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Disaster response for recovery: survivors experiences, and the use of disaster radio to promote health after natural disasters
Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0534-4593
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Disasters occur all over the world, and affect a rising number of people. The health effects of natural disasters depend on several factors present before, during, and after a disaster event. However, there is only limited knowledge of survivors experiences, needs, and health after natural disasters. Disaster radio means a temporary radio station that broadcasts information, music, and support to the affected population. Disaster radio has the potential to function even in a severely affected area, but its effects need to be further evaluated from a health perspective. The context of this thesis was the Haiyan supertyphoon that hit parts of the Philippines in November 2013.

The overall aim was to describe survivors’ and health professionals’ experiences during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster, the health effects from such a disaster, and how disaster radio as a disaster response intervention can be used and evaluated from a health perspective. The thesis includes four studies using qualitative research methods, including content analysis and a phenomenological hermeneutic method, and quantitative methods with statistical analysis.

The results show that the Haiyan typhoon affected physical, psychological, and social dimensions of health. Disaster radio was used to broadcast health-related information and psychosocial support, and made a positive contribution to recovery from the perspective of the survivors. Being a health professional deployed during the disaster was an experience of being both a helper and a victim. The use of a self-selected internetbased sample recruited via Facebook for a web-based survey mitigated several practical challenges related to disaster research, but also raised questions about the generalizability of the results.

Based on the findings, the importance of an integrated physical, psychological, and social health response to natural disasters is emphazized. Also, the health care system should prepare to use disaster radio as disaster response. In addition, the results suggest that disaster training for health professionals should include personal preparation and coping strategies. Internet-based methods in disaster research need to be further evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro university , 2017. , 91 p.
Series
Örebro Studies in Care Sciences, ISSN 1652-1153 ; 69
Keyword [en]
natural disaster, disaster response, disaster health, recovery, resilience
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52653ISBN: 978-91-7529-180-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-52653DiVA: diva2:974975
Public defence
2017-03-31, Örebro universitet, Prismahuset, Hörsal 2, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2017-03-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Disaster Radio for Communication of Vital messages and Health-related Information: Experiences from the Haiyan typhoon, The Philippines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disaster Radio for Communication of Vital messages and Health-related Information: Experiences from the Haiyan typhoon, The Philippines
2016 (English)In: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, ISSN 1935-7893, Vol. 10, no 4, 591-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Crisis communication is seen as an integrated and essential part of disaster management measures. After Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in the Philippines 2013, radio was used to broadcast information to the affected community. The aim of this study was to describe how disaster radio was used to communicate vital messages and health-related information to the public in one affected region after Typhoon Haiyan.

Methods: Mixed-methods analysis using qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics was used to analyze 2587 logged radio log files.

Results: Radio was used to give general information and to demonstrate the capability of officials to manage the situation, to encourage, to promote recovery and foster a sense of hope, and to give practical advice and encourage self-activity. The content and focus of the messages changed over time. Encouraging messages were the most frequently broadcast messages. Health-related messages were a minor part of all information broadcast and gaps in the broadcast over time were found.

Conclusion: Disaster radio can serve as a transmitter of vital messages including health-related information and psychological support in disaster areas. The present study indicated the potential for increased use. The perception, impact, and use of disaster radio need to be further evaluated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2016
Keyword
Communication, disaster, natural disasters, health communication, psychosocial support
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Caring Sciences w. Medical Focus
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47270 (URN)10.1017/dmp.2015.188 (DOI)000381283000015 ()26940871 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84960112370 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2016-01-01 Created: 2016-01-01 Last updated: 2017-03-28Bibliographically approved
2. "To silence the deafening silence": Survivor's needs and experiences of the impact of disaster radio for their recovery after a natural disaste
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"To silence the deafening silence": Survivor's needs and experiences of the impact of disaster radio for their recovery after a natural disaste
2016 (English)In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 28, 8-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the aftermath of the Haiyan typhoon, disaster radio was used to spread information and music to the affected population. The study described survivors' experiences of being in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster and the impact disaster radio made on recovery from the perspective of the individuals affected. Twenty eight survivors were interviewed in focus groups and individual interviews analyzed with phenomenological-hermeneutic method. Being in disaster mode included physical and psychosocial dimensions of being in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. Several needs among the survivors were expressed. Disaster radio contributed to recovery by providing facts and information that helped the survivor to understand and adapt. The music played contributed to emotional endurance and reduced feelings of loneliness. To re-establish social contacts, other interventions are needed. Disaster radio is a positive contribution to the promotion of survivors' recovery after disasters involving a large number of affected people and severely damaged infrastructure. Further studies on the use and impact of disaster radio are needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Disaster, needs, psychosocial support, radio, recovery, biopsychosocial model
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Caring sciences; Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47268 (URN)10.1016/j.ienj.2015.11.009 (DOI)000383526700002 ()26724170 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-01-01 Created: 2016-01-01 Last updated: 2017-03-08Bibliographically approved
3. Being Both Helpers and Victims: Health Professionals' Experiences of Working During a Natural Disaster
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Being Both Helpers and Victims: Health Professionals' Experiences of Working During a Natural Disaster
2017 (English)In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 32, no 2, 117-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In November 2013, the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the Philippines. The typhoon caused severe damage to the medical facilities and many injuries and deaths. Health professionals have a crucial role in the immediate disaster response system, but knowledge of their experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster is limited. Aim The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster.

Method: Eight health professionals were interviewed five months after the disaster. The interviews were analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutic methods.

Results: The main theme, being professional and survivor, described both positive and negative emotions and experiences from being both a helper, as part of the responding organization, and a victim, as part of the surviving but severely affected community. Sub-themes described feelings of strength and confidence, feelings of adjustment and acceptance, feelings of satisfaction, feelings of powerless and fear, feelings of guilt and shame, and feelings of loneliness.

Conclusion: Being a health professional during a natural disaster was a multi-faceted, powerful, and ambiguous experience of being part of the response system at the same time as being a survivor of the disaster. Personal values and altruistic motives as well as social aspects and stress-coping strategies to reach a balance between acceptance and control were important elements of the experience. Based on these findings, implications for disaster training and response strategies are suggested. Hugelius K , Adolfsson A , Örtenwall P , Gifford M . Being both helpers and victims: health professionals' experiences of working during a natural disaster.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2017
Keyword
disaster medicine; disasters; health professionals; phenomenological hermeneutic method; relief work
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Nursing Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-54391 (URN)10.1017/S1049023X16001412 (DOI)000398228600002 ()28043240 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85007572037 (ScopusID)
Note

Funding Agencies:

Fortifikationsföreningens Forskningsfond (Foundation of Fortification-Related Research)

Örebro County Council Research Committee (Örebro, Sweden)

Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
4. Health among disaster survivors 30 months after Typhoon Haiyan, using a selfselected Internet sample in a web-based survey
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health among disaster survivors 30 months after Typhoon Haiyan, using a selfselected Internet sample in a web-based survey
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-56205 (URN)
Available from: 2017-03-10 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2017-03-08Bibliographically approved

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