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  • 1.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Dougherty, Mark
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westin, Jerker
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Verification of a Method for Measuring Parkinson’s Disease Related Temporal Irregularity in Spiral Drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

  • 2.
    Callan, Anna
    et al.
    School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.
    Rotander, Anna
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Thompson, Kristie
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Heyworth, Jane
    School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Department of Community Medicine, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hinwood, Andrea
    Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.
    Maternal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids measured in whole blood and birth outcomes in offspring2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569-570, p. 1107-1113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoralkyl and polyfluoralkyl substances have been measured in plasma and serum of pregnant women as a measure of prenatal exposure. Increased concentrations of individual perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), (typically perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been reported to be associated with reductions in birth weight and other birth outcomes. We undertook a study of 14 PFAAs in whole blood (including PFOS, PFHxS, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA) from 98 pregnant women in Western Australia from 2008 to 2011. Median concentrations (in μg/L) were: PFOS 1.99; PFHxS 0.33; PFOA 0.86; PFNA 0.30; PFDA 0.12 and PFUnDA 0.08. Infants born to women with the highest tertile of PFHxS exposure had an increased odds of being < 95% of their optimal birth weight (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1–11.5). Conversely, maternal blood concentrations of PFUnDA were associated with non-significant increases in average birth weight (+ 102 g, 95% CI − 41, 245) and significant increases in proportion of optimal birth weight (+ 4.7%, 95% CI 0.7, 8.8) per ln-unit change. This study has reported a range of PFAAs in the whole blood of pregnant women and suggests that PFHxS and PFUnDA may influence foetal growth and warrant further attention. Additional studies are required to identify the sources of PFAA exposure with a view to prevention, in addition to further studies investigating the long term health effects of these ubiquitous chemicals.

  • 3.
    Castillo, S.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, I.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Miettinen, J.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Data analysis tool for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry2011In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 3058-3067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data processing and identification of unknown compounds in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOFMS) analysis is a major challenge, particularly when large sample sets are analyzed. Herein, we present a method for efficient treatment of large data sets produced by GC x GC/TOFMS implemented as a freely available open source software package, Guineu. To handle large data sets and to efficiently utilize all the features available in the vendor software (baseline correction, mass spectral deconvolution, peak picking, integration, library search, and signal-to-noise filtering), data preprocessed by instrument software are used as a starting point for further processing. Our software affords alignment of the data, normalization, data filtering, and utilization of retention indexes in the verification of identification as well as a novel tool for automated group-type identification of the compounds. Herein, different features of the software are studied in detail and the performance of the system is verified by the analysis of a large set of standard samples as well as of a large set of authentic biological samples, including the control samples. The quantitative features of our GC x GC/TOFMS methodology are also studied to further demonstrate the method performance and the experimental results confirm the reliability of the developed procedure. The methodology has already been successfully used for the analysis of several thousand samples in the field of metabolomics.

  • 4. Devia, L.
    et al.
    Capra, A.
    Mendoza, M.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of PCB in the Mining Sector within the Latin American Region2015In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 77, p. 789-792Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Domingo, JL.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Perelló, G.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds through drinking water, and fish and seafood by the population of Catalonia (Spain)2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 969-972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dillon, L.
    Burgess, J.
    McCullagh, M.
    The implementation of a screening workflow for the ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of PFOS isomers2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, JL.
    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in indoor sources: Levels in house dust and indoor air from Catalonia, Spain2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rasmussen, A.
    Eriksson, U.
    Influence of cooking methods on levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Lake Char (Salvelinus umbla) from Lake Vättern, Sweden2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCullagh, M.
    Burgess, J.
    Dillon, L.
    Hodgkinson, M.
    Determination and characterisation of PFOS in the environment using high definition mass spectrometry2012In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 74, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, A.
    Temporal trends of persistent organochlorine and bromine compounds in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Phoca hispida baltica) from year 1974 to 20152016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

  • 12.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, no 9, p. S96-S108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme, DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Martrat, G.
    van Bavel, B.
    Ericsson, I.
    de Boer, J.
    New POPs in Ambient Air Samples Using Passive Air Samplers2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1533-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K. R.
    Rutgers University, E.O.H.S.I., Piscataway, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in southern Mississippi, USA1997In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 34, no 5-7, p. 1411-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n 1994, we analyzed 43 foodstuff samples from local supermarkets in southern Mississippi, USA, for PCDD/PCDF. 2,3,7,8-Cl4DD could be quantified in 31 of these samples. On a lipid basis, levels in meat (0.53-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) and dairy products (0.42-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) were slightly lower than those reported from other industrialized countries. While levels in dairy samples from the United States and Europe are comparable, there is a difference in the contribution of individual congeners to the I-TEQ: for example, in milk samples from Germany approximately 40% of the I-TEQ is due to the presence of 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF while in the Mississippi samples this congener only contributes 16%. The highest concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in our study were detected in the farm-raised catfish (10.2-27.8 pg I-TEQ/g). A unique finding was that in addition to the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF the catfish samples contained many non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. This is unusual because vertebrate animals selectively eliminate or metabolize the non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners.

  • 15.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    de Boer, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of Results for the 2nd Interlaboratory Study of POPs Laboratories2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 777-780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, B.
    van der Veen, I.
    de Boer, J.
    Results from UNEPs 2nd Global Interlaboratory Assessment: Basic and New POPs2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1497-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department for Environmental Research and Monitoring , Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden .
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparison on atmospheric pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1593-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dunstan, J.
    Ruzzin, J.
    Rémi, RL.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography (APGC) coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the quantitative analysis of pesticides and PCBs regulated by the Stockholm Convention2013In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, A.
    Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 20132016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Guo, Liangqia
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China .
    Liu, Qian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Li, Guoliang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    A mussel-inspired polydopamine coating as a versatile platform for the in situ synthesis of graphene-based nanocomposites2012In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 4, no 19, p. 5864-5867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile and universal approach to prepare graphene-based nanocomposites by in situ nucleation and growth of diverse noble metals, metal oxides and semiconducting nanoparticles on the surface of RGO is proposed.

  • 21.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Li, Y. M.
    Leslie, Heather
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in samples from African countries participating in the United Nations Environment Programme2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 795-798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Haiba, E.
    et al.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Nei, L.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kutti, S.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Lillenberg, M.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Herodes, K.
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Ivask, M.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kipper, K.
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Aro, Rudolf
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Laaniste, A.
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Degradation of diclofenac and triclosan residues in sewage sludge compost2017In: Agronomy Research, ISSN 1406-894X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 395-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land application of sewage sludge compost is an important and efficient tool in the remediation of industrial landscapes and agricultural soils in Estonia. A number of studies have shown that, as a rule, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are neither completely removed by sewage treatment, nor completely degraded in the environment. In this study, degradation rates of diclofenac sodium (DFC) and triclosan (TCS) were determined during sewage sludge composting. Anaerobically digested and dewatered sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust at two different ratios (1:2 and 1:3 sludge/sawdust, v:v). Then aerobic composting was carried out. These ratios were chosen on the basis of previous studies on sewage sludge composting with different bulking agents. The initial concentration of DFC and TCS was 2 mg kg-1 in relation to dry weight (dw). Low quantities of the studied pharmaceuticals were present in sewage sludge that was used for preparing the compost mixtures used in our experiments. The background concentrations of DFC and TCS were never equal to zero. The results showed that the difference between sewage sludge and bulking agent ratios (1:2 vs 1:3) in compost samples did not significantly affect temperature profiles during the experiment. The degradation of pharmaceuticals was more complete in the compost samples where the ratio of bulking agent was higher (1:3 by volume). The average degradation level (in all compost mixtures) was 95% for DFC and 68% for TCS. Pharmaceuticals entering into the soil may affect microbial activity, plant growth and development, and may have adverse effects on living organisms.

  • 23.
    Hartonen, Minna
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Ruskeepää, Anna-Liisa
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1293, p. 142-149, article id S0021-9673(13)00567-0Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was applied in the quantification and identification of organic compounds in patient-matched human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples. Concentrations of 21 amino and hydroxyl acids varied from 0.04 to 77ng/μl in CSF and from 0.1 to 84ng/μl in serum. In total, 91 metabolites out of over 1200 detected were identified based on mass spectra and retention indices. The other metabolites were identified at the functional group level. The main metabolites detected in CSF were sugar and amino acid derivatives. The CSF and serum had clearly distinct metabolic profiles, with larger biological variation in the serum than in CSF. The GC×GC-TOFMS allowed detection and identification of several metabolites that have not been previously detected in CSF.

  • 24.
    Helle, Anne
    et al.
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hirsjärvi, Samuli
    Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Peltonen, Leena
    Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hirvonen, Jouni
    Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wiedmer, Susanne K.
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Quantitative Biology and Bioinformatics, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Novel, dynamic on-line analytical separation system for dissolution of drugs from poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles2010In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for investigating drug release in a dynamic manner from nanoparticles including, but not limited to, biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is reported. The PLA nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Two poorly soluble drugs, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and indomethacin, were encapsulated into PLA nanoparticles, and their dissolution from the nanoparticles were followed in a dynamic way. The on-line method comprised a short column (vessel) packed with the PLA nanoparticles, on-line connected to an analytical liquid chromatographic column via a multiport switching valve equipped with two loops. The system allowed monitoring of the drug release profiles in real time, and the conditions for the drug release could be precisely controlled and easily changed. The effects of solvent composition and temperature on the rate of dissolution of the drugs from the PLA nanoparticles were investigated. The system proved to be linear for the drugs tested over the concentration range 10-3000 ng (n = 6, R(2) = 0.999 and 0.997 for indomethacin and beclomethasone, respectively) and repeatable (RSD of peak areas <0.5%). The recoveries of the dissolution study were quantitative (120 and 103% for indomethacin and beclomethasone, respectively).

  • 25.
    Henriksson, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Environmental Staff, Arvika, Sweden.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Uptake and bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in earthworms after in situ and in vitro exposure to soil from a contaminated sawmill site2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 580, p. 564-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uptake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was studied in earthworms collected from a sawmill site in Sweden with severe PCDD/Fs contamination (the hot spot concentration was 690,000 ng TEQWHO2005/kg d.w.) in order to investigate the transfer of PCDD/Fs from the site to the biota. PCDD/Fs concentrations in the collected earthworms were compared to PCDD/Fs concentrations in laboratory exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida), which were exposed to contaminated soils from the sawmill site for 34 days. All analyses were performed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCDD/Fs concentrations in the earthworms ranged from 290 to 520,000 pg/g (f.w.). The main congeners found in both soils and earthworms were OCDF, 1234678-HpCDF, OCDD and 1234678-HpCDD. The study showed that the PCDD/Fs in the soil were biovailable to the earthworms and the PCDD/Fs concentrations in the soils correlated with the concentrations in the earthworms. Earthworm samples from soil with lower concentration had higher bioaccumulation factors than samples from soils with high concentration of contamination. Thus, a less contaminated soil could yield higher concentrations in earthworms compared to a higher contaminated soil. Assuming that when assessing risks with PCDD/F contaminated soil, a combination of chemical analysis of soil PCDD/Fs concentrations and bioavailability should be employed for a more comprehensive risk assessment.

  • 26.
    Hyysalo, Jenni
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Bian, Hua
    Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Leivonen, Marja
    Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Vantaa, Finland.
    Jaser, Nabil
    Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Vantaa, Finland.
    Juuti, Anne
    Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Vantaa, Finland.
    Honka, Miikka-Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Nuutila, Pirjo
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Olkkonen, Vesa M.
    Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele
    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Circulating triacylglycerol signatures in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with the I148M variant in PNPLA3 and with obesity2014In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 312-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether relative concentrations of circulating triacylglycerols (TAGs) between carriers compared with noncarriers of PNPLA3(I148M) gene variant display deficiency of TAGs, which accumulate in the liver because of defective lipase activity. We also analyzed the effects of obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of genotype, and of NAFLD due to either PNPLA3(I148M) gene variant or obesity on circulating TAGs. A total of 372 subjects were divided into groups based on PNPLA3 genotype or obesity. Absolute and relative deficiency of distinct circulating TAGs was observed in the PNPLA3(148MM/148MI) compared with the PNPLA3(148II) group. Obese and 'nonobese' groups had similar PNPLA3 genotypes, but the obese subjects were insulin-resistant. Liver fat was similarly increased in obese and PNPLA3(148MM/148MI) groups. Relative concentrations of TAGs in the obese subjects versus nonobese displayed multiple changes. These closely resembled those between obese subjects with NAFLD but without PNPLA3(I148M) versus those with the I148M variant and NAFLD. The etiology of NAFLD influences circulating TAG profiles. 'PNPLA3 NAFLD' is associated with a relative deficiency of TAGs, supporting the idea that the I148M variant impedes intrahepatocellular lipolysis rather than stimulates TAG synthesis. 'Obese NAFLD' is associated with multiple changes in TAGs, which can be attributed to obesity/insulin resistance rather than increased liver fat content per se.

  • 27.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Analytical methodologies utilized in the search for chronic disease biomarkers2010In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 919-923Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Novel methodologies in metabolic profiling with a focus on molecular diagnostic applications2012In: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, ISSN 1473-7159, E-ISSN 1744-8352, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 527-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metabolome contains all the biological end points of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic perturbations, also including the influence of gut microbiota and the environment, giving a direct picture of an organism's ongoing metabolic state. Metabolomics thus has the potential to be an effective tool for early diagnosis of disease, and also to be a predictor of treatment response and survival. In recent years, the development of instrumental systems has enabled more comprehensive coverage of the metabolome. Advances in mass spectrometry and chromatography have particularly improved both the efficiency of nontargeted metabolic profiling as well as the sensitivity and reliability of targeted analyses. Mass spectrometric techniques are also increasingly becoming accepted as a routine diagnostic tool in clinical laboratories. This review summarizes the most recent advances and current challenges in metabolomics, with a focus on mass spectrometric methods utilized in biomarker research, highlighted with selected examples.

  • 29.
    Jin, Rong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Guorui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, Minghui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jiang, Xiaoxu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Lili
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Xiaolin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Congener-specific determination of ultratrace levels of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere and industrial stack gas by isotopic dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1509, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable determination of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH homologs comprising congeners with the same molecular skeleton and chlorine or bromine substitution numbers. Among the detected congeners, seven Cl-PAH congeners and thirteen Br-PAH congeners that were abundant in the atmosphere and stack gases released from waste incinerators were firstly detected in real samples and reported using the established isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method. The developed isotopic dilution GC/HRMS is significant and needed for better studying the environmental behavior and health risk of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs.

  • 30.
    Jäntti, Sirkku E.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hartonen, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hilvo, Mika
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Nygren, Heli
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Ketola, Raimo A.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Hjelt Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kostiainen, Risto
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Steroid and steroid glucuronide profiles in urine during pregnancy determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 802, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of steroids and their glucuronides in urine samples. The method provides high sensitivity and fast analysis, as both steroids and their glucuronides can be analyzed directly without hydrolysis or complex sample preparation. The method was applied in profiling of targeted and nontargeted steroids and steroid glucuronides during pregnancy. The concentrations of 11 of 27 targeted steroids and steroid glucuronides and the concentrations of 25 nontargeted steroid glucuronides increased about 10-400 fold during the pregnancy. The concentrations of most of these 36 compounds began to increase in the first days of the pregnancy, increased gradually during the pregnancy, achieved a maximum in late pregnancy, and decreased sharply after delivery. Exceptionally, the concentrations of allopregnanolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone started to increase later than those of the other steroids. Moreover, the concentrations of E2 glucuronides began to decrease one week before the delivery, in contrast to most of the steroids and steroid glucuronides, whose concentrations dropped sharply during the delivery. Concentrations of 34 compounds decreased noticeably when the subject was on sick leave owing a series of painful contractions. The results suggest that steroids and especially steroid glucuronides may provide a valuable diagnostic tool to follow the course of pregnancy.

  • 31.
    Jäntti, Sirkku E.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivilompolo, Maarit
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Öhrnberg, Leena
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; FIMM, Institute for Molecular Medicine University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nygren, Heli
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Quantitative profiling of bile acids in blood, adipose tissue, intestine, and gall bladder samples using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2014In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 406, no 30, p. 7799-7815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 33 target and 28 unknown bile acids (BAs) in biological samples. Sixty-one BAs could be measured in 20 min using only a small amount of sample and with a simple sample preparation. The method proved to be very sensitive (limit of detection 5-350 pg/mL, lower limit of quantitation 0.1-2.6 ng/mL), linear (R(2) > 0.99) and reproducible (typically CV <15 % in biological matrixes). The method was used to analyze human adipose tissue, plasma, and serum (from same subjects) and mouse serum, gall bladder, small intestine, and colon samples (from same animals). Cholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and their conjugates (mainly glycine, but also taurine conjugates) were the main metabolites in human samples, and cholic acid, glycine cholic acid, and several taurine conjugates in mouse samples. Using the method, 28 unknown BAs could also be detected. UHPLC-MS/MS spectra, accurate mass, and tissue distribution suggested that nine of the unknown bile acids were taurine conjugates, 13 were glycine conjugates, and six were intact BAs, respectively. To our knowledge, this was the first time BAs were detected in adipose tissue. Results showed that 17 targeted BAs were found at ng/g level in human adipose tissue. Our findings give a novel insight of the endogenous role of BAs in adipose tissue and their role as biomarkers (e.g., in metabolic diseases).

  • 32.
    Jørgenrud, Benedicte
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Jäntti, Sirkku
    Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Pöhö, Päivi
    Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rønningen, Kjersti S.
    Department of Pediatric Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele
    Division of Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    The influence of sample collection methodology and sample preprocessing on the blood metabolic profile.2015In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 991-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Blood serum and plasma have intrinsic differences in their composition and the preprocessing, such as clotting temperature in serum, and storage at room temperature may have further effect on metabolite concentrations.

    METHODS: The influence of sampling preprocessing on the metabolic profiles in serum and different types of plasma was investigated using liquid chromatography and comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer.

    RESULTS: The profiles of polar metabolites were significantly dependent on the type of the sample, while lipid profiles were similar in serum and different types of plasma. Extended storage of plasma at room temperature resulted in degradation of lipids already after 1 day. Serum clotting at room temperature generally resulted in higher metabolite concentration compared with serum clotting on ice.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) with Micro Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP AES) – Comparison with ICP-MS2014In: Annual International Mine Water Association Conference: An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges / [ed] Sui Wanghua,Sun Yajunand Wang Changshen, Xuzhou: China University of Mining and Technology Press , 2014, p. 131-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dissolved metals in acid rock drainage (ARD) with an Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument that combines a nitrogen micro plasma with atomic emission detection (MP AES) was compared with an ICP-MS. Sample preparation consisted only of filtration, acidification (HNO3 1%) and addition of internal standard elements after appropriate dilution. In these complex matrices the systems gave identical results provided that care was taken to avoid ionization. This was easily done by addition of CsNO3 which eliminated the need for matrix matching of calibration solutions. The use of internal standards is only needed for elements with known spectral interferences.

  • 34. Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    Grund, Stefanie
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kammann, Ulrike
    Klempt, Martin
    Manz, Werner
    Olsman Takner, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Hollert, Henner
    Activities and identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in sediments from the Danube river2008In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 390, no 8, p. 2009-2019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a consequence of a distinct fish decline in the Danube river since the beginning of the 1990s. In contrast to the decline of fish population, former studies have repeatedly documented that the water quality along the Danube river is improving. However, the conclusion of a pilot study in 2002 was that a high hazard potential is associated with local sediments. The present study documents that sediment samples from the Danube river showed comparatively high aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activity in biotests, using the cell lines GPC.2D.Luc, H4IIE (DR-CALUX®) and RTL-W1. The combination of chemical analysis, fractionation techniques and different in vitro tests revealed that priority pollutants could not explain the main induction, even though the concentrations of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were very high (maximum in the tributary Schwarzach, sum of 16 EPA PAHs 26 μg/g). In conclusion, this investigation shows that nonpriority pollutants mainly mediate the high induction rates. Nevertheless, owing to the effects of PAHs towards fish and the connection between dioxin-like activity and carcinogenicity, the link between contamination and the fish population decline cannot be ruled out.

  • 35.
    Kivilompolo, Marit
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Öhrnberg, Leena
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Rapid quantitative analysis of carnitine and acylcarnitines by ultra-high performance-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1292, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    L-Carnitine and its acyl esters (acylcarnitines) play an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids. However, most of the present methods for the quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines have restrictions both in sample preparation and in chromatographic separation. Herein we present a validated method for determination of carnitine and eleven acylcarnitines in human serum and rat tissue biopsies by using ultra-high performance-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHP-HILIC-MS/MS). The procedure uses minimal sample preparation including only addition of organic solvent, labeled internal standard, incubation and centrifugation. The separation is performed without derivatization or addition of ion-pairing reagent within 7 min on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic column with mass spectrometric detection. The method is linear in response over the concentration range from 20 to 600 ng/ml for carnitine and acetylcarnitine and 5-200 ng/ml for the other acylcarnitines, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.994. Recoveries were higher than 88% for most of the compounds. Limits of detection were 5 ng/ml for carnitine and acetylcarnitine and approximately 0.5 ng/ml for other acylcarnitines. The method was applied to the analysis of serum and tissue samples.

  • 36.
    Kvist, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Detection of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been documented worldwide in different environmental samples including humans. In Sweden, severe PFAS contamination in drinking water has resulted in elevated blood PFAS concentrations in residents living in contaminated areas. In many cases, the use of aqueous film forming-foams (AFFFs) at both civil and military airports has resulted in this contamination, as PFASs are one of the active ingredients in AFFFs. According to a nationwide survey, it was estimated that 30 % of the Swedish population has their closest drinking water source contaminated with these substances. A guideline value for safe use of drinking water set by the Swedish Food Agencyis the sum of eleven PFASs including perfluoroalkylated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8), perfluoroalkylated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C10) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate.This is set to 90 ng/L, while the health based limit, based on the tolerable daily intake,is set to 900 ng/L. In the US, Barzen-Hansen et al.showed the presence of ultra-short chain PFASs, perfluoropropanesulfonate (PFPrS) and perfluoroethanesulfonate (PFEtS), in five AFFFs. In ground water samples from eleven US military bases, PFEtS was detected in eight out of eleven samples ranging from 11-7500 ng/L, while PFPrS was detected in all samples, ranging from 19-63000 ng/L). Conventional reversed-phase LC using C18 column is not suitable to chromatograph these ultra-short chain PFAS, because they are highly polar; ion-exchange column has been demonstrated useful for separating these ultra-short chain PFAS. In this study a new analytical approach employing supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was developed for chromatographic separation of these ultra-short chain PFASs. Environmental water samples (surface water, ground water, rain water, snow and sediment) from various locations with suspected PFAS contamination were analyzed to investigate the potential occurrence of these ultra-short chain compounds in the Swedish environment. Solid phase extraction according to ISO method was used to concentrate water samples prior to instrumental analyses using both UPLC-MS/MS and UPC2-MS/MS.

    Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples from Sweden using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed,the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 390 μg/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in 24 out of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07-5 680 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport.

  • 37.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Davies, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Holsen, A H.
    Laugesen, J.
    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in effluents from hazardous waste treatment facilities2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Kärrman, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Parera, J
    Abalos, M
    Van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Abad, E
    Assessing and controlling sample contamination: analytical techniques for scientists2012In: Comprehensive sampling and sample preparation / [ed] Janusz Pawliszyn, Oxford UK: Elsevier, 2012, 1, p. 51-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39. Lal, V.
    et al.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Aalbersberg, W.
    Raju, R.
    Malisch, R.
    de Boer, J.
    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants: trends and levels in human milk from Fiji2012In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 74, p. 1292-1295Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Lal, V.V.
    et al.
    Aalbersberg, W.G.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    de Boer, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    POPs in developing countries: human milk analysis at Pacific reference laboratory in Fiji Islands2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 789-791Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lindström, Gunilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Accuracy and precision in the determination of perfluorinated chemicals in human blood verified by interlaboratory comparisons2009In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1216, no 3, p. 394-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated chemicals, PFCs, are analyzed in laboratories worldwide to determine human blood levels and exposure pathways. The development of the  nalytical echnique has been rapid in the last ten years, and prerequisites for accurate and precise determination of PFCs in human blood at low ng/g concentrations are today readily available. The main contributing factors are the improved LC-MS instrumentations, the increased availability of native and mass labeled PFC standards, and new column materials available for chromatographic separations. The results of the first international interlaboratory study (ILS) in 2005 on PFCs revealed relatively better analytical results for human blood analyses when compared to analyses of a number of environmental matrices. The representative accuracy for the analyses of PFCs in human matrixes reported in recent years was established in the second human serum ILS in 2006. Interlaboratory standard deviations for the two human serum samples one low level concentration and one medium level concentration were found to be 12% and 16% for PFOS, respectively, and 47% and 21% for PFOA, respectively. Reported detections for all PFCs followed a frequency of PFOS>PFOA>PFHxS>PFNA>PFDA>>PFDoA>> PFDS>>PFHxA. Due to the small number of reported values for the other perfluorosulfonates and perfluorocarboxylates, standard deviations were not established.

     

  • 42.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Cheng, Mengting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Long, Yanmin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Yu, Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Graphenized pencil lead fiber: facile preparation and application in solid-phase microextraction2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1325, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphenized pencil lead fiber was facilely prepared by in situ chemical exfoliation of graphite in pencil lead fiber to few-layered graphene sheets via a one-pot, one-step pressurized oxidation reaction for the first time. This new fiber was characterized and demonstrated to be a highly efficient but low-cost solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The extraction performance of the fiber was evaluated with four bisphenol analogs [bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] as model analytes in direct SPME mode. Unlike commercially available fibers, the graphenized pencil lead fiber showed an excellent chemical stability in highly saline, acidic, alkaline and organic conditions due to its coating-free configuration. The fiber also showed a very long lifespan. Furthermore, high extraction efficiency and good selectivity for the analytes with a wide polarity range could be obtained due to the exceptional properties of graphene. The detection limits (LODs) for the analytes were in the range of 1.1-25ng/L. The fiber was successfully applied in the analysis of tap water and effluent samples from a waste water treatment plant with spike recoveries ranging from 68.5 to 105.1%. Therefore, the graphenized pencil lead fiber provides a high performance, cheap, robust, and reliable tool for SPME.

  • 43.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Sun, Jianteng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Zeng, Lixi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Graphene and graphene oxide sheets supported on silica as versatile and high-performance adsorbents for solid-phase extraction2011In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 50, no 26, p. 5913-5917Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Jianteng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zeng, Lixi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhu, Nali
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Graphene-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated and hydroxylated analogs from environmental samples2011In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 708, no 1-2, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we developed a novel graphene-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (GA-MSPD) method for extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their methoxylated (MeO-) and hydroxylated (OH-) analogs from environmental samples. We found that grinding the solid sample with chemically converted graphene (CCG) powder yielded a tight contact and sufficient dispersion of the sample matrix due to the large surface area and flexible nanosheet morphology of CCG. The resultant blend was eluted using a two-step elution strategy: PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were eluted firstly by hexane/dichloromethane and analyzed by GC-ECD, and then OH-PBDEs were eluted by acetone and determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The GA-MSPD conditions were optimized in detail. Better recoveries were obtained with GA-MSPD than with other sorbents (C18 silica, Florisil and carbon nanotubes) and other extraction techniques (Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extraction). Other advantages of GA-MSPD, including reduced consumption of sorbent and solvent, good selectivity and short extraction time, were also demonstrated. In analysis of soil samples, the method detection limits of five PBDEs, ten MeO-PBDEs and ten OH-PBDEs were in the range of 5.9-28.7, 14.3-46.6, and 5.3-212.6 pg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and OH-PBDEs from different kinds of spiked environmental samples, including soil, tree bark and fish.

  • 45.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Guo, Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Lihong
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Hemimicelles/admicelles supported on magnetic graphene sheets for enhanced magnetic solid-phase extraction2012In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1257, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, superparamagnetic nanoparticle-decorated graphene (MG) sheets were synthesized and used as support for hemimicelles/admicelles for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of different compounds from environmental water samples for the first time. The MG sheets were facilely synthesized by a one-step, one-pot redox reaction between graphene oxide and Fe(II). Due to the large surface area and unique nanosheet morphology, MG served as an excellent nano-scaled support material for hemimicelles and admicelles, exhibiting higher loading capacity than conventional materials and pure Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles. The MG sheets could be negatively or positively charged depending on solution pH, allowing the extraction to be conducted in different modes. In cationic mode, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as micelle-forming reagent, and perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and alkylphenols were used as model analytes. In anionic mode, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as micelle-forming reagent and alkyltrimethylammonium salts were selected as analytes. In both modes, the formation processes of hemimicelles/admicelles on MG sheets were studied and the extraction conditions were optimized. For PFASs, the analytical sensitivity was enhanced by 50-113-fold by the extraction, and the method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.15 to 0.50 ng/L. For alkyltrimethylammonium salts, the MDLs were in the range of 1.4-8.0 ng/L. In both modes, good recoveries (56.3-93.9%) and reproducibility (run-to-run RSDs<9.3%) were obtained. The results from this work show a potential new role of graphene in analytical sample preparation.

  • 46.
    Liu, Qian
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zeng, Lixi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Cai, Yaqi
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Evaluation of graphene as an advantageous adsorbent for solid-phase extraction with chlorophenols as model analytes2011In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1218, no 2, p. 197-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene, a novel class of carbon nanostructures, possesses an ultrahigh specific surface area, and thus has great potentials for the use as sorbent materials. We herein demonstrate the use of graphene as a novel adsorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). Eight chlorophenols (CPs) as model analytes were extracted on a graphene-packed SPE cartridge, and then eluted with alkaline methanol. The concentrations in the eluate were determined by HPLC with multi-wavelength UV detection. Under the optimized conditions, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.1-0.4 ng/mL) and good reproducibility of CPs (RSDs 2.2-7.7% for run-to-run assays) were achieved. Comparative studies showed that graphene was superior to other adsorbents including C18 silica, graphitic carbon, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the extraction of CPs. Some other advantages of graphene as SPE adsorbent, such as good compatibility with various organic solvents, good reusability and no impact of sorbent drying, have also been demonstrated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of tap and river water samples with recoveries ranging from 77.2 to 116.6%. This work not only proposes a useful method for environmental water sample pretreatment, but also reveals great potentials of graphene as an excellent sorbent material in analytical processes.

  • 47.
    Liu, Runzeng
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Song, Shanjun
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Guo, Feng
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Determination of nine benzotriazole UV stabilizers in environmental water samples by automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2014In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 120, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method using automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled with a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system was developed for the determination of emerging benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BZTs) in different environmental water matrices including river water, sewage influent and effluent. Water sample was injected directly and the analytes were preconcentrated on a Polar Advantage II on-line SPE cartridge. After cleanup step the target BZTs were eluted in back flush mode and then separated on a liquid chromatography column. Experimental parameters such as sample loading flow rate, SPE cartridge, pH value and methanol ratio in the sample were optimized in detail. The method detection limits ranged from 0.21 to 2.17 ng/L. Recoveries of the target BZTs at 50 ng/L spiking level ranged from 76% to 114% and the inter-day RSDs ranged from 1% to 15%. The optimized method was successfully applied to analyze twelve water samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants and rivers, and five BZTs (UV-P, UV-329, UV-350, UV-234 and UV-328) were detected with concentrations up to 37.1 ng/L. The proposed method is simple, sensitive and suitable for simultaneous analysis and monitoring of BZTs in water samples.

  • 48.
    Liu, Runzeng
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ruan, Ting
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Song, Shanjun
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Miao
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gao, Yan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Shao, Junjuan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Trace analysis of mono-, di-, tri-substituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates and perfluorinated phosphonic acids in sewage sludge by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 111, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method using ultrasonic extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up pretreatments was developed for the analysis of mono-, di- and tri-substituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (abbreviated as mono-PAPs, di-PAPs and tri-PAPs) and perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the ultrasonic extraction of three mono-PAPs, three di-PAPs and three PFPAs in sludge samples, a mixture of tetrahydrofuran/acetic acid (1:1, v/v) was found to be the most suitable extraction solvent. The subsequently optimized clean-up and enrichment procedures were carried out with weak anion exchange (WAX) cartridges in-line coupled with graphitized carbon black (ENVI-Carb) tubes. Two tri-PAPs were ultrasonically extracted by acetonitrile/tetrahydrofuran (1:1, v/v) and cleaned by mixed-mode anion exchange (MAX) in-line coupled with ENVI-Carb cartridges. The analytes were analyzed by optimized high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method either in negative or positive ionization mode. The method quantification limits (MQLs) of the 11 analytes in sludge ranged from 0.6 to 5.1 ng/g, meanwhile the total recoveries of the pretreatment varied from 24% (6:2 mono-PAP) to 107% (PFDPA). The method was successfully applied to analyze 16 sewage sludge samples collected from seven provinces in China, and two mono-PAPs were identified with concentrations ranging from <MQLs to 10.7 ng/g.

  • 49.
    Lundstedt, S.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bandowe, B. A. M.
    Geographic Institute, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Wilcke, W.
    Geographic Institute, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
    Boll, E.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Fredriksberg C, Denmark.
    Christensen, J. H.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Fredriksberg C, Denmark.
    Vila, J.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Grifoll, M.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Faure, P.
    Le Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
    Biache, C.
    Le Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
    Lorgeoux, C.
    Le Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Irgum, K. Frech
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, P.
    ALS Scandinavia, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ricci, M.
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel, Belgium.
    First intercomparison study on the analysis of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) in contaminated soil2014In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 57, p. 83-92Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PACs) are toxic, highly leachable and often abundant at sites that are also contaminated with PAHs. However, due to lack of regulations and standardized methods for their analysis, they are seldom included in monitoring and risk-assessment programs. This intercomparison study constitutes an important step in the harmonization of the analytical methods currently used, and may also be considered a first step towards the certification of reference materials for these compounds. The results showed that the participants were able to determine oxy-PAHs with accuracy similar to PAHs, with average determined mass fractions agreeing well with the known levels in a spiked soil and acceptable inter- and intra-laboratory precisions for all soils analyzed. For the N-PACs, the results were less satisfactory, and have to be improved by using analytical methods more specifically optimized for these compounds.

  • 50. Malisch, R.
    et al.
    Denison, M.S.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fuerst, P.
    Hoogenboom, R.
    Schaechtele, A.
    Schrenk, D.
    Do PCDD/PCDF standard solutions used in bioassay- or mass spectrometry based dioxin analysis pose a risk as potentially acutely toxic to lab personnel?2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 824-825Article in journal (Refereed)
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