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  • 1.
    Aarseth Larsson, Kim
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Chemical Characterisation of Nitrocellulose2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nitrocellulosa är den viktigaste komponenten i många typer av ammunition, drivmedel och sprängämnen. Principerna för produktionen av nitrocellulosa har inte förändrats mycket sedan det börjades produceras industriellt för detta ändamål på 1800 talet. Karaktären av nitrocellulosa har en stor inverkan på slutproduktens egenskaper. Syftet med denna studie var att utveckla en metod som skulle kunna karaktärisera och skilja mellan nitrocellulosa från olika tillverkare för att kunna relatera karaktären av nitrocellulosa till egenskaperna hos ammunition, drivmedel och sprängämnen. Proverna löstes i aceton och analyserades med GC/MS och data analyserades med multivariabel statistik. FTIR användes också för att karakterisera nitrocellulosan. Resultaten för båda proverna visade mycket små skillnader när kromatogram och spektra analyserades. Denna studie visar att GC/MS och FTIR inte är lämpliga för denna typ av karaktärisering. Skillnaderna i data var inte tillräckliga för att kunna skilja proverna från varandra.

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  • 2.
    Abalos, M.
    et al.
    MTM Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Dept., IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, S. P. J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands; RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    de Boer, J.
    Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Results for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCBs in the first round of UNEPs biennial global interlaboratory assessment on persistent organic pollutants2013Ingår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, s. 98-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The first worldwide interlaboratory assesment on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized in the Asian/Pacific, Latin American and African regions during 2009-11.

    A relatively large number of laboratories reported data for the PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, especially in the Asian region. Within the Asian region, several participants used high-resolution GC/high-resolution MS systems optimized for dioxin analysis. The availibility of High-resolution mass spectrometer instrumentation is limited in the Latin America and African regions, although recently several new laboratories for dioxins have started in the Latin American region.

  • 3.
    Abrikossova, Natalia
    et al.
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Skoglund, Caroline
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Division of Clinical Medicine, Department of Biomedicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ahrén, Maria
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Division of Clinical Medicine, Department of Biomedicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Division of Molecular Surface Physics and Nanoscience, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes2012Ingår i: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 23, nr 27, artikel-id 275101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd2O3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd2O3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes.

  • 4.
    Adamovic, Tatjana
    et al.
    Dept Mol Med & Surg, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McAllister, Donna
    Dept Surg, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA.
    Wang, Tao
    Dept Biostat, Dept Populat Hlth, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA.
    Adamovic, Dragan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rowe, J. Jordi
    Dept Anat Pathol, Cleveland Clin, Cleveland OH, USA.
    Moreno, Carol
    Dept Physiol, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA; Human & Mol Genet Ctr, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA.
    Lazar, Josef
    Human & Mol Genet Ctr, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA; Dept Dermatol, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA.
    Jacob, Howard J.
    Dept Physiol, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA; Med Coll Wisconsin, Human & Mol Genet Ctr, Milwaukee WI, USA; Dept Pediat, Med Coll Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI, USA.
    Sugg, Sonia L.
    Dept Surg, Univ Iowa, Iowa City IA, USA.
    Identification of novel carcinogen-mediated mammary tumor susceptibility loci in the rat using the chromosome substitution technique2010Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 49, nr 11, s. 1035-1045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We here report the genetic basis for susceptibility and resistance to carcinogen-mediated [7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA)] mammary tumorigenesis using the full panel of SS/BN consomic rat strains, in which substitutions of individual chromosomes from the resistant BN strain onto the genomic background of the susceptible SS strain were made. Analysis of 252 consomic females identified rat mammary Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) affecting tumor incidence on chromosomes 3 and 5, latency on chromosomes 3, 9, 14, and 19, and multiplicity on chromosomes 13, 16, and 19. In addition, we unexpectedly identified a novel QTL on chromosome 6 controlling a lethal toxic phenotype in response to DMBA. Upon further investigation with chromosomes 6 and 13 congenic lines, in which an additional 114 rats were investigated, we mapped (1) a novel mammary tumor QTL to a region of 27.1 Mbp in the distal part of RNO6, a region that is entirely separated from the toxicity phenotype, and (2) a novel and powerful mammary tumor susceptibility locus of 4.5 Mbp that mapped to the proximal q-arm of RNO13. Comparison of genetic strain differences using existing rat genome databases enabled us to further construct priority lists containing single breast cancer candidate genes within the defined QTLs, serving as potential functional variants for future testing.

  • 5.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Dougherty, Mark
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westin, Jerker
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Verification of a Method for Measuring Parkinson’s Disease Related Temporal Irregularity in Spiral Drawings2017Ingår i: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, nr 10, artikel-id 2341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

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  • 6.
    Aissaoui, Nesrine
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Käll, Mikael
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Wilhelmsson, L. Marcus
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albinsson, Bo
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    FRET enhancement close to gold nanoparticles positioned in DNA origami constructs2017Ingår i: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 673-683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we investigate the energy transfer rates of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair positioned in close proximity to a 5 nm gold nanoparticle (AuNP) on a DNA origami construct. We study the distance dependence of the FRET rate by varying the location of the donor molecule, D, relative to the AuNP while maintaining a fixed location of the acceptor molecule, A. The presence of the AuNP induces an alteration in the spontaneous emission of the donor (including radiative and non-radiative rates) which is strongly dependent on the distance between the donor and AuNP surface. Simultaneously, the energy transfer rates are enhanced at shorter D-A (and D-AuNP) distances. Overall, in addition to the direct influence of the acceptor and AuNP on the donor decay there is also a significant increase in decay rate not explained by the sum of the two interactions. This leads to enhanced energy transfer between donor and acceptor in the presence of a 5 nm AuNP. We also demonstrate that the transfer rate in the three "particle" geometry (D + A + AuNP) depends approximately linearly on the transfer rate in the donor-AuNP system, suggesting the possibility to control FRET process with electric field induced by 5 nm AuNPs close to the donor fluorophore. It is concluded that DNA origami is a very versatile platform for studying interactions between molecules and plasmonic nanoparticles in general and FRET enhancement in particular.

  • 7.
    Alla, Abdelilah
    et al.
    Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Barcelona, Spain.
    Oxelbark, Joachim
    Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Galán, Alfonso
    Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Barcelona, Spain.
    Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián
    Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Barcelona, Spain.
    Acylated and hydroxylated polyamides derived from L-tartaric acid2005Ingår i: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 46, nr 9, s. 2854-2861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of polyamides 6,4 were prepared from 1,6-hexanediamine and active esters of 2,3-di-O-acylated l-tartaric acid by polycondensation in solution. Both O-alkoyl and O-benzoyl esters were used as hydroxyl protecting groups. The resulting acylated polytartaramides were found to be semicrystalline polymers with Tm between 100 and 200°C and Tg slightly above 100°C. Controlled hydrolysis of the ester side group led to the preparation of poly(hexamethylene l-tartaramide)s with different content in free hydroxyl groups. These polyamides continue being crystalline but their properties largely differ from those displayed by their parent acylated polymers.

  • 8.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Häller, Sara
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Panova, Elena
    St Petersburgs universitet, St Petersburg, Ryssland.
    Grawunder, Anja
    Friedrich Sciller Univ., Jena, Germany.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Water chemistry and trace metal concentrations in an acidic alum shale pit lake: effects of liming2011Ingår i: Mine water: managing the challenges: proceedings of the International Mine Water Association Congress 2011 / [ed] Trude R.Rüde, Antje Freund, Christian Wolkersdorfer, Aachen: RWTH , 2011, s. 503-508Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Düker, Anders
    Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish SeaManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Allenmark, Stig
    et al.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Oxelbark, Joakim
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Inversion barriers in sulfoxide functions studied by enantioselective liquid chromatography and chiroptical methods1997Ingår i: Chirality, ISSN 0899-0042, E-ISSN 1520-636X, Vol. 9, nr 5-6, s. 638-642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 2-substituted 1,3,2-benzodithiazole 1-oxides has been synthesized and the compounds resolved into enantiomers by semipreparative enantioselective liquid chromatography. The low enantiomerization barriers have been determined by chiroptical techniques and were found to be relatively independent of the 2-substituent used. The kinetic results are consistent with a pyramidal inversion mechanism and a reduced barrier due to electronic effects, favouring the transition state over the pyramidal ground state. This mechanistic rationale was further supported by data obtained from molecular modelling using AM1 geometry optimization. The absolute configurations have been determined via a comparison of their CD-spectra with those of analogs with previously determined configuration.

  • 11.
    Allenmark, Stig
    et al.
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Oxelbark, Joakim
    Department of Organic Chemistry, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Optically active 1,3,2-benzodithiazole S-oxides: A study of rates of racemization and absolute stereochemistry1996Ingår i: Enantiomer (Basel. Print), ISSN 1024-2430, E-ISSN 1607-8446, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 13-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical isomers of the 1-oxide, 1,3-dioxide and 1,1,3-trioxide, respectively, of 2-benzyl-1,3,2-benzodithiazole have been isolated by chiral liquid chromatography. The rate of racemization was found to be much higher for the monooxide as compared to the dioxide or trioxide. A first-order rate constant of 8.65 × 10-5 s-1 was calculated for the racemization of the 1-oxide in acetonitrile at 21°C. This corresponds to rate constants for the forward and reverse reactions in the enantiomerization process of 4.32 × 10-5 s-1 and a Gibbs' free activation energy of only 96.5 kJ mol-1 separating the enantiomers. The absolute configuration at the tricoordinated sulfur atom in the series of oxides was determined via an X-ray crystallographic structure determination of one of the diastereomeric 2-((S)-α-phenyl-ethyl)-1,3,2-benzodithiazole 1,3-dioxides.

  • 12.
    Alnehem, Isabell
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Assessment on Groundwater Contamination from a Former Hard Chromium Plating Site in Iggesund2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the persistent and toxicological properties of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were known they were used worldwide. The thermal and chemical stability from the carbon-fluorine bond makes these substances desirable for industrial applications. One particular PFAS that have received much attention is perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) which is included in the Stockholm convention. Analyses have detected PFASs, especially the ones with longer carbon chain, in the environment, wildlife and humans so replacements are being searched for. This study investigates groundwater around a former hard chromium plating site, which is one of the registered exceptions where PFOS still is used. Five different located sampling points were collected and analyzed from this site in Iggesund, which is in the northern parts of Sweden. The substances analyzed for were thirteen perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs: C4-C14, C16 and C18), five perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs: C4, C6, C8 and C10) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS). The 6:2 telomer substances is being used as a replacement for similar compounds with longer carbon chains, but are believed to undergo biotransformation to persistent alkyl acids like perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in the environment. Solid phase extraction was performed on 500 mL filtered groundwater with and the concentrated samples were analyzed on an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), tandem mass spectrometer. The glass microfiber filters used for filtrating the groundwater were analyzed for particle bound PFASs. Results from the water extraction analysis showed eight detected PFAS, with PFOS as the major contributor (72 - 9600 ng/L). The PFOS concentrations differs substantially between the five groundwater samples where the two sampling points located south of the facility, and closest to the actual hard chromium plating, were clearly higher than the other three. Two other substances detected in high concentration were perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBuS), 8-1550 ng/L, and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), 18-140 ng/L which can be produced as an impurity during the production of PFOS. PFCAs in all samples were detected in lower concentrations (1-25 ng/L).

    Additional to the PFAS analysis, the groundwater was also measured for chromium since the carcinogenic hexavalent form is used in the chromic acid bath during hard chromium plating. In the same two samples that had the highest PFAS concentration, chromium was found in high concentration, 34900-44800 μg/L. These result indicates that the chromic acid baths is the source for the elevated concentrations found in the groundwater. If the facilities are left to deteriorate it will lead to continuously spreading of chromium and the highly water soluble PFASs downstream to Iggesundså which is of concern for the environment and water living organisms.

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  • 13.
    Amadei, Damien
    et al.
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Chatzidaki, Maria D.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Inst Theoret & Phys Chem, Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Devienne, Julia
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Monteil, Julien
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Cansell, Maud
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Xenakis, Aristotelis
    Inst Theoret & Phys Chem, Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Leal-Calderon, Fernando
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Low shear-rate process to obtain transparent W/O fine emulsions as functional foods2014Ingår i: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 62, s. 533-540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Edible transparent emulsions of the water-in-oil (W/O) type are highly sought after and currently not available. In such materials, the water droplets can be advantageously used as reservoirs to encapsulate biologically active hydrophilic substances (minerals, antioxidants, etc.). The emulsions must remain transparent, fluid and kinetically stable to meet consumers' requirements. In this paper, we describe a simple yet versatile process to fabricate food grade transparent W/O emulsions. Our method involves the preparation of coarse emulsions which are submitted to shear under laminar flow conditions to reduce their average droplet size. The process generates negligible heat and consequently, it preserves the integrity of thermally sensitive compounds. The obtained emulsions contain between 5 and 10 wt.% of aqueous droplets whose average droplet size is lower than 200 nm. They are kinetically stable for at least 2 months. Transparency results from the relatively low droplet size and the incorporation in the aqueous phase of hydrophilic solutes that decrease the refractive index mismatch between the two immiscible phases.

  • 14.
    Amruth, C.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland.
    Luszczynska, Beata
    Department of Molecular Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland.
    Szymanski, Marek Zdzislaw
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ulanski, Jacek
    Department of Molecular Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland.
    Albrecht, Ken
    Laboratory for Chemistry and Life Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan; JST-ERATO Yamamoto Atom Hybrid Project, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan; Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Yamamoto, Kimihisa
    Laboratory for Chemistry and Life Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan; Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Inkjet printing of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) dendrimer for OLEDs applications2019Ingår i: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 74, s. 218-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the inkjet printing of a novel OLED device with fully solution-processed organic layers that employ TADF material as an emitting layer. The ink was formulated using new TADF material, triazine core carbazole dendrimers with tert-butyl group at the periphery (tBuG2TAZ), dissolved in a mixture of two non-chlorinated solvents. The influence of the print resolution and the substrate temperature on morphology of the printed films was studied and optimized in ambient conditions. The optimized TADF dendrimer layer was then incorporated in the OLEDs as the emitting layer. The best-printed OLEDs exhibited a maximum current efficiency of 18 cd/A and maximum luminance of 6900 cd/m(2). Such values are comparable to the values obtained in spin coated devices made of the same TADF dendrimer. Further, the mobility of charge carriers extracted from transient electroluminescence measurements of printed OLEDs, when compared to reference OLEDs made by spin coating technique, showed similar values. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of patterning of emission the area of complex shapes merely by selectively printing the emission layer. These results demonstrate the potential application of the new dendrimer TADF emitters for the fabrication of efficient OLEDs by an inkjet printing technique.

  • 15.
    Amruth, C
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland.
    Szymański, Marek
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Łuszczyńska, Beata
    Department of Molecular Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland.
    Ulański, Jacek
    Department of Molecular Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland.
    Inkjet Printing of Super Yellow: Ink Formulation, Film Optimization, OLEDs Fabrication, and Transient Electroluminescence2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 8493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing technique allows manufacturing low cost organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in ambient conditions. The above approach enables upscaling of the OLEDs fabrication process which, as a result, would become faster than conventionally used vacuum based processing techniques. In this work, we use the inkjet printing technique to investigate the formation of thin active layers of well-known light emitting polymer material: Super Yellow (poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer). We develop the formulation of Super Yellow ink, containing non-chlorinated solvents and allowing stable jetting. Optimization of ink composition and printing resolution were performed, until good quality films suitable for OLEDs were obtained. Fabricated OLEDs have shown a remarkable characteristics of performance, similar to the OLEDs fabricated by means of spin coating technique. We checked that, the values of mobility of the charge carriers in the printed films, measured by transient electroluminescence, are similar to the values of mobility measured in spin coated films. Our contribution provides a complete framework for inkjet printing of high quality Super Yellow films for OLEDs. The description of this method can be used to obtain efficient printed OLEDs both in academic and in industrial settings.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB.
    Berggren, Anna
    Analycen AB.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Analycen AB.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen university.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    AhR agonist and genotoxicant bioavailability in a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing biological treatment2009Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 521-530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. However, the PAH loss is not always followed by a reduction in soil toxicity. For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. In addition, standard PAH analysis does not address the issue of total toxicant bioavailability in bioremediated soil.

    To address these questions, we have used the CALUX AhR agonist bioassay and the Comet genotoxicity bioassay with RTL-W1 cells to evaluate the toxic potential of different extracts from a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing large-scale bioremediation. The extracts were also chemically analyzed for PAH16 and PCDD/PCDF. Soil sampled on five occasions between day 0 and day 274 of biological treatment was shaken with n-butanol with vortex mixing at room temperature to determine the bioavailable fraction of contaminants. To establish total concentrations, parts of the same samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with toluene at 100A degrees C. The extracts were tested as inducers of AhR-dependent luciferase activity in the CALUX assay and for DNA breakage potential in the Comet bioassay.

    The chemical analysis of the toluene extracts indicated slow degradation rates and the CALUX assay indicated high levels of AhR agonists in the same extracts. Compared to day 0, the bioavailable fractions showed no decrease in AhR agonist activity during the treatment but rather an up-going trend, which was supported by increasing levels of PAHs and an increased effect in the Comet bioassay after 274 days. The bio-TEQs calculated using the CALUX assay were higher than the TEQs calculated from chemical analysis in both extracts, indicating that there are additional toxic PAHs in both extracts that are not included in the chemically derived TEQ.

    The response in the CALUX and the Comet bioassays as well as the chemical analysis indicate that the soil might be more toxic to organisms living in soil after 274 days of treatment than in the untreated soil, due to the release of previously sorbed PAHs and possibly also metabolic formation of novel toxicants.

    Our results put focus on the issue of slow degradation rates and bioavailability of PAHs during large-scale bioremediation treatments. The release of sorbed PAHs at the investigated PAH-contaminated site seemed to be faster than the degradation rate, which demonstrates the importance of considering the bioavailable fraction of contaminants during a bioremediation process.

    It has to be ensured that soft remediation methods like biodegradation or the natural remediation approach do not result in the mobilization of toxic compounds including more mobile degradation products. For PAH-contaminated sites this cannot be assured merely by monitoring the 16 target PAHs. The combined use of a battery of biotests for different types of PAH effects such as the CALUX and the Comet assay together with bioavailability extraction methods may be a useful screening tool of bioremediation processes of PAH-contaminated soil and contribute to a more accurate risk assessment. If the bioremediation causes a release of bound PAHs that are left undegraded in an easily extracted fraction, the soil may be more toxic to organisms living in the soil as a result of the treatment. A prolonged treatment time may be one way to reduce the risk of remaining mobile PAHs. In critical cases, the remediation concept might have to be changed to ex situ remediation methods.

  • 17.
    Andrén, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Länk, Nils Odebo
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sípová-Jungová, Hana
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jones, Steven
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Käll, Mikael
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Surface Interactions of Gold Nanoparticles Optically Trapped against an Interface2019Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, nr 26, s. 16406-16414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Particles that diffuse in close proximity to a surface are expected to behave differently than in free solution because the surface interaction will influence a number of physical properties, including the hydrodynamic, optical, and thermal characteristics of the particle. Understanding the influence of such effects is particularly important in view of the increasing interest in laser tweezing of colloidal resonant nanoparticles for applications such as nanomotors and optical printing and for investigations of unconventional optical forces. Therefore, we used total internal reflection microscopy to probe the interaction between a glass surface and individual similar to 100 nm gold nanoparticles trapped by laser tweezers. The results show that particles can be optically confined at controllable distances ranging between similar to 30 and similar to 90 nm from the surface, depending on the radiation pressure of the trapping laser and the ionic screening of the surrounding liquid. Moreover, the full particle-surface distance probability distribution can be obtained for single nanoparticles by analyzing temporal signal fluctuations. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations that take the full force field and photothermal heating into account. At the observed particle-surface distances, translational friction coefficients increase by up to 60% compared to freely diffusing particles, whereas the rotational friction and thermal dissipation are much less affected. The methodology used here is general and can be adapted to a range of single nanoparticle-surface interaction investigations.

  • 18.
    Andrén, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Shao, Lei
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Länk, Nils Odebo
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Acimovic, Srdjan S.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Käll, Mikael
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Probing Photothermal Effects on Optically Trapped Gold Nanorods by Simultaneous Plasmon Spectroscopy and Brownian Dynamics Analysis2017Ingår i: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, nr 10, s. 10053-10061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmonic gold nanorods are prime candidates for a variety of biomedical, spectroscopy, data storage, and sensing applications. It was recently shown that gold nanorods optically trapped by a focused circularly polarized laser beam can function as extremely efficient nanoscopic rotary motors. The system holds promise for-applications ranging from nanofluidic flow control and nanorobotics to biomolecular actuation and analysis. However, to fully exploit this potential, one needs to be able to control and understand heating effects associated with laser trapping. We investigated photothermal heating of individual rotating gold nanorods by simultaneously probing their localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum and rotational Brownian dynamics over extended periods of time. The data reveal an extremely slow nanoparticle reshaping process, involving migration of the order of a few hundred atoms per minute, for moderate laser powers and a trapping wavelength close to plasmon resonance. The plasmon spectroscopy and Brownian analysis allows for separate temperature estimates based on the refractive index and the viscosity of the water surrounding a trapped nanorod. We show that both measurements yield similar effective temperatures, which correspond to the actual temperature at a distance of the order 10-15 nm from the particle surface. Our results shed light on photothermal processes on the nanoscale and will be useful in evaluating the applicability and performance of nanorod motors and optically heated nanoparticles for a variety of applications.

  • 19.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik. SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi II-Metal Redistribution2010Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 207, nr 1-4, s. 5-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by fungi was studied in a project focusing on bioremediation of metal-contaminated soils. The production of acids (mainly oxalic and citric acid) as a response to nutrient variations and presence of metals has recently been reported (Arwidsson et al. 2009). A significant release of metals was observed and was related not only to the production of organic acids but also to the resulting pH decrease in the systems. The processes governing the release and redistribution of metals in the soil-water fungus system were the focus of the present continuation of the project, based on observations of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp. The release of lead was 12% from the soil with the second highest initial load (1,600 mg kg(-1)), while the release of copper was 90% from the same soil (140 mg kg(-1)). The dominating mechanism behind the release and subsequent redistribution was the change in pH, going from near neutral to values in the range 2.1-5.9, reflecting the production of organic acids. For some of the systems, the formation of soluble complexes is indicated (copper, at intermediate pH) which favors the metal release. Iron is assumed to play a key role since the amount of secondary iron in the soils is higher than the total load of secondary heavy metals. It can be assumed that most of the heavy metals are initially associated with iron-rich phases through adsorption or coprecipitation. These phases can be dissolved, or associated metals can be desorbed, by a decrease in pH. It would be feasible to further develop a process in technical scale for remediation of metal-contaminated soil, based on microbial metabolite production leading to formation of soluble metal complexes, notably with copper.

  • 20.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik. SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Sjoberg, Ragnar
    Solvent AB, Motala, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids2010Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, nr 1-3, s. 697-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the action of the two biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), as well as citric acid, was tested. Three soil samples, which had previously been treated by conventional soil washing (water), were utilized in the leaching tests. Experiments were performed in batches (0.3 kg-scale) and with a WTC-mixer system (Water Treatment Construction, 10 kg-scale). EDDS and MGDA were most often equally efficient in removing Cu, Pb, and Zn after 10-60 min. Nonetheless, after 10 d, there were occasionally significant differences in extraction efficiencies. Extraction with citric acid was generally less efficient, however equal for Zn (mainly) after 10 d. Metal removal was similar in batch and WTC-mixer systems, which indicates that a dynamic mixer system could be used in full-scale. Use of biodegradable amino polycarboxylic acids for metal removal, as a second step after soil washing, would release most remaining metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from the present soils, however only after long leaching time. Thus, a full-scale procedure, based on enhanced metal leaching by amino polycarboxylic acids from soil of the present kind, Would require a pre-leaching step lasting several days in order to be efficient. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    SAKAB AB, Norrtorp, Sweden.
    Ålund, Marie
    SAKAB AB, Norrtorp, Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Metal mobilisation from soils and sediments by hydroxycarboxylic acids of natural origin2011Ingår i: Programme and Abstracts: 25th International Applied Geochemistry Symposium, 22-26 August, 2011, Rovaniemi, Finland / [ed] Pertti Sarala, V. Juhani Ojala, Marja-Leena Porsanger, Vuorimiesyhdistys - Finnish Association of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers , 2011, s. 77-77Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Ashhami, Arnavaz
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Assessment of Extractable Organic Fluorine (EOF) Content and Contribution of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Cosmetic Products2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of compounds consisting of a fully or partially fluorinated alkyl chain and a functional head group. The structure of PFASs yields molecules that are highly desired in both industrial and commercial applications were properties such as oil and water repellency are needed. However PFASs have also been linked to health problems such as cancer, hepatoxicity and reproductive toxicity. Recently the analysis of total organic fluorine (TOF) and PFASs in several matrices have revealed the presence of unidentified organofluorine (OF) compounds. In addition fluorinated compounds have been identified in various personal care products (PCPs).

    The aim of this study was to quantify the extractable organic fluorine (EOF) content and contribution of individual PFASs in various cosmetic products in order to determine the amount of unidentified OF and asses the possibility of a risk to human health. Determination of EOF was conducted using combustion ion chromatography (CIC) and followed up through target analysis by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Fluorinated compounds were detected in 21 of the 32 analyzed samples in concentrations ranging up to 242 μg/g. Target analysis established polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) as the main contributing compounds to total PFASs, followed by perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). In addition perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and fluorotelomer sulfonic acids (FTSAs) were detected. Unidentified OF ranged from 53-100% in a majority of the samples. In addition the study was able to confirm the presence of fluorinated compounds other than those declared on the product labels.

    The results suggest cosmetic products as a possible contributing source to total PFAS exposure, making their presence a possible concern to human health. Further studies are required to assess the risk.

  • 23.
    Au Musse, Ayan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Characterization of the metabolic changes in chicken liver due to exposure of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) during the embryo development2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are anthropogenic compounds that have been classed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and are found in both commercial and industrial products. PFASs have been detected in different environmental matrices and have been found to bioaccumulate in all trophic levels. The adverse effects that are associated with PFAS exposure include reduced body weight, increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, a decrease in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. This project aims to characterize the metabolic changes in lipid metabolism in the liver after exposure to one of the well-studied PFASs, the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), during the embryo development using the domestic chicken as a model organism.

    The characterization of the metabolic changes was done by conducting both quantitative lipidomic analysis and semi-quantitative global profiling on extracted lipids from liver homogenates from a former related project looking at fatty acid profiles. The extracted lipids were analyzed using UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS. In the quantitative analysis, the PFOS-treated groups (0.1 ug/g and 1.0 ug/g)exhibited higher lipid concentrations when compared with the solvent control group (5% DMSO) and the untreated group leading to the conclusion that PFOS exposure disrupts the lipid metabolism. When comparing the lipid concentrations between the two PFOS-treated groups (0.1 ug/g and 1.0 ug/g), the majority of the lipids exhibited higher lipid concentrations in the 1.0 ug/g PFOS-treated groups leading to the conclusion that the effect PFOS has on the lipid metabolism is dose dependent. In the global profiling analysis, 63 lipids showed significant differences when comparing the solvent control group with samples either treated with 0.1 ug/g PFOS or 1.0 ug/g PFOS.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Characterization of the metabolic changes in chicken liver due to
  • 24.
    Avakian, Maureen D.
    et al.
    MDB Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Dellinger, Barry
    Louisiana State Univ, Dept Chem, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Program Chemicals, Chatelaine, Switzerland.
    Gullet, Brian
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Koshland, Catherine
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Environmental Chemistry, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oberdorster, Günter
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, New York, USA.
    Safe, Stephen
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University, Texas , USA.
    Sarofim, Adel
    Department of Chemical anf Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Smith, Kirk R.
    Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
    Schwartz, David
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Suk, William A.
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Resaearc Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
    The origin, fate, and health effects of combustion by-products: A research framework2002Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 110, nr 11, s. 1155-1162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomplete combustion processes can emit organic pollutants, metals, and fine particles. Combustion by-products represent global human and environmental health challenges that are relevant not only in heavily industrialized nations, but also in developing nations where up to 90% of rural households rely on unprocessed biomass fuels for cooking, warmth, and light. These issues were addressed at the Seventh International Congress on Combustion BY-Products, which convened 4-6 June 2001 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. This congress included a diverse group of multidisciplinary researchers and practitioners who discussed recent developments and future goals in the control of combustion by-products and their effects of exposure on human and ecologic health. Participants recommended that interdisciplinary, coordinated research efforts should be focused to capitalize on the important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce the adverse human health effects linked to exposures to combustion by-products and broader efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save energy through efficiency. In this article we summarize the principal findings and recommendations for research focus and direction.

  • 25.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala Univeristy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lind, Lars
    Acute & Internal Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Per
    Clinical Nutrition & Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary pattern2012Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, nr Supplement, s. S101-S101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26. Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Sjögren, Per
    Lind, P. Monica
    Lampa, Erik
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Lind, Lars
    Dietary pattern affects blood levels of environmental pollutants in elderly Swedish men and women2011Ingår i: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 58, nr Suppl. 3, s. 59-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Baabish, Abeer
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Global Priority Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Surface Waters:Establishing Baseline Levels on Regional Basis.2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) has been regulated under Stockholm Convention in 2009, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was listed in 2019. Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) is under review and could be included in 2021. There are still permitted uses of these three chemicals, but it is expected that the production and application will decrease as a result of the international regulation and the environmental concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS are expected to decline. However, without a reference point, it is difficult to judge if the levels are decreasing or not. Therefore, baseline levels of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS in one of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) core matrices, surface water, were established with the support of samples collected from Africa (n=34), Asia (n=11), Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) (n=35) and Pacific Islands (n=25) under a period of two years. The baseline levels were set as the median concentration (ng/L) in each region (interquartile range) based on a variance test (Kruskal-Wallis) and descriptive statistical testing.

    Baseline levels for ΣPFOS, PFOA and PFHxS including all countries in Africa (n=6) was set at 0.38 (0.18 – 0.54) ng/L, 0.26 (0.13 – 0.80) ng/L and 0.042 (0.02 - 0.09) ng/L respectively, and excluding Kenya and Tunisia (n=4) at 0.22 (0.10 – 0.38) ng/L for ΣPFOS , 0.18 (0.10 – 0.25) ng/L for PFOA and 0.031 (0.02 – 0.04) ng/L for PFHxS.

    In Pacific Islands the baseline levels for ΣPFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were established at 0.15 (0.04 – 1.24) ng/L, 0.046 (0.03 – 0.11) ng/L and 0.055 (0.01 – 0.63) ng/L including all countries (n=7), and 0.053 (0.03 – 0.15) ng/L, 0.033 (0.03 – 0.04) ng/L and 0.012 (0.01 – 0.05) ng/L excluding Vanuatu and Kiribati (n=5).

    In Asia and Group of Latin America samples were in similar concentrations range within the region, so baseline levels for ΣPFOS, PFOA and PFHxS in Asia were set at 0.048 (0.04 - 0.12) ng/L, 0.11 (0.07 – 0.19) ng/L and 0.018 (0.01-0.03) ng/L, and in GRULAC at 1.31(0.39 – 1.88) ng/L, 0.50 (0.28 – 0.71) ng/L and 0.14 (0.06 – 0.44) ng/L for the three priority PFASs respectively.

    The importance of the three PFASs in relation to other measured Σ73 PFASs were assessed in selected samples (n=12) including six samples from Sweden. The results showed a contribution of 10% to 48% of the sum of the three priority PFASs to all 27 detected PFASs.It is not clear whether a total of 73 PFASs is enough to explain the environmental contamination of PFASs and therefore the extractable organofluorine (EOF) was measured in selected samples (n=12). Due to the high EOF levels in procedural blanks, only two out of twelve samples were used to assess the contribution of detected PFASs to EOF. The contribution of 27 detected PFASs to EOF were 3% for Vanuatu and 5% for Sweden (Svartån). The contribution of the sum of the three PFASs to EOF accounted for 1.1% for Vanuatu and 1.4% for Svartån. Nevertheless, within the organofluorine fraction, a major percentage 95% to 97% of fluorine remains unknown in water samples, suggesting the occurrence of other organofluorine substances.

    At the same time, some newly identified PFAS (novel PFASs) that are known to replace PFOS and PFOA in different applications were detected in surface water samples collected from Sweden (n=6) and from developing countries under UNEP/GMP2 project (n=6). Perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) was detected in four samples in concentrations ranging between 0.03 and 0.14 ng/L. Perfluoro-2-propoxypropanoic acid (HFPO-DA) was detected in three samples in the concentration range 0.03-0.06 ng/L.

  • 28.
    Bartuma, Ninorta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Optimizing purification of oligonucleotides with reversed phase trityl-on solid phase extraction2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Oligonucleotides are synthetic strings of DNA or RNA used mostly for biochemical analysis and diagnostics. For them to be useful in these fields, a purity over 90% is most often required. However, when synthesizing these sequences, many “failures” (shorter sequences) are made in the step-wise process. The synthesized oligonucleotides need to therefore be purified. This is most often done with gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography. These methods are, on the other hand, very time-consuming and laborious. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is a much faster purification method if optimized and it can be done with the standard cartridges as well as 96-well plates, that allow many samples to efficiently be run at the same time. With reversed phase (RP) SPE, the dimethoxytrityl (DMT) group, that is attached to the target at the final synthesis step, can be used for stronger retention to the bed sorbent and leaving only the target at the final eluting stage. The impurities without a DMT-on group, that do not adsorb to the sorbent, are washed away in earlier steps. The purpose of this study is to optimize an SPE method for purification of oligonucleotides. Two different cartridges, Clarity QSP (Phenomenex) and Glen-Pak (Glen Research) were used. The purity analysis and oligonucleotide identification were done using anion exchange - high performance liquid chromatography (AIE-HPLC) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS).

    To conclude, Clarity QSP achieved, at the most, a purity of 68.8% with the recommended SPE steps by Phenomenex. Alterations in the extraction procedure resulted in similar purity or lower. Glen-Pak reached a peak purity of 78.8% when doing a double salt wash of 5% ACN in 2 M sodium chloride and another double wash after detritylation with 1% acetonitrile. This method has to be further optimized in order to reach a purity of at least 90% to be useful in industrial settings.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Optimizing purification of oligonucleotides with reversed phase trityl-on solid phase extraction
  • 29.
    Begic, Elvira
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Combined analysis of PFAS and bile acids in human blood using UPLC-MS/MS2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was performed to enable a combined analysis for quantifying levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and bile acids in human plasma samples from Taiwan. Protein precipitation and phospholipid removal was performed using a 96-well plate and analysed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MSMS). The instrumental analysis was performed with a reverse-phased chromatography. The mass analysis was carried out using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. A matrix matched calibration curve using new-born bovine serum (NBS) was used for the analysis of the PFAS and an external one point calibration for the bile acids. The twenty plasma samples were collected after an over-night fast and consisted of seventeen samples from patients undergoing haemodialysis and three samples from healthy controls. The variation between the healthy controls and the patient samples is observed where a higher concentration of L-PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS was found in the control samples. It is explained that haemodialysis can decrease the amount of PFOS. The lower concentrations found in the human plasma was of PFHpA. 18 of 30 bile acids were detected but eight of them were selected for quantitative analysis. The concentration of the bile acids varied less between the three control samples and the seventeen patient samples when compared to the PFAS. The highest median value was found for CDCA whilst GHCA had the lowest median value. Taken together, the combined analysis of bile acids and PFAS was accomplished along with the determination of their concentration in human plasma.

  • 30.
    Ben Ayoub, M. W.
    et al.
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France; Aix Marseille University, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, Marseille, France.
    Georgin, E.
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France.
    Rochas, J. F.
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France.
    Hubert, S.
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France.
    Aro, Rudolf
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France.
    Neves, L.
    Aix Marseille University, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, Marseille, France; Centre Commun de Ressources en Micro-ondes (CCRM),Marseille, France.
    Sabouroux, P.
    Aix Marseille University, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, Marseille, France.
    Quantitative determination of bound water in cardboard by measurement of dielectric permittivity2018Ingår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, nr 2, artikel-id 024001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated the complex dielectric permittivity of cardboard with different water contents using a coaxial transmission/reflection technique from 10 MHz to 1.5 GHz. A relaxation process was analyzed to identify the bonding forms that exist in cardboard; this analysis was accompanied by a selective direct thermo-coulometric method. Two different types of bonding of water are found in cardboard (free and bound water) and both can be eliminated at 105 degrees C. The novelty of this work is the experimental correlation between the relaxation frequency situated in the radio-frequency band and the fraction of bound water in cardboard with a low water content.

  • 31.
    Berg, Isabelle
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Validation of MP-AES at the Quantification of Trace Metals in Heavy Matrices with Comparison of Performance to ICP-MS2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The MP-AES 4200 using microwave plasma and an atomic emission spectroscopy detector provide a new and improved instrument to the analytical field. In this project will the performance of the equipment be evaluated in controlled NaCl-heavy matrices for selected metals (Cu, Zn, Li) and the result from this will be used to optimize a method for specific samples. These samples consist of combustion ashes from the incineration of hazardous waste and are provided by the company SAKAB AB. The sample preparation consisted of several cycles of L/S 10 followed by microwave assisted dissolution with concentrated HNO3, aqua regia or 18.2 MΩ. An extended amount of metals were quantified for these samples (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) and most (not Ca, Li, K or Na) were compared with an ICP-MS instrument equipped with a collision cell used for the elements As, Fe and V. A final experiment was made on an L/S 10 of the samples to attempt to separate the metals from the salt with ion exchange, something that would make it possible to recycle this otherwise unused waste.

    The detection limits were all in the low μg L-1 except for Cd, Mn and Zn, which were between 2-4 μg L-1. The MP-AES was found to be able to handle matrices up to 5 g L-1 NaCl without a significant loss of response and provided near identical results to the ICP-MS for the elements that could be compared, this did not included the elements not quantified with the ICP-MS or V which was the only element under the limit of detection for the MP-AES. The experiment where an attempt was made to separate the metals from the salt was proven successful after treatment of bark compost and another type of waste ash as cation exchangers.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Bergman, Malin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Determination of Polyoxymethylene (POM): Water Partition Coefficients for Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Use of GC/MS2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods to measure the concentration of freely dissolved PAHs in pore water have been developed and are based on the usage of passive samplers, in this case polyoxymethylene (POM). Spiked samples (containing PAHs with 4-5 rings, methylated PAHs with 2-5 rings and dibenzothiophenes in three different concentrations) were placed on an end-over-end shaker for 28 days, to obtain equilibrium between the amount of PAHs accumulated on the POM strips and the amount of PAHs freely dissolved in the water. Four samples (medium concentration) were removed from the shaker after 7 and 14 days, respectively, and after 28 days were 12 samples (low, medium and high concentrations) removed. The variance of the average log(KPOM) values obtained from medium concentration were statistically tested, and showed that the coefficients for all compounds did not differ significantly over time. The coefficient difference between the three concentrations for the methylated PAHs were greater amongst the more hydrophobic compounds; 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene had log(KPOM) of 5.64, 2.77 and 3.71 (low, medium, high). The hydrophilic compounds had coefficients that were more similar in the three concentrations; 1,6-Dimethylnaphthalene had log(KPOM) of 3.80, 2.62, and 3.39 (low, medium, high). Previous studies have determined log(KPOM) for several PAHs, and merged log(KPOM) for alkylated isomeric PAHs. The coefficients from the lowest concentration of serval methylated PAHs and Benzo(e)pyrene were similar to log(KPOM) values obtained for those compounds in an earlier study. The accuracy of risk assessments of PAH contaminated areas will increase when analysing individual methylated PAHs and using individual KPOM values for methylated PAHs, as in this study, instead of merged coefficients.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Bergman, Malin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Trophic transfer of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) by glacial relicts in Lake Vättern, Sweden2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om glacialrelikta amfipoder utgör vektorer för transport av per- och polyfluorerade alkylsubstanser (PFAS)-ämnen i Vätternrödingens näringskedja. Sediment-, ytvatten- och biotaprover analyserades för PFAS-ämnen med ultra-prestanda vätskekromatografi med tandem-masspektrometri (UPLC-MS/MS) samt analys av stabila isotoper av δ 13C och δ15N för sediment- och biotaprover. Sedimentprover (n=3) föreslogs ha PFAS-kontaminering från olika ursprungskällor. Generellt låga halter detekterades i sediment (summan av alla detekterade PFAS-ämnen var 2.7 ng/g i St. Aspön, 2.9 ng/g i Visingsö och 0.6 ng/g i Omberg, rapporterat i torrvikt), jämfört med halterna i biota och flertalet ytvatten. Fördelningen av PFAS-ämnen i proverna från St. Aspön och Visingsö hade liknande homologmönster som skiljde sig från provet från Omberg. Detta styrktes sedan med data från isotopanalys. Medelkoncentrationen av alla detekterade PFAS-ämnen i potentiellt ej filmbildande brandskums (AFFF)-kontaminerade prover var 6 ng/L, medan den var 5 900 ng/L i potentiellt AFFF-kontaminerade prover. I ytvattenprover från Jönköpings flygplats och Kärnebäcken uppmättes halter av linjär perfluoroktansulfonat (L-PFOS) som alla överskred det europeiska gränsvärdet (AA-EQS) på 0,65 ng/L för PFOS i sötvatten (branddammen: 14 000 ng/L, diket: 600 ng/L, Sandserydsån: 160 ng/L, Kärnebäcken: 150 ng/L). Ett referensprov från sjön Unden (liknande ekosystem som Vättern) representerade diffusa utsläppskällor och hade liknande distribution av PFAS-ämnen som ett antal vattendrag i studien. Atmosfärisk deposition är en annan potentiell källa för PFAS-ämnen och då Vätterns ytvattenarea är stor (1900 km2) kan det vara en av de mest bidragande källorna. Detta bör undersökas närmre för att bättre bedöma den lokala miljöpåverkan. Trofiska magnifieringsfaktorer (TMFs) beräknades för L-PFOS, perfluorononansyra (PFNA) och perfluorotridekansyra (PFTrDA) till högre än 1, vilket indikerar biomagnifikation till högre trofiska nivåer. Av alla detekterade PFAS-ämnen i biota var L-PFOS mest förekommande (58 %), följt av PFTrDA (20 %), PFNA (6.7 %), perfluoroundekansyra (PFUnDA) (5.3 %), perfluorodekansyra (PFDA) (4.9 %) och perfluorooktansyra (PFOA) (2.9 %). Högst koncentrationer av alla analyserade ämnen detekterades i vitmärla (Monoporeia), den minsta av amfipoderna. Kontamineringsprofiler av karboxylater visade ett liknande mönster för ett flertal av arterna som även liknande de från en annan studie i sjön Ontario. Främst Vitmärla och taggmärla men delvis pungräka är potentiella vektorer för trofisk transport av PFAS-ämnen i Vättern, även om ytterligare studier med fler replikat och arter bör genomföras. Glacialrelikter är känsliga för förorening och flertalet fiskar analyserade i denna studie uppmätte koncentrationer av 5 L-PFOS över det europeiska gränsvärdet för PFOS i fisk (9,1 ng/g våtvikt), vilket indikerar att Vättern är förorenad. Då många fiskar äter glacialrelikta kräftdjur, skulle kontaminering av dessa amfipoder bidra till biomagnifikation i näringskedjan och således påverka hela Vätterns ekosystem.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Trophic transfer of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) by glacial relicts in Lake Vättern, Sweden
  • 34.
    Biswas, Dipsikha
    et al.
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Cowie, Andrew
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Tozer, Kathleen
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Perez, Lester J.
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Trivedi, Purvi
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Bartlett, Jordan J.
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Duffley, Luke
    Univ New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Dao, Khoi Thien
    Univ New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Paramel Varghese, Geena
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada..
    Aguiar, Christie
    St Johns Hosp, St John, NB, Canada.
    Yip, Alexandra M.
    St Johns Hosp, St John, NB, Canada.
    Shea, Jennifer
    St Johns Hosp, St John, NB, Canada.
    Brunt, Keith
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Legare, Jean-Francois
    St Johns Hosp, St John, NB, Canada.
    Hassan, Ansar
    St Johns Hosp, St John, NB, Canada.
    Kienesberger, Petra
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Pulinilkunnil, Thomas
    Dalhousie Med New Brunswick, St John, NB, Canada.
    Adverse Cardiometabolic Outcomes in Obese Patients Correlates Strongly with Defective Branched-Chain Amino Acid Catabolism2018Ingår i: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, ISSN 0022-2828, E-ISSN 1095-8584, Vol. 124, s. 121-122Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    sammanfattning
  • 35.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans: from source of emission to human exposure2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsekvenserna av giftiga och långlivade organiska föroreningar är många och allvarliga, och de påverkar både miljön och människans hälsa. Ett av de giftigaste ämnena som existerar är klorerade dioxiner och furaner (PCDD/Fs). Det finns även bromerade dioxiner och furaner (PBDD/Fs) men studierna av dessa, och därmed även kunskapen, är begränsade trots att PBDD/Fs och PCDD/Fs uppvisar liknande toxiska egenskaper. Den domi-nerande källan till PBDD/Fs är förbränningsrelaterade processer av material innehållande bromerade flamskyddsmedel.

    Syftet med denna avhandling var att öka kunskapen om PBDD/Fs genom att undersöka förekomsten av PBDD/Fs i olika miljöer och matriser, och studierna spänner över lägenhetsbränder, till marina däggdjur och till am-mande kvinnor. I delarbete 1 studerades förekomsten av PBDD/Fs i gas och sot då olika släcktekniker används för att bekämpa lägenhetsbränder. Lä-genhetsbränderna representerade förekomsten av PBDD/Fs vid en känd punktkälla. Resultaten från försöken visade högre koncentrationer av PBDD/Fs än av PCDD/Fs, vilket också indikerar att PBDD/Fs är en relevant grupp av kemikalier att inkludera vid riskbedömning för yrkesgrupper som återkommande arbetar vid olycksbränder. I delarbete 2 undersöktes hur PBDD/Fs finns spridda till marina däggdjur. Genom att fastställa att PBDD/Fs finns spridda till grindvalar från vattnen utanför Färöarna, indi-keras att PBDD/Fs har förmåga att transporteras över stora sträckor samt har de persistenta och bioackumulerande egenskaper som är karaktäristiska för traditionella miljögifter. I delarbete 3 studerades förekomsten av PBDD/Fs i vikare (ringsäl) från Östersjön, under perioden 1974-2015. Fö-rekomsten av PBDD/Fs i vikare kan även ses som en indikator för sprid-ningen av PBDD/Fs till näringskedjan i Östersjön. I delarbete 4 studerades människors exponering för PBDD/Fs genom att undersöka förekomsten i bröstmjölk. Resultaten visade så pass höga koncentrationer av PBDD/Fs i mjölken att den genomsnittliga toxiska effekten från dessa var nästan lika hög som från PCDD/Fs. Då spädbarn är känsliga för exponering av miljö-gifter, är de höga koncentrationerna av PBDD/Fs i bröstmjölken oroväck-ande. Sammanfattningsvis visar denna avhandling att PBDD/Fs är förekom-mande i olika miljöer och matriser, och att det primärt är människors ex-ponering som är oroande. Dels handlar det om risken för den generella ex-poneringen av människan som fynden i bröstmjölk indikerar, men även om den yrkesrelaterade exponeringen som brandmän m.fl. kan utsättas för.

    Delarbeten
    1. Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, s. 1213-1221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2017
    Nyckelord
    PBDD/F, PCDD/F, Fire, Cutting extinguisher, Foam, Additive, Nozzle, Formation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59123 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.087 (DOI)000405253500018 ()28514839 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019068316 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap, MSB
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-22 Skapad: 2017-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-09-04Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, s. 11-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2018
    Nyckelord
    PBDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, Pilot whale blubber, Faroe Islands
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan kemi Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63414 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.044 (DOI)000424172400002 ()29248748 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85037990841 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agency:

    Danish Environmental Protection Agency as part of the environmental support program Dancea - Danish Cooperation for Environment in the Arctic

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-18 Skapad: 2017-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-16Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, s. 1374-1383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

    Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Dioxins, Furans, POPs, Marine mammal
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan kemi Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63413 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.178 (DOI)000424121800137 ()29066193 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85038955003 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency  2213-15-022

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-18 Skapad: 2017-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-08-16Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63415 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-18 Skapad: 2017-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-18Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans: from source of emission to human exposure
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    Spikblad
  • 36.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Dam, Maria
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hoydal, Katrin
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands2018Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, s. 11-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

  • 37.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding durationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Roos, Anna
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 20152018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, s. 1374-1383Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

    Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

  • 39. Björkblom, Carina
    et al.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Katsiadaki, I
    Wiklund, T
    Estrogen- and androgen-sensitive bioassays based on primary cell and tissue slice cultures from three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2007Ingår i: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, ISSN 1532-0456, Vol. 146, nr 3, s. 431-442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine disrupting compounds are chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system causing severe effects in organisms. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) offers a potential for the assessment of endocrine disruption caused by a) estrogenic xenobiotics through the estrogen-dependent protein vitellogenin and b) androgenic xenobiotics through the androgen-dependent protein spiggin. The stickleback is presently the only known fish species with a quantifiable androgen and anti-androgen biomarker endpoint. In the current study, hepatocyte and kidney primary cell cultures and liver and kidney tissue slice cultures were prepared and used for detecting estrogenic or androgenic activity in vitro through the action of hormones or municipal sewage water. The results indicate that stickleback male hepatocyte cultures are suitable in detecting estrogenic activity and stickleback female kidney tissue slice cultures in detecting androgenic activity. The tested sewage water showed high estrogenic activity but no significant androgenic activity. Primary cell and tissue slice cultures isolated from the three-spined stickleback will allow simultaneously screening in vitro for potential estrogenic and androgenic activity of complex samples.

  • 40.
    Björklund, Sofie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Validation of a Cleanup Method for Analysis of Novel Brominated Flame Retardants in Biota Matrices Sofie Björklund 2015-05-30 Supervisors Ingrid Ericson2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bromerade flamskyddsmedel är en grupp ämnen närvarande i många olika typer av material i vår omgivning. Även om deras syfte är att bromsa förloppet vid en eldsvåda har många visat sig vara toxiska för miljön. Nya bromerade flamskyddsmedel har kommit ut på marknaden i takt med att gamla tagits bort. Pålitliga metoder är nödvändiga för att övervaka hur nya bromerade flamskyddsmedel sprids och ackumulerar i miljön. För att uppnå detta validerades en metod bestående av flerskiktskiseldioxid och analys med atmosfärstryck-gaskromatografi kopplat till tandem-masspektroskopi. Denna metod hade tidigare använts för analys av polybromerade difenyletrar och målet var att undersöka om samma metod kunde användas för analys ad nya bromerade flamskyddsmedel. Spikning gav generellt goda resultat - utbytet för de nativa ämnena var mellan 40% och 174%.

    För att pröva metoden på prov med riktigt matris analyserades åtta prov med fiskgjuseägg och fem prov med späck från vikare. Flera nya bromerade flamskyddsmedel hittades, mest förekommande var de metoxylerade polybromerade difenyletrarna. Dominerande kongen var 2'-metoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetrabromodifenyleter, följt av 6-metoxy-2,2',4,4'- tetrabromodifenyleter, 5-metoxy-2,2',4,4'- tetrabromodifenyleter och 5-metoxy-2,2',4,4',6- pentabromodifenyleter i koncentrationer från <0,13-13 ng/g lipidvikt (fiskgjuseägg) och <0,003-249 ng/g lipidvikt (sälspäck). Även 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromofenoxy)etan (fiskgjuseägg och sälspäck), pentabromobensen (fiskgjuseägg och sälspäck), hexabromobensen (sälspäck) och 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-xylene (fiskgjuseägg) identifierades.

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  • 41.
    Björklund, Thea
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Analysis of mixed-linkage (1-3, 1-4)-β-D-glucan in Swedish cereal cultivars and bread2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    β-glucans are unavailable carbohydrates and a dietary fiber that cannot be readily metabolized by our own bodies’ enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract. They are instead metabolized by our microbiota in the large intestine, were they have multiple health benefits. They help with keeping the microbiota in balance and regulating our immune system. They have also been shown to have cholesterol lowering effects. β-glucans are found in cereals like barley, oat, rye, and wheat but they can also come from other sources like bacterial cell walls and fungi. However, depending on their origin, they have different structures and properties. β-glucans from cereals are linear polymers of β-(1→4)-D-glycopyranosyl units separated by single units of β-(1→3)-D-glycopyranosyl in a mixed linkage. The concentration of β-glucan is highly varied between cereal type as well as cultivar of the same cereal.

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a difference in β-glucan content between commercial bread baked using traditional versus modern cereal cultivars. β-glucan was determined using the Megazyme assay kit, a method approved by the American association of cereal chemists (AACC) International. The method uses a highly specific enzymatic breakdown of β-glucan into D-glucose that can then be determined colorimetrically. The results for β-glucan showed high variation between different types of cereals and bread tested, were grains like barley and rye had higher β-glucan content compared to oat and wheat, showing clear health benefits to eating grains like barley and rye, over grains like wheat. The β-glucan content for cereals ranged from 0.30 – 3.66% of dry weight, whereas the different bread had β-glucan ranging from 0.31 – 1.14% of dry weight. There was no significant difference between modern versus traditional cultivars and therefore neither had any greater health benefits from a β-glucan content perspective. The daily consumption of β-glucan needed to show cholesterol lowering effects is 3g, which in this study mean that about 7.5 bread slices (about 300 g) of the highest β-glucan containing bread is needed to be eaten daily to achieve the daily intake goal.

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    Analysis of mixed-linkage (1-3, 1-4)-β-D-glucan in Swedish cereal cultivars and bread
  • 42.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Leaching of Residual Monomers, Oligomers and Additives from Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polyvinyl Chloride, High-density Polyethylene and Polystyrene Virgin Plastics2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic debris are accumulating in our oceans and are degraded into smaller pieces which eventually becomes small enough to be available to lower thropic level organisms. Microplastics, commonly defined as plastic particles <5 mm, are globally distributed and found at remote locations far away from industrialized and populated areas. The effects of macro sized plastics is well understood whilst the effects of microplastics is hard to predict. It is known that microplastics act as transfer vectors for a wide range of toxic chemicals into organisms, and it is also known that the particle itself can cause toxic responses such as increased immune response and endocrine disruption. Researchers utilize virgin plastic pellets in order to determine the toxicological effect of the plastic particle itself, but resent research suggest that these virgin plastics may release chemicals that contribute to the toxic response and thus complicates the interpretation of the results. In present study, five different virgin plastics were allowed to leach in artificial seawater under conditions that mimic those used in particle toxicity studies. Plastics included were polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, high-density polyethylene and polystyrene. Leachable monomers and oligomers were found in three of the five plastics tested: polyvinyl chloride, high-density polyethylene and polystyrene. Leached compounds from polyvinyl chloride were not identified due to time limitations. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in the size C14-C22 were leached out from high-density polyethylene in the concentration range 0.47 × 10-3 – 1.13 × 10-3 μg ml-1 within 24 hours. Polystyrene was found to leach styrene monomer which reached a concentration of 0.17 μg ml-1 within 24 hours.

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  • 43.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Dept. Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Dept. Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Dept. Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bisphenol A and replacements in thermal paper: A review2017Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 182, s. 691-706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), which is used as a color developer. BPA has been reported in thermal paper in concentrations up to 42,600 Kg g(-1). The exposure to BPA via dermal transfer has been recently discussed as a significant contribution to the overall human exposure and the estimated daily intake (EDI) has been reported up to 218 mu g d(-1). BPA has been also detected in recycled paper with concentrations up to 46 n g(-1). Due to the fact that BPA is a known endocrine disruptor and migrates from materials, regulatory restrictions have been established to prevent risks for the human health. As a consequence, structural analogues, such as bisphenol S (BPS) have been introduced into the market. Little is known about the presence and toxicity of these emerging replacements, and concern has risen about them. The present review gives an overview of the occurrence and levels of BPA and replacements in thermal paper. BPA is still the most common color developer found in thermal paper, followed by BPS. The analytical methods used for quantification of BPA and BPA replacements in paper products are also reviewed. BPA is transferred from thermal paper products to the finger pads upon handling it. Paper-skin transfer followed by penetration of BPA depends on conditions (e.g. greasiness of fingers and use of hand cream). It is, however, still debated whether thermal paper as a source for human exposure contributes significantly to the overall internal BPA exposure.

  • 44.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Jonker, Willem
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kool, Jeroen
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway: Screening and potential toxicity2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 601-602, s. 210-221Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the presence and toxicological effects of alternatives other than BPS. In this study, thermal paper is screened by direct probe ambient mass spectrometry (rapid prescreening method not requiring sample preparation) and by liquid chromatography (LC) with high resolution time-of flight (TOF-MS) mass spectrometry. Cash receipts and other thermal paper products (cinema tickets, boarding passes and luggage tags) were analyzed. Besides BPA and BPS, other developers only recently reported (Pergafast 201, D-8) or to the best of our knowledge not reported before (D-90, TGSA, BPS-MAE) were frequently found as well as some related unreported impurities (2,4-BPS that is a BPS related impurity and a TGSA related impurity). To gain some insight into the potential estrogenicity of the detected developers, a selection of extracts was further analyzed using a LC-nanofractionation platformin combination with cell-based bioassay testing. These preliminary results seems to indicate very low or absence of estrogenic activity for Pergafast 201, D-8, D-90, TGSA and BPS-MAE in comparison to BPA and BPS, although further dose-response tests with authentic standards are required to confirm these results. Compounds for which standards were available were also tested for developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. TGSAandD-8 induced similar teratogenic effects as BPAin zebrafish embryos. BPS and 2,4-BPS did not induce any developmental effects but 2,4-BPS did alter the locomotor activity at the tested concentration. Our findings suggest that the alternatives used as alternatives to BPA (except BPS) might not be estrogenic. However, TGSA and D-8 showed abnormal developmental effects similar to BPA.

  • 45.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Romera-García, Encarnación
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Borrull, Josep
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio, Soledad
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Presence of diphenyl phosphate and aryl-phosphate flame retardants inindoor dust from different microenvironments in Spain and the Netherlandsand estimation of human exposure2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, s. 59-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are ubiquitous chemicals in the indoor environment. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) is a major metabolite and a common biomarker of aryl-PFRs. Since it is used as a chemical additive and it is a common impurity of aryl-PFRs as well as a degradation product, its presence in indoor dust as an additional source of exposure should not be easily ruled out. In this study, DPHP (and TPHP) are measured in indoor dust in samples collected in Spain and in the Netherlands (n = 80). Additionally, the presence of other emerging aryl-PFRs was monitored by target screening. TPHP and DPHP were present in all samples in the ranges 169-142,459 ng/g and 106-79,661 ng/g, respectively. DPHP concentrations were strongly correlated to the TPHP levels (r = 0.90, p < 0.01), suggesting that DPHP could be present as degradation product of TPHP or other aryl-PFRs. Estimated exposures for adults and toddlers in Spain to TPHP and DPHP via dust ingestion (country for which the number of samples was higher) were much lower than the estimated reference dose (US EPA) for TPHP. However, other routes of exposure may contribute to the overall internal exposure (diet, dermal contact with dust/consumer products and inhalation of indoor air). The estimated urinary DPHP levels for adults and toddlers in Spain (0.002-0.032 ng/mL) as a result of dust ingestion were low in comparison with the reported levels, indicating a low contribution of this source of contamination to the overall DPHP exposure. Other aryl-PFRs, namely cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EDPHP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP), were all detected in indoor dust, however, with lower frequency.

  • 46.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Challenges in the analytical determination of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and implications for environmental and human health2020Ingår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids have recently gained attention due to increasing environmental concentrations being observed. The most well-known ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acid is trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) which has been studied since the 1990s. Potential sources and the fate of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids other than TFA are not well studied and data reporting their environmental occurrence is scarce. The analytical determination of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids is challenging due to their high polarity resulting in low retention using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Furthermore, recent studies have reported varying extraction recoveries in water samples depending on the water matrix and different methods have been suggested to increase the extraction recovery. The present review gives an overview of the currently used analytical methods and summarizes the findings regarding potential analytical challenges. In addition, the current state of knowledge regarding TFA and other ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, namely perfluoropropanoic acid, trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, perfluoroethane sulfonic acid, and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid‚ are reviewed. Both known and potential sources as well as environmental concentrations are summarized and discussed together with their fate and the environmental and human implications.

  • 47.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P. (Mick)
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environment Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass2012Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 62-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment Development and implementation of policies to achieve this aim require accurate national inventories of releases of PCDD/PCDF/dl-PCB. To support this objective, the Conference of Parties established a process to review and update the UNEP Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. An assessment of all emission inventories was that for many countries open burning of biomass and waste was identified as the major source of PCDD/PCDF releases. However, the experimental data underpinning the release estimates used were limited in number and, consequently, confidence in the accuracy of the emissions predictions was low. There has been significant progress in measurement technology since the last edition of the Toolkit in 2005. In this paper we reassess published emission factors for release of PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB to land and air.

    In total, four types of biomass and 111 emission factors were assessed. It was found that there are no systematic differences in emission factors apparent between biomass types or fire classes. The data set is best described by a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean emission factors (EFs) for releases of PCDD/PCDF to air for the four biomass classes used in the Toolkit (sugarcane, cereal crops, forest and savannah/grass) are 1.6 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 0.49 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 1.0 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1) and 0.4 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), respectively. Corresponding EFs for release of PCDD/PCDF to land are 3.0 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1) and 0.67 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). There are now also sufficient published data available to evaluate EFs for dl-PCB release to air for sugarcane, forest and grass/savannah; these are 0.03 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), 0.09 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1) and 0.01 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), respectively. The average EF for dl-PCB release to land is 0.19 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). Application of these EFs to national emissions of PCDD/PCDF for global estimates from open burning will lower previous estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases to air and to land by 85% and 90%, respectively. For some countries, the ranking of their major sources will be changed and open burning of biomass will become less significant than previously concluded.

  • 48.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P.
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale Vic, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    Office of Research and Development, NRMRL (E343-04), US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Emissions of PCDD and PCDF from combustion of forest fuels and sugarcane: A comparison between field measurements and simulations in a laboratory burn facility2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 10, s. 1331-1338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field experiments vary by several orders of magnitude from <0.51 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1) to >1001 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental methods on the emission factor.

    A portable field sampler was used to measure PCDD/PCDF emissions from forest fires and the same fuel when burnt over a brick hearth to eliminate potential soil effects. A laboratory burn facility was used to sample emissions from the same fuels. There was very good agreement in emission factors to air (EF(Air)) for forest fuel (Duke Forest, NC) of 0.52 (range: 0.40-0.79), 0.59 (range: 0.18-1.2) and 0.75 (range: 0.27-1.2) mu g TEQ(WHO2005) (t fuel consumed)(-1) for the in-field, over a brick hearth, and burn facility experiments, respectively. Similarly, experiments with sugarcane showed very good agreement with EFAir of 1.1 (range: 0.40-2.2), 1.5 (range: 0.84-2.2) and 1.7 (range: 0.34-4.4) mu g TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) for in-field, over a brick hearth, open field and burn facility experiments respectively. Field sampling and laboratory simulations were in good agreement, and no significant changes in emissions of PCDD/PCDF could be attributed to fuel storage and transport to laboratory test facilities.

  • 49.
    Bogdal, C.
    et al.
    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH), Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Zürich, Switzerland; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH), International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abalos, M.
    Laboratory of Dioxins, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDÆA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Scheringer, M.
    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Zürich, Switzerland; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), International Panel on Chemical Pollution, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Worldwide distribution of persistent organic pollutants in air, including results of air monitoring by passive air sampling in five continents2013Ingår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 46, s. 150-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air on a global scale, including recent measurements and an extensive compilation of literature data. In this study, passive air samplers (PASs) were successfully employed to assess concentrations of POPs in ambient air from Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific Islands. The project aimed to extend the knowledge on environmental contamination by POPs in these regions, where the currently available data are still limited to a few monitoring studies.

    The ambient air concentrations of PCB in Africa were relatively high when compared to other regions. Waste, in particular electronic waste, exported to Africa from industrialized countries may be a possible source of PCB in Africa, where PCB have never been extensively used or produced. For DDTs, the wide range of concentrations and particularly high levels in some countries of Africa and the Pacific Islands reflect the use of DDT for malaria control in these regions. For PCDD/PCDF, concentrations in Africa and Latin America are similar to or even higher than in Europe, probably due to unfavorable combustion practices of chlorine-containing materials.

    The data support the needs for further monitoring in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, and action to reduce environmental contamination by, and human exposure to, hazardous chemicals.

  • 50. Borg, O. Anders
    et al.
    Eriksson, Leif A.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Durbeej, Bo
    Electron-transfer induced repair of 6-4 photoproducts in DNA: a computational study.2007Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 111, nr 12, s. 2351-2361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism employed by DNA photolyase to repair 6-4 photoproducts in UV-damaged DNA is explored by means of quantum chemical calculations. Considering the repair of both oxetane and azetidine lesions, it is demonstrated that reduction as well as oxidation enables a reversion reaction by creating anionic or cationic radicals that readily fragment into monomeric pyrimidines. However, on the basis of calculated reaction energies indicating that electron transfer from the enzyme to the lesion is a much more favorable process than electron transfer in the opposite direction, it is suggested that the photoenzymic repair can only occur by way of an anionic mechanism. Furthermore, it is shown that reduction of the oxetane facilitates a mechanism involving cleavage of the C−O bond followed by cleavage of the C−C bond, whereas reductive fragmentation of the azetidine may proceed with either of the intermonomeric C−N and C−C bonds cleaved as the first step. From calculations on neutral azetidine radicals, a significant increase in the free-energy barrier for the initial fragmentation step upon protonation of the carbonylic oxygens is predicted. This effect can be attributed to protonation serving to stabilize reactant complexes more than transition structures.

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