We disprove some power sum conjectures of Turan that would have implied the density hypothesis of the Riemann zeta-function if true.
We prove a variant of the Mergelyan approximation theorem that allows us to approximate functions that are analytic and nonvanishing in the interior of a compact set K with connected complement, and whose interior is a Jordan domain, with nonvanishing polynomials. This result was proved earlier by the author in the case of a compact set K without interior points, and independently by Gauthier for this case and the case of strictly starlike compact sets. We apply this result on the Voronin universality theorem for compact sets K, where the usual condition that the function is nonvanishing on the boundary can be removed. We conjecture that this version of Mergelyan's theorem might be true for a general set K with connected complement and show that this conjecture is equivalent to a corresponding conjecture on Voronin Universality.
We use an estimate for character sums over finite fields of Katz to solve open problems of Montgomery and Turan. Let h >= 2 be an integer. We prove that inf(vertical bar zk vertical bar=1) max(nu=1,...,n)(h) vertical bar Sigma(n)(k=1) Z(k)(nu)vertical bar <= (h - 1 + o(1)root n. This gives the right order of magnitude for the quantity and improves on a bound of Erdos-Renyi by a factor of the order root logn.
We consider the problem of approximating a function having no zeros on the interior of a set by polynomials having no zeros on the entire set.
We study universality properties of the Epstein zeta function E-n(L,s) for lattices L of large dimension n and suitable regions of complex numbers s. Our main result is that, as n -> infinity, E-n(L,s) is universal in the right half of the critical strip as L varies over all n-dimensional lattices L. The proof uses a novel combination of an approximation result for Dirichlet polynomials, a recent result on the distribution of lengths of lattice vectors in a random lattice of large dimension and a strong uniform estimate for the error term in the generalized circle problem. Using the same approach we also prove that, as n -> infinity, E-n(L-1,s) - E-n(L-2,s) is universal in the full half-plane to the right of the critical line as E-n(L,s) varies over all pairs of n-dimensional lattices. Finally, we prove a more classical universality result for E-n(L,s) in the s-variable valid for almost all lattices L of dimension n. As part of the proof we obtain a strong bound of E-n(L,s) on the critical line that is subconvex for n >= 5 and almost all n-dimensional lattices L.
Calculus is a central part of the curriculum for tertiary educations in mathematics, science, and technology. At its core lies the concept of derivative, which is known to be problematic for many students. As the corresponding multi-variable concepts of partial derivative, gradient, and directional derivative are not mathematically equivalent, it is essential for students to learn their relations and what they represent geometrically. In this paper, 20 students’ written solutions to an exam problem about the growth of a two-variable function are studied. The warrants they present for their claims are characterized in terms of which representations, concepts, connections, and calculations they use. The findings indicate that students who solve the problem by calculation of directional derivatives are less explicit with their warrants than students who rely on properties of the gradient vector. While the first group only uses algebraic representations, the second combines algebraic and graphical representations.
Miniversal deformations for pairs of skew-symmetric matrices under congruence are constructed. To be precise, for each such a pair (A, B) we provide a normal form with a minimal number of independent parameters to which all pairs of skew-symmetric matrices ((A) over tilde (,) (B) over tilde), close to (A, B) can be reduced by congruence transformation which smoothly depends on the entries of the matrices in the pair ((A) over tilde (,) (B) over tilde). An upper bound on the distance from such a miniversal deformation to (A, B) is derived too. We also present an example of using miniversal deformations for analyzing changes in the canonical structure information (i.e. eigenvalues and minimal indices) of skew-symmetric matrix pairs under perturbations.
For each pair of complex symmetric matrices (A, B) we provide a normal form with a minimal number of independent parameters, to which all pairs of complex symmetric matrices ((A) over tilde (B) over tilde), close to (A, B) can be reduced by congruence transformation that smoothly depends on the entries of (A ) over tilde and (B) over tilde. Such a normal form is called a miniversal deformation of (A, B) under congruence. A number of independent parameters in the miniversal deformation of a symmetric matrix pencil is equal to the codimension of the congruence orbit of this symmetric matrix pencil and is computed too. We also provide an upper bound on the distance from (A, B) to its miniversal deformation.
W.E. Roth (1952) proved that the matrix equation AX - XB = C has a solution if and only if the matrices [Graphics] and [Graphics] are similar. A. Dmytryshyn and B. Kagstrom (2015) extended Roth's criterion to systems of matrix equations A(i)X(i')M(i) - (NiXi"Bi)-B-sigma i = Ci (i = 1,..., s) with unknown matrices X1,, X-t, in which every X-sigma is X, X-T, or X*. We extend their criterion to systems of complex matrix equations that include the complex conjugation of unknown matrices. We also prove an analogous criterion for systems of quaternion matrix equations. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We construct the Hasse diagrams G_{2} and G_{3} for the closure ordering on the sets of congruence classes of 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 complex matrices. In other words, we construct two directed graphs whose vertices are 2 × 2 or, respectively, 3 × 3 canonical matrices under congruence, and there is a directed path from A to B if and only if A can be transformed by an arbitrarily small perturbation to a matrix that is congruent to B. A bundle of matrices under congruence is defined as a set of square matrices A for which the pencils A + λA^{T} belong to the same bundle under strict equivalence. In support of this definition, we show that all matrices in a congruence bundle of 2 × 2 or 3 × 3 matrices have the same properties with respect to perturbations. We construct the Hasse diagrams G_{2} ^{B} and G_{3} ^{B} for the closure ordering on the sets of congruence bundles of 2 × 2 and, respectively, 3 × 3 matrices. We find the isometry groups of 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 congruence canonical matrices.
Arnold [V.I. Arnold, On matrices depending on parameters, Russian Math. Surveys 26 (2) (1971) 29–43] constructed miniversal deformations of square complex matrices under similarity; that is, a simple normal form to which not only a given square matrix A but all matrices B close to it can be reduced by similarity transformations that smoothly depend on the entries of B. We construct miniversal deformations of matrices under congruence.
Arnold (1971) [1] constructed a miniversal deformation of a square complex matrix under similarity; that is, a simple normal form to which not only a given square matrix A but all matrices B close to it can be reduced by similarity transformations that smoothly depend on the entries of B. We give miniversal deformations of matrices of sesquilinear forms; that is, of square complex matrices under *congruence, and construct an analytic reducing transformation to a miniversal deformation. Analogous results for matrices under congruence were obtained by Dmytryshyn, Futorny, and Sergeichuk (2012) [11].
We investigate the changes of the canonical structure information under small perturbations for a system pencil associated with a (generalized) linear time-invariant state-space system. The equivalence class of the pencil is taken with respect to feedback-injection equivalence transformations. The results allow us to track possible changes of important linear system characteristics under small perturbations.
We prove Roth-type theorems for systems of matrix equations including an arbitrary mix of Sylvester and $\star$-Sylvester equations, in which the transpose or conjugate transpose of the unknown matrices also appear. In full generality, we derive consistency conditions by proving that such a system has a solution if and only if the associated set of $2 \times 2$ block matrix representations of the equations are block diagonalizable by (linked) equivalence transformations. Various applications leading to several particular cases have already been investigated in the literature, some recently and some long ago. Solvability of these cases follow immediately from our general consistency theory. We also show how to apply our main result to systems of Stein-type matrix equations.
For a quasilinear pseudodifferential equation with fractional derivative by time variable t with order a e (0,1), the second derivative by space variable x and the argument deviation with the help o f the stepmethod we prove the solvability o f the boundary problem with two unknown functions by variable t.
In this article, for the first time, the first boundary value problem for the equation of thermal conductivity with a variable diffusion coefficient and with a nonlinear term, which depends on the sought function with the deviation of the argument, is solved. For such equations, the initial condition is set on a certain interval. Physical and technical reasons for delays can be transport delays, delays in information transmission, delays in decision-making, etc. The most natural are delays when modeling objects in ecology, medicine, population dynamics, etc. Features of the dynamics of vehicles in different environments (water, land, air) can also be taken into account by introducing a delay. Other physical and technical interpretations are also possible, for example, the molecular distribution of thermal energy in various media (solid bodies, liquids, etc.) is modeled by heat conduction equations. The Green’s function of the first boundary value problem is constructed for the nonlinear equation of heat conduction with a deviation of the argument, its properties are investigated, and the formula for the solution is established.
An amended version of Proposition 3.6 of [Fasi and Negri Porzio, Electron. J. Linear Algebra 36:352{366, 2020] is presented. The result shows that the set of possible determinants of upper Hessenberg matrices with ones on the subdiagonal and elements in the upper triangular part drawn from the set {-1, 1} is {2k vertical bar k is an element of <-2(n-2), 2(n-2)>}, instead of {2k vertical bar k is an element of <-n + 1, n - 1 >} as previously stated. This does not affect the main results of the article being corrected and shows that Conjecture 20 in the Characteristic Polynomial Database is true.
We study the homogenization of a hyperbolic-parabolic PDE with oscillations in one fast spatial scale. Moreover, the first order time derivative has a degenerate coefficient passing to infinity when ε → 0.We obtain a local problem which is of elliptic type, while the homogenized problem is also in some sense an elliptic problem but with the limit for ε−1∂tuε as an undetermined extra source term in the right-hand side. The results are somewhat surprising and work remains to obtain a fully rigorous treatment. Hence the last section is devoted to a discussion of the reasonability of our conjecture including numerical experiments.
Uncertain nonlinear systems can be modeled with fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) and the solutions of these equations are applied to analyze many engineering problems. However, it is very difficult to obtain solutions of FDEs. In this book chapter, the solutions of FDEs are approximated by utilizing the fuzzy Sumudu transform (FST) method. Here, the uncertainties are in the sense of fuzzy numbers and Z-numbers. Important theorems are laid down to illustrate the properties of FST. This new technique is compared with Average Euler method and Max-Min Euler method. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the FST method is effective in estimating the solutions of FDEs.
This paper deals with a reaction-diffusion system modeling a free boundary problem of the predator-prey type with prey-taxis over a one-dimensional habitat. The free boundary represents the spreading front of the predator species. The global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions to this system are established by the contraction mapping principle. With an eye on the biological interpretations, numerical simulations are provided which give a real insight into the behavior of the free boundary and the stability of the solutions.
In this article, we consider an inverse problem for the integral equation of the convolution typein a multidimensional case. This problem is severely ill-posed. To deal with this problem, using a prioriinformation (sourcewise representation) based on optimal recovery theory we propose a new method. Theregularization and optimization properties of this method are proved. An optimal minimal a priori error ofthe problem is found. Moreover, a so-called optimal regularized approximate solution and its correspondingerror estimation are considered. Eciency and applicability of this method are demonstrated in a numericalexample of the image deblurring problem with noisy data.