedagogy; critical literacy; critical language awareness; the noticing
National Category
Languages and Literature
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52320OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-52320DiVA: diva2:971696
Subject / course
English; English
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-19 Last updated: 2017-09-05Bibliographically approved

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