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  • 1.
    Aghanavesi, Somayeh
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Memedi, Mevludin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Dougherty, Mark
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Nyholm, Dag
    Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westin, Jerker
    School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Verification of a Method for Measuring Parkinson’s Disease Related Temporal Irregularity in Spiral Drawings2017In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 10, article id 2341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain. There is a need for frequent symptom assessment, since the treatment needs to be individualized as the disease progresses. The aim of this paper was to verify and further investigate the clinimetric properties of an entropy-based method for measuring PD-related upper limb temporal irregularities during spiral drawing tasks. More specifically, properties of a temporal irregularity score (TIS) for patients at different stages of PD, and medication time points were investigated. Nineteen PD patients and 22 healthy controls performed repeated spiral drawing tasks on a smartphone. Patients performed the tests before a single levodopa dose and at specific time intervals after the dose was given. Three movement disorder specialists rated videos of the patients based on the unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia scale. Differences in mean TIS between the groups of patients and healthy subjects were assessed. Test-retest reliability of the TIS was measured. The ability of TIS to detect changes from baseline (before medication) to later time points was investigated. Correlations between TIS and clinical rating scores were assessed. The mean TIS was significantly different between healthy subjects and patients in advanced groups (p-value = 0.02). Test-retest reliability of TIS was good with Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of 0.81. When assessing changes in relation to treatment, TIS contained some information to capture changes from Off to On and wearing off effects. However, the correlations between TIS and clinical scores (UPDRS and Dyskinesia) were weak. TIS was able to differentiate spiral drawings drawn by patients in an advanced stage from those drawn by healthy subjects, and TIS had good test-retest reliability. TIS was somewhat responsive to single-dose levodopa treatment. Since TIS is an upper limb high-frequency-based measure, it cannot be detected during clinical assessment.

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  • 2.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Dept. Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Dept. Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Dept. Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bisphenol A and replacements in thermal paper: A review2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 182, p. 691-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), which is used as a color developer. BPA has been reported in thermal paper in concentrations up to 42,600 Kg g(-1). The exposure to BPA via dermal transfer has been recently discussed as a significant contribution to the overall human exposure and the estimated daily intake (EDI) has been reported up to 218 mu g d(-1). BPA has been also detected in recycled paper with concentrations up to 46 n g(-1). Due to the fact that BPA is a known endocrine disruptor and migrates from materials, regulatory restrictions have been established to prevent risks for the human health. As a consequence, structural analogues, such as bisphenol S (BPS) have been introduced into the market. Little is known about the presence and toxicity of these emerging replacements, and concern has risen about them. The present review gives an overview of the occurrence and levels of BPA and replacements in thermal paper. BPA is still the most common color developer found in thermal paper, followed by BPS. The analytical methods used for quantification of BPA and BPA replacements in paper products are also reviewed. BPA is transferred from thermal paper products to the finger pads upon handling it. Paper-skin transfer followed by penetration of BPA depends on conditions (e.g. greasiness of fingers and use of hand cream). It is, however, still debated whether thermal paper as a source for human exposure contributes significantly to the overall internal BPA exposure.

  • 3.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Jonker, Willem
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kool, Jeroen
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway: Screening and potential toxicity2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 601-602, p. 210-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the presence and toxicological effects of alternatives other than BPS. In this study, thermal paper is screened by direct probe ambient mass spectrometry (rapid prescreening method not requiring sample preparation) and by liquid chromatography (LC) with high resolution time-of flight (TOF-MS) mass spectrometry. Cash receipts and other thermal paper products (cinema tickets, boarding passes and luggage tags) were analyzed. Besides BPA and BPS, other developers only recently reported (Pergafast 201, D-8) or to the best of our knowledge not reported before (D-90, TGSA, BPS-MAE) were frequently found as well as some related unreported impurities (2,4-BPS that is a BPS related impurity and a TGSA related impurity). To gain some insight into the potential estrogenicity of the detected developers, a selection of extracts was further analyzed using a LC-nanofractionation platformin combination with cell-based bioassay testing. These preliminary results seems to indicate very low or absence of estrogenic activity for Pergafast 201, D-8, D-90, TGSA and BPS-MAE in comparison to BPA and BPS, although further dose-response tests with authentic standards are required to confirm these results. Compounds for which standards were available were also tested for developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. TGSAandD-8 induced similar teratogenic effects as BPAin zebrafish embryos. BPS and 2,4-BPS did not induce any developmental effects but 2,4-BPS did alter the locomotor activity at the tested concentration. Our findings suggest that the alternatives used as alternatives to BPA (except BPS) might not be estrogenic. However, TGSA and D-8 showed abnormal developmental effects similar to BPA.

  • 4.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Romera-García, Encarnación
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Borrull, Josep
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Jacob
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio, Soledad
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Spain.
    Presence of diphenyl phosphate and aryl-phosphate flame retardants inindoor dust from different microenvironments in Spain and the Netherlandsand estimation of human exposure2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are ubiquitous chemicals in the indoor environment. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) is a major metabolite and a common biomarker of aryl-PFRs. Since it is used as a chemical additive and it is a common impurity of aryl-PFRs as well as a degradation product, its presence in indoor dust as an additional source of exposure should not be easily ruled out. In this study, DPHP (and TPHP) are measured in indoor dust in samples collected in Spain and in the Netherlands (n = 80). Additionally, the presence of other emerging aryl-PFRs was monitored by target screening. TPHP and DPHP were present in all samples in the ranges 169-142,459 ng/g and 106-79,661 ng/g, respectively. DPHP concentrations were strongly correlated to the TPHP levels (r = 0.90, p < 0.01), suggesting that DPHP could be present as degradation product of TPHP or other aryl-PFRs. Estimated exposures for adults and toddlers in Spain to TPHP and DPHP via dust ingestion (country for which the number of samples was higher) were much lower than the estimated reference dose (US EPA) for TPHP. However, other routes of exposure may contribute to the overall internal exposure (diet, dermal contact with dust/consumer products and inhalation of indoor air). The estimated urinary DPHP levels for adults and toddlers in Spain (0.002-0.032 ng/mL) as a result of dust ingestion were low in comparison with the reported levels, indicating a low contribution of this source of contamination to the overall DPHP exposure. Other aryl-PFRs, namely cresyl diphenyl phosphate (CDP), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EDPHP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP), were all detected in indoor dust, however, with lower frequency.

  • 5.
    Björnsdotter, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Challenges in the analytical determination of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and implications for environmental and human health2020In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids have recently gained attention due to increasing environmental concentrations being observed. The most well-known ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acid is trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) which has been studied since the 1990s. Potential sources and the fate of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids other than TFA are not well studied and data reporting their environmental occurrence is scarce. The analytical determination of ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids is challenging due to their high polarity resulting in low retention using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Furthermore, recent studies have reported varying extraction recoveries in water samples depending on the water matrix and different methods have been suggested to increase the extraction recovery. The present review gives an overview of the currently used analytical methods and summarizes the findings regarding potential analytical challenges. In addition, the current state of knowledge regarding TFA and other ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, namely perfluoropropanoic acid, trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, perfluoroethane sulfonic acid, and perfluoropropane sulfonic acid‚ are reviewed. Both known and potential sources as well as environmental concentrations are summarized and discussed together with their fate and the environmental and human implications.

  • 6.
    Callan, Anna
    et al.
    School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.
    Rotander, Anna
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Thompson, Kristie
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Heyworth, Jane
    School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Department of Community Medicine, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hinwood, Andrea
    Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia.
    Maternal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids measured in whole blood and birth outcomes in offspring2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569-570, p. 1107-1113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoralkyl and polyfluoralkyl substances have been measured in plasma and serum of pregnant women as a measure of prenatal exposure. Increased concentrations of individual perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), (typically perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been reported to be associated with reductions in birth weight and other birth outcomes. We undertook a study of 14 PFAAs in whole blood (including PFOS, PFHxS, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA and PFUnDA) from 98 pregnant women in Western Australia from 2008 to 2011. Median concentrations (in μg/L) were: PFOS 1.99; PFHxS 0.33; PFOA 0.86; PFNA 0.30; PFDA 0.12 and PFUnDA 0.08. Infants born to women with the highest tertile of PFHxS exposure had an increased odds of being < 95% of their optimal birth weight (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1–11.5). Conversely, maternal blood concentrations of PFUnDA were associated with non-significant increases in average birth weight (+ 102 g, 95% CI − 41, 245) and significant increases in proportion of optimal birth weight (+ 4.7%, 95% CI 0.7, 8.8) per ln-unit change. This study has reported a range of PFAAs in the whole blood of pregnant women and suggests that PFHxS and PFUnDA may influence foetal growth and warrant further attention. Additional studies are required to identify the sources of PFAA exposure with a view to prevention, in addition to further studies investigating the long term health effects of these ubiquitous chemicals.

  • 7.
    Castillo, S.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, I.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Miettinen, J.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Data analysis tool for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry2011In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 3058-3067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data processing and identification of unknown compounds in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOFMS) analysis is a major challenge, particularly when large sample sets are analyzed. Herein, we present a method for efficient treatment of large data sets produced by GC x GC/TOFMS implemented as a freely available open source software package, Guineu. To handle large data sets and to efficiently utilize all the features available in the vendor software (baseline correction, mass spectral deconvolution, peak picking, integration, library search, and signal-to-noise filtering), data preprocessed by instrument software are used as a starting point for further processing. Our software affords alignment of the data, normalization, data filtering, and utilization of retention indexes in the verification of identification as well as a novel tool for automated group-type identification of the compounds. Herein, different features of the software are studied in detail and the performance of the system is verified by the analysis of a large set of standard samples as well as of a large set of authentic biological samples, including the control samples. The quantitative features of our GC x GC/TOFMS methodology are also studied to further demonstrate the method performance and the experimental results confirm the reliability of the developed procedure. The methodology has already been successfully used for the analysis of several thousand samples in the field of metabolomics.

  • 8. Devia, L.
    et al.
    Capra, A.
    Mendoza, M.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of PCB in the Mining Sector within the Latin American Region2015In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 77, p. 789-792Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Domingo, JL.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Perelló, G.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Exposure to perfluorinated compounds through drinking water, and fish and seafood by the population of Catalonia (Spain)2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 969-972Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dubocq, Florian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Characterization of the Chemical Contents of Fluorinated and Fluorine-Free Firefighting Foams Using a Novel Workflow Combining Nontarget Screening and Total Fluorine Analysis2020In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) are widely used to extinguish liquid fires due to their film-forming properties. AFFF formulation historically contains per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) that can be very persistent and pose a health risk to biota and humans. Detailed analysis of the chemical composition of AFFFs can provide a better understanding on the potential environmental impact of the ingredients. In this study, a novel workflow combining target analysis, nontarget screening analysis (NTA), total fluorine (TF) analysis, and inorganic fluoride (IF) analysis was applied to disclose the chemical composition of 24 foams intended for liquid fires. Foams marketed as containing PFASs as well as fluorine-free foams were included. By comparing the sum of targeted PFASs and total organofluorine concentrations, a mass balance of known and unknown organofluorine could be calculated. Known organofluorine accounted for <1% in most fluorine-containing AFFFs, and it was confirmed that the foams marketed as fluorine-free did not contain measurable amounts of organofluorine substances. Five fluorinated substances were tentatively identified, and non-fluorinated zwitterionic betaine compounds, which are considered to be replacement substances for PFASs, were tentatively identified in the organofluorine-free foams.

  • 11.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dillon, L.
    Burgess, J.
    McCullagh, M.
    The implementation of a screening workflow for the ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of PFOS isomers2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nadal, M.
    Bigas, E.
    Llebaria, X.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domingo, JL.
    Per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in indoor sources: Levels in house dust and indoor air from Catalonia, Spain2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rasmussen, A.
    Eriksson, U.
    Influence of cooking methods on levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Lake Char (Salvelinus umbla) from Lake Vättern, Sweden2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCullagh, M.
    Burgess, J.
    Dillon, L.
    Hodgkinson, M.
    Determination and characterisation of PFOS in the environment using high definition mass spectrometry2012In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 74, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, A.
    Temporal trends of persistent organochlorine and bromine compounds in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Phoca hispida baltica) from year 1974 to 20152016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the environmental occurrence of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish water samples. So far established protocols have focused on measuring PFASs with a carbon chain length of four or more carbons. In this study, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates of chain lengths of two, perfluoroethane sulfonate (PFEtS), and three, perfluoropropane sulfonate (PFPrS), carbons have been measured using a newly established instrumental method employing supercritical fluid separation (SFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    A total of 26 samples were analysed, including ground water, surface water, rain water and snow. The sample locations included military and civilian airports, a former hard chromium plating facility, the vicinity of a hazardous waste management facility and background areas (lake surface water, rain and snow). Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed, the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 39 000 ng/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in all of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07 and 5 700 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport. In the samples, PFPrS had a relative contribution to total PFAS concentration of 6 and 10 %, indicating the importance of measuring these compounds in environmental samples.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Analysis of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters
  • 17.
    Fiedler, H.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van der Veen, I.
    Vrije Universiteit, Environment & Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    de Boer, J.
    Vrije Universiteit, Environment & Health, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Global interlaboratory assessments of perfluoroalkyl substances under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants2020In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 124, article id 115459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) according to article 16 of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) requires that POP laboratories must be capable – at any time – to analyse samples for POPs within a variation of ±25%. Based on this target error of 25%, a statistical model using z-scores was applied to assess the performance of analytical laboratories for POPs and a number of matrices. Since the second round of these ‘Bi-ennial Global Interlaboratory Assessment on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)’, carried out in 2012/2013, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been included into the proficiency tests. The third round was carried out in 2016/2017. The test materials included test solutions of PFASs analytical standards, the abiotic matrices sediment, air (extract) and water and the biotic matrices fish, human milk and human plasma. The number of laboratories submitting results for PFASs remained quite stable (IL2 = 27 laboratories; IL3 = 29), but there was broader geographic distribution observed in IL3: in addition to the laboratories from Asia and the Western Europe/other groups, two laboratories from Africa participated, two from Central-Eastern Europe and one from the Latin American/Caribbean region.

    Considering that PFASs were introduced for the first time in round 2, the results were good to reasonable compared to those of a number of other POPs included in the same study. However, it shall also be mentioned that for some matrices and PFASs, the number of laboratories submitting results was too small and the results too scattered to derive a consensus value. This was especially true for the PFOS precursor compounds and the air matrix. Also, laboratories struggle with the analysis of the branched PFOS isomers.

    These interlaboratory assessments on PFASs gave promising results and demonstrated the importance of proficiency tests in an international environment to generate trust in laboratory results. The need to participate regularly in such intercomparison assessments is highlighted. The results show the current level of PFAS analysis, which varies by laboratory and by matrix rather than per geographic region.

  • 18.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, DTIE, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    National PCDD/PCDF release inventories under the Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants2007In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 67, no 9, p. S96-S108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme, DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Abad, E.
    Martrat, G.
    van Bavel, B.
    Ericsson, I.
    de Boer, J.
    New POPs in Ambient Air Samples Using Passive Air Samplers2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1533-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    University of Bayreuth, Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry, Bayreuth, Germany .
    Cooper, K. R.
    Rutgers University, E.O.H.S.I., Piscataway, USA .
    Bergek, S.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Hjelt, M.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Rappe, C.
    Umeå University, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Umeå, Sweden .
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in southern Mississippi, USA1997In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 34, no 5-7, p. 1411-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n 1994, we analyzed 43 foodstuff samples from local supermarkets in southern Mississippi, USA, for PCDD/PCDF. 2,3,7,8-Cl4DD could be quantified in 31 of these samples. On a lipid basis, levels in meat (0.53-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) and dairy products (0.42-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) were slightly lower than those reported from other industrialized countries. While levels in dairy samples from the United States and Europe are comparable, there is a difference in the contribution of individual congeners to the I-TEQ: for example, in milk samples from Germany approximately 40% of the I-TEQ is due to the presence of 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF while in the Mississippi samples this congener only contributes 16%. The highest concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in our study were detected in the farm-raised catfish (10.2-27.8 pg I-TEQ/g). A unique finding was that in addition to the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF the catfish samples contained many non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. This is unusual because vertebrate animals selectively eliminate or metabolize the non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners.

  • 21.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    de Boer, J.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessment of Results for the 2nd Interlaboratory Study of POPs Laboratories2016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78, p. 777-780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    et al.
    United Nations Environment Programme DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, B.
    van der Veen, I.
    de Boer, J.
    Results from UNEPs 2nd Global Interlaboratory Assessment: Basic and New POPs2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1497-1500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department for Environmental Research and Monitoring , Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden .
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Comparison on atmospheric pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1593-1596Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dunstan, J.
    Ruzzin, J.
    Rémi, RL.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Atmospheric pressure gas chromatography (APGC) coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the quantitative analysis of pesticides and PCBs regulated by the Stockholm Convention2013In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, A.
    Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 20132016In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Guo, Liangqia
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, China .
    Liu, Qian
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Li, Guoliang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Shi, Jianbo
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Liu, Jiyan
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Thanh
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Jiang, Guibin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    A mussel-inspired polydopamine coating as a versatile platform for the in situ synthesis of graphene-based nanocomposites2012In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 4, no 19, p. 5864-5867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A facile and universal approach to prepare graphene-based nanocomposites by in situ nucleation and growth of diverse noble metals, metal oxides and semiconducting nanoparticles on the surface of RGO is proposed.

  • 27.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Li, Y. M.
    Leslie, Heather
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in samples from African countries participating in the United Nations Environment Programme2011In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 73, p. 795-798Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Haiba, E.
    et al.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Nei, L.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kutti, S.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Lillenberg, M.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Herodes, K.
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Ivask, M.
    Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kipper, K.
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Aro, Rudolf
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Laaniste, A.
    Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Degradation of diclofenac and triclosan residues in sewage sludge compost2017In: Agronomy Research, ISSN 1406-894X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 395-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land application of sewage sludge compost is an important and efficient tool in the remediation of industrial landscapes and agricultural soils in Estonia. A number of studies have shown that, as a rule, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are neither completely removed by sewage treatment, nor completely degraded in the environment. In this study, degradation rates of diclofenac sodium (DFC) and triclosan (TCS) were determined during sewage sludge composting. Anaerobically digested and dewatered sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust at two different ratios (1:2 and 1:3 sludge/sawdust, v:v). Then aerobic composting was carried out. These ratios were chosen on the basis of previous studies on sewage sludge composting with different bulking agents. The initial concentration of DFC and TCS was 2 mg kg-1 in relation to dry weight (dw). Low quantities of the studied pharmaceuticals were present in sewage sludge that was used for preparing the compost mixtures used in our experiments. The background concentrations of DFC and TCS were never equal to zero. The results showed that the difference between sewage sludge and bulking agent ratios (1:2 vs 1:3) in compost samples did not significantly affect temperature profiles during the experiment. The degradation of pharmaceuticals was more complete in the compost samples where the ratio of bulking agent was higher (1:3 by volume). The average degradation level (in all compost mixtures) was 95% for DFC and 68% for TCS. Pharmaceuticals entering into the soil may affect microbial activity, plant growth and development, and may have adverse effects on living organisms.

  • 29.
    Hartonen, Minna
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Ruskeepää, Anna-Liisa
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsiniki, Finland.
    Characterization of cerebrospinal fluid by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1293, p. 142-149, article id S0021-9673(13)00567-0Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was applied in the quantification and identification of organic compounds in patient-matched human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples. Concentrations of 21 amino and hydroxyl acids varied from 0.04 to 77ng/μl in CSF and from 0.1 to 84ng/μl in serum. In total, 91 metabolites out of over 1200 detected were identified based on mass spectra and retention indices. The other metabolites were identified at the functional group level. The main metabolites detected in CSF were sugar and amino acid derivatives. The CSF and serum had clearly distinct metabolic profiles, with larger biological variation in the serum than in CSF. The GC×GC-TOFMS allowed detection and identification of several metabolites that have not been previously detected in CSF.

  • 30.
    Heinonen, Martti
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Centre for Metrology MIKES, Espoo, Finland.
    Bell, Stephanie
    National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.
    Il Choi, B.
    Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
    Cortellessa, Gino
    Università degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Italy.
    Fernicola, Vito
    Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Turin, Italy.
    Georgin, Eric
    Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, Lyon, France.
    Hudoklin, Domen
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ionescu, G. V.
    National Institute of Metrology, Bucharest, Romania.
    Ismail, N.
    National Institute of Standard, Giza, Egypt.
    Keawprasert, T.
    National Institute of Metrology, Pathumthani, Thailand .
    Krasheninina, M.
    Ural Research Institute for Metrology, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
    Aro, Rudolf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nielsen, J.
    Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Oğuz Aytekin, S.
    TÜBİTAK Ulusal Metroloji Enstitüsü, Kocaeli, Turkey.
    Österberg, P.
    University of Oulu, Kajaani, Finland.
    Österberg, P.
    Measurepolis Development Ltd, Kajaani, Finland.
    Skabar, J.
    Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Strnad, R.
    Czech Metrology Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.
    New Primary Standards for Establishing SI Traceability for Moisture Measurements in Solid Materials2018In: International journal of thermophysics, ISSN 0195-928X, E-ISSN 1572-9567Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Helle, Anne
    et al.
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hirsjärvi, Samuli
    Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Peltonen, Leena
    Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hirvonen, Jouni
    Division of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wiedmer, Susanne K.
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Quantitative Biology and Bioinformatics, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Novel, dynamic on-line analytical separation system for dissolution of drugs from poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles2010In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for investigating drug release in a dynamic manner from nanoparticles including, but not limited to, biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is reported. The PLA nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Two poorly soluble drugs, beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) and indomethacin, were encapsulated into PLA nanoparticles, and their dissolution from the nanoparticles were followed in a dynamic way. The on-line method comprised a short column (vessel) packed with the PLA nanoparticles, on-line connected to an analytical liquid chromatographic column via a multiport switching valve equipped with two loops. The system allowed monitoring of the drug release profiles in real time, and the conditions for the drug release could be precisely controlled and easily changed. The effects of solvent composition and temperature on the rate of dissolution of the drugs from the PLA nanoparticles were investigated. The system proved to be linear for the drugs tested over the concentration range 10-3000 ng (n = 6, R(2) = 0.999 and 0.997 for indomethacin and beclomethasone, respectively) and repeatable (RSD of peak areas <0.5%). The recoveries of the dissolution study were quantitative (120 and 103% for indomethacin and beclomethasone, respectively).

  • 32.
    Henriksson, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Environmental Staff, Arvika, Sweden.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Lindström, Gunilla
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Westberg, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Uptake and bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in earthworms after in situ and in vitro exposure to soil from a contaminated sawmill site2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 580, p. 564-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uptake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was studied in earthworms collected from a sawmill site in Sweden with severe PCDD/Fs contamination (the hot spot concentration was 690,000 ng TEQWHO2005/kg d.w.) in order to investigate the transfer of PCDD/Fs from the site to the biota. PCDD/Fs concentrations in the collected earthworms were compared to PCDD/Fs concentrations in laboratory exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida), which were exposed to contaminated soils from the sawmill site for 34 days. All analyses were performed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). PCDD/Fs concentrations in the earthworms ranged from 290 to 520,000 pg/g (f.w.). The main congeners found in both soils and earthworms were OCDF, 1234678-HpCDF, OCDD and 1234678-HpCDD. The study showed that the PCDD/Fs in the soil were biovailable to the earthworms and the PCDD/Fs concentrations in the soils correlated with the concentrations in the earthworms. Earthworm samples from soil with lower concentration had higher bioaccumulation factors than samples from soils with high concentration of contamination. Thus, a less contaminated soil could yield higher concentrations in earthworms compared to a higher contaminated soil. Assuming that when assessing risks with PCDD/F contaminated soil, a combination of chemical analysis of soil PCDD/Fs concentrations and bioavailability should be employed for a more comprehensive risk assessment.

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  • 33. Hlebec, Dora
    et al.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    University of Zagreb.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Determination of micro- and macroelements in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hyysalo, Jenni
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Bian, Hua
    Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Leivonen, Marja
    Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Vantaa, Finland.
    Jaser, Nabil
    Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Vantaa, Finland.
    Juuti, Anne
    Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Vantaa, Finland.
    Honka, Miikka-Juhani
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Nuutila, Pirjo
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Olkkonen, Vesa M.
    Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele
    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Circulating triacylglycerol signatures in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with the I148M variant in PNPLA3 and with obesity2014In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 312-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether relative concentrations of circulating triacylglycerols (TAGs) between carriers compared with noncarriers of PNPLA3(I148M) gene variant display deficiency of TAGs, which accumulate in the liver because of defective lipase activity. We also analyzed the effects of obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of genotype, and of NAFLD due to either PNPLA3(I148M) gene variant or obesity on circulating TAGs. A total of 372 subjects were divided into groups based on PNPLA3 genotype or obesity. Absolute and relative deficiency of distinct circulating TAGs was observed in the PNPLA3(148MM/148MI) compared with the PNPLA3(148II) group. Obese and 'nonobese' groups had similar PNPLA3 genotypes, but the obese subjects were insulin-resistant. Liver fat was similarly increased in obese and PNPLA3(148MM/148MI) groups. Relative concentrations of TAGs in the obese subjects versus nonobese displayed multiple changes. These closely resembled those between obese subjects with NAFLD but without PNPLA3(I148M) versus those with the I148M variant and NAFLD. The etiology of NAFLD influences circulating TAG profiles. 'PNPLA3 NAFLD' is associated with a relative deficiency of TAGs, supporting the idea that the I148M variant impedes intrahepatocellular lipolysis rather than stimulates TAG synthesis. 'Obese NAFLD' is associated with multiple changes in TAGs, which can be attributed to obesity/insulin resistance rather than increased liver fat content per se.

  • 35.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Analytical methodologies utilized in the search for chronic disease biomarkers2010In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 919-923Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Novel methodologies in metabolic profiling with a focus on molecular diagnostic applications2012In: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, ISSN 1473-7159, E-ISSN 1744-8352, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 527-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metabolome contains all the biological end points of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic perturbations, also including the influence of gut microbiota and the environment, giving a direct picture of an organism's ongoing metabolic state. Metabolomics thus has the potential to be an effective tool for early diagnosis of disease, and also to be a predictor of treatment response and survival. In recent years, the development of instrumental systems has enabled more comprehensive coverage of the metabolome. Advances in mass spectrometry and chromatography have particularly improved both the efficiency of nontargeted metabolic profiling as well as the sensitivity and reliability of targeted analyses. Mass spectrometric techniques are also increasingly becoming accepted as a routine diagnostic tool in clinical laboratories. This review summarizes the most recent advances and current challenges in metabolomics, with a focus on mass spectrometric methods utilized in biomarker research, highlighted with selected examples.

  • 37.
    Jin, Rong
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Guorui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zheng, Minghui
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jiang, Xiaoxu
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Lili
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wu, Xiaolin
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Yang
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Congener-specific determination of ultratrace levels of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmosphere and industrial stack gas by isotopic dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1509, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isotopic dilution gas chromatography combined with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has overwhelming advantages with respect to the accuracy of congener-specific ultratrace analysis of complex persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental matrices. However, an isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method for analysis of chlorinated and brominated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs) using 13C-labelled congeners as internal standards has not been established. In this study, a method for identification and quantification of 38 congeners of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs in atmosphere and stack gas samples from waste incinerators was developed using the isotopic dilution GC/HRMS technique. The instrumental detection limits of the GC/HRMS method ranged from 0.2pg to 1.8pg for Cl-PAH congeners, and 0.7pg to 2.7pg for Br-PAH congeners, which were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of the GC/quadrupole MS method. This new method developed was also the first to enable determination of Cl-PAH and Br-PAH homologs comprising congeners with the same molecular skeleton and chlorine or bromine substitution numbers. Among the detected congeners, seven Cl-PAH congeners and thirteen Br-PAH congeners that were abundant in the atmosphere and stack gases released from waste incinerators were firstly detected in real samples and reported using the established isotopic dilution GC/HRMS method. The developed isotopic dilution GC/HRMS is significant and needed for better studying the environmental behavior and health risk of Cl-PAHs and Br-PAHs.

  • 38.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    University of Zagreb.
    Hlebec, Dora
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Determination of micro- and macro-elements in various nuts by spectrometric methods2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, BOKU—University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria.
    Hlebec, Dora
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Mineral Composition of Elements in Walnuts and Walnut Oils2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 12, article id 2674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Walnuts (Juglans nigra) are considered to be a functional food. In the present study, twenty one macro-, micro-, and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn) were selected to be determined in walnuts and walnut oils. The beneficial content of essential elements could be shown by the obtained results, the macro-elements Ca, K, Mg, and Na being present in nuts with 1062 mg/kg, 2771 mg/kg, 1426 mg/kg, and 42.3 mg/kg, respectively. Regarding micro- and trace elements, the following order (decreasing content) was found: Mn > Fe > Zn > B, Mo > Cu > Ni > Co > Al > Sr > Ba > Li > Pb > Se > Cr > As > Cd. Furthermore, the potentially toxic trace elements (As, Cd, Pb) determined were below the maximum allowed values in most of the investigated walnut samples. A comparison of oils and nuts revealed that the former contain lower concentrations of all elements analyzed except for Fe and Zn. This suggested the origin from contamination during oil processing. Fe influences the oil oxidation rate, thus its entry during production should be avoided.

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    Mineral Composition of Elements in Walnuts and Walnut Oils
  • 40.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Univeristy of Zagreb, Dep. of Chemistry.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. BOKU.
    Mihajlov-Konanov, Darija
    University of Zagreb.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    BOKU Wien.
    Inorganic Macro- and Micronutrients in “Superberries” Black Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) and Related Teas2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    BOKU.
    Mihajlov-Konanov, Darija
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Metal Characterization of White Hawthorn Organs and Infusions2015In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Juranović Cindrić, Iva
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zeiner, Michaela
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Starčević, Ana
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Stingeder, Gerhard
    Department of Chemistry, BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Metals in pine needles: characterisation of bio-indicators depending on species2019In: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, E-ISSN 1735-2630, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 4339-4346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution can be studied by appropriate bio-indicators, such as pine needles due to their waxy surface. Metal uptake and accumulation is determined by on growing area, but also on the respective species. Scope of the study was to analyse needles of Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc., Pinus nigra Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L., and Pinus thunbergiana Franco for metals and metalloids, namely Aluminum, Arsenic, Boron, Barium, Calcium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Potassium, Lithium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Sodium, Nickel, Lead, Selenium, Strontium, and Zinc. Quantitation of the analytes was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry after acidic microwave-assisted digestion.

    The obtained data were checked for statistically significant differences. The metal levels differ between the various species, but no general tendency was found for all metals. Since the environmental conditions were the same for all sampled trees, the differences in metal accumulation are supposed to be linked to species of pine tree.

    The diverse accumulation behaviour can be used for treating polluted soil.

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    Metals in pine needles: characterisation of bio-indicators depending on species
  • 43.
    Jäntti, Sirkku E.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hartonen, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hilvo, Mika
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Nygren, Heli
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Ketola, Raimo A.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Hjelt Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kostiainen, Risto
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Steroid and steroid glucuronide profiles in urine during pregnancy determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 802, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of steroids and their glucuronides in urine samples. The method provides high sensitivity and fast analysis, as both steroids and their glucuronides can be analyzed directly without hydrolysis or complex sample preparation. The method was applied in profiling of targeted and nontargeted steroids and steroid glucuronides during pregnancy. The concentrations of 11 of 27 targeted steroids and steroid glucuronides and the concentrations of 25 nontargeted steroid glucuronides increased about 10-400 fold during the pregnancy. The concentrations of most of these 36 compounds began to increase in the first days of the pregnancy, increased gradually during the pregnancy, achieved a maximum in late pregnancy, and decreased sharply after delivery. Exceptionally, the concentrations of allopregnanolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone started to increase later than those of the other steroids. Moreover, the concentrations of E2 glucuronides began to decrease one week before the delivery, in contrast to most of the steroids and steroid glucuronides, whose concentrations dropped sharply during the delivery. Concentrations of 34 compounds decreased noticeably when the subject was on sick leave owing a series of painful contractions. The results suggest that steroids and especially steroid glucuronides may provide a valuable diagnostic tool to follow the course of pregnancy.

  • 44.
    Jäntti, Sirkku E.
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivilompolo, Maarit
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Öhrnberg, Leena
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; FIMM, Institute for Molecular Medicine University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nygren, Heli
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Quantitative profiling of bile acids in blood, adipose tissue, intestine, and gall bladder samples using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2014In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 406, no 30, p. 7799-7815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 33 target and 28 unknown bile acids (BAs) in biological samples. Sixty-one BAs could be measured in 20 min using only a small amount of sample and with a simple sample preparation. The method proved to be very sensitive (limit of detection 5-350 pg/mL, lower limit of quantitation 0.1-2.6 ng/mL), linear (R(2) > 0.99) and reproducible (typically CV <15 % in biological matrixes). The method was used to analyze human adipose tissue, plasma, and serum (from same subjects) and mouse serum, gall bladder, small intestine, and colon samples (from same animals). Cholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and their conjugates (mainly glycine, but also taurine conjugates) were the main metabolites in human samples, and cholic acid, glycine cholic acid, and several taurine conjugates in mouse samples. Using the method, 28 unknown BAs could also be detected. UHPLC-MS/MS spectra, accurate mass, and tissue distribution suggested that nine of the unknown bile acids were taurine conjugates, 13 were glycine conjugates, and six were intact BAs, respectively. To our knowledge, this was the first time BAs were detected in adipose tissue. Results showed that 17 targeted BAs were found at ng/g level in human adipose tissue. Our findings give a novel insight of the endogenous role of BAs in adipose tissue and their role as biomarkers (e.g., in metabolic diseases).

  • 45.
    Jørgenrud, Benedicte
    et al.
    Department of Pediatric Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Jäntti, Sirkku
    Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Pöhö, Päivi
    Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rønningen, Kjersti S.
    Department of Pediatric Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Yki-Järvinen, Hannele
    Division of Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    The influence of sample collection methodology and sample preprocessing on the blood metabolic profile.2015In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 991-1006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Blood serum and plasma have intrinsic differences in their composition and the preprocessing, such as clotting temperature in serum, and storage at room temperature may have further effect on metabolite concentrations.

    METHODS: The influence of sampling preprocessing on the metabolic profiles in serum and different types of plasma was investigated using liquid chromatography and comprehensive 2D gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer.

    RESULTS: The profiles of polar metabolites were significantly dependent on the type of the sample, while lipid profiles were similar in serum and different types of plasma. Extended storage of plasma at room temperature resulted in degradation of lipids already after 1 day. Serum clotting at room temperature generally resulted in higher metabolite concentration compared with serum clotting on ice.

  • 46.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) with Micro Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP AES) – Comparison with ICP-MS2014In: Annual International Mine Water Association Conference: An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges / [ed] Sui Wanghua,Sun Yajunand Wang Changshen, Xuzhou: China University of Mining and Technology Press , 2014, p. 131-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dissolved metals in acid rock drainage (ARD) with an Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument that combines a nitrogen micro plasma with atomic emission detection (MP AES) was compared with an ICP-MS. Sample preparation consisted only of filtration, acidification (HNO3 1%) and addition of internal standard elements after appropriate dilution. In these complex matrices the systems gave identical results provided that care was taken to avoid ionization. This was easily done by addition of CsNO3 which eliminated the need for matrix matching of calibration solutions. The use of internal standards is only needed for elements with known spectral interferences.

  • 47. Keiter, Steffen
    et al.
    Grund, Stefanie
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kammann, Ulrike
    Klempt, Martin
    Manz, Werner
    Olsman Takner, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Hollert, Henner
    Activities and identification of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in sediments from the Danube river2008In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 390, no 8, p. 2009-2019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a consequence of a distinct fish decline in the Danube river since the beginning of the 1990s. In contrast to the decline of fish population, former studies have repeatedly documented that the water quality along the Danube river is improving. However, the conclusion of a pilot study in 2002 was that a high hazard potential is associated with local sediments. The present study documents that sediment samples from the Danube river showed comparatively high aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activity in biotests, using the cell lines GPC.2D.Luc, H4IIE (DR-CALUX®) and RTL-W1. The combination of chemical analysis, fractionation techniques and different in vitro tests revealed that priority pollutants could not explain the main induction, even though the concentrations of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were very high (maximum in the tributary Schwarzach, sum of 16 EPA PAHs 26 μg/g). In conclusion, this investigation shows that nonpriority pollutants mainly mediate the high induction rates. Nevertheless, owing to the effects of PAHs towards fish and the connection between dioxin-like activity and carcinogenicity, the link between contamination and the fish population decline cannot be ruled out.

  • 48.
    Kivilompolo, Marit
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Öhrnberg, Leena
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Rapid quantitative analysis of carnitine and acylcarnitines by ultra-high performance-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1292, p. 189-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    L-Carnitine and its acyl esters (acylcarnitines) play an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids. However, most of the present methods for the quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines have restrictions both in sample preparation and in chromatographic separation. Herein we present a validated method for determination of carnitine and eleven acylcarnitines in human serum and rat tissue biopsies by using ultra-high performance-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHP-HILIC-MS/MS). The procedure uses minimal sample preparation including only addition of organic solvent, labeled internal standard, incubation and centrifugation. The separation is performed without derivatization or addition of ion-pairing reagent within 7 min on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic column with mass spectrometric detection. The method is linear in response over the concentration range from 20 to 600 ng/ml for carnitine and acetylcarnitine and 5-200 ng/ml for the other acylcarnitines, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.994. Recoveries were higher than 88% for most of the compounds. Limits of detection were 5 ng/ml for carnitine and acetylcarnitine and approximately 0.5 ng/ml for other acylcarnitines. The method was applied to the analysis of serum and tissue samples.

  • 49.
    Koch, Alina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Aro, Rudolf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Towards a comprehensive analytical workflow for the chemical characterisation of organofluorine in consumer products and environmental samples2020In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 123, article id 115423Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review summarizes and discusses eight analytical methods for organofluorine (OF) analysis, which offer detection limits suitable for consumer products and environmental samples. Direct sample analysis of OF only applies to some techniques on consumer products, whereas others require sample pretreatment or concentration before measurements. Comparison between methods for OF analysis were found to be difficult because of different selectivity (between OF and fluoride), sensitivity and type of samples (bulk, extract, surface) analysed. Neither inter-laboratory comparison on OF analysis nor suitable certified reference materials have been used for method validation, which makes data comparability between studies challenging. A top down approach for the comprehensive assessment of OF is proposed, where OF/extractable OF is first measured, followed by target analysis to obtain unquantifiable OF concentrations using the mass balance approach. For further identification of unquantifiable OF, approaches such as total oxidizable precursor assay, suspect and non-target screening are briefly discussed.

  • 50.
    Kvist, Malin
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Detection of ultra-short chain perfluoroalkyl substances in Swedish environmental waters2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been documented worldwide in different environmental samples including humans. In Sweden, severe PFAS contamination in drinking water has resulted in elevated blood PFAS concentrations in residents living in contaminated areas. In many cases, the use of aqueous film forming-foams (AFFFs) at both civil and military airports has resulted in this contamination, as PFASs are one of the active ingredients in AFFFs. According to a nationwide survey, it was estimated that 30 % of the Swedish population has their closest drinking water source contaminated with these substances. A guideline value for safe use of drinking water set by the Swedish Food Agencyis the sum of eleven PFASs including perfluoroalkylated sulfonates (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8), perfluoroalkylated carboxylates (PFCAs; C4-C10) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate.This is set to 90 ng/L, while the health based limit, based on the tolerable daily intake,is set to 900 ng/L. In the US, Barzen-Hansen et al.showed the presence of ultra-short chain PFASs, perfluoropropanesulfonate (PFPrS) and perfluoroethanesulfonate (PFEtS), in five AFFFs. In ground water samples from eleven US military bases, PFEtS was detected in eight out of eleven samples ranging from 11-7500 ng/L, while PFPrS was detected in all samples, ranging from 19-63000 ng/L). Conventional reversed-phase LC using C18 column is not suitable to chromatograph these ultra-short chain PFAS, because they are highly polar; ion-exchange column has been demonstrated useful for separating these ultra-short chain PFAS. In this study a new analytical approach employing supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was developed for chromatographic separation of these ultra-short chain PFASs. Environmental water samples (surface water, ground water, rain water, snow and sediment) from various locations with suspected PFAS contamination were analyzed to investigate the potential occurrence of these ultra-short chain compounds in the Swedish environment. Solid phase extraction according to ISO method was used to concentrate water samples prior to instrumental analyses using both UPLC-MS/MS and UPC2-MS/MS.

    Results show that both PFPrS and PFEtS could be detected in environmental samples from Sweden using SFC separation coupled to triple quadrupole detection. Out of the 26 samples analysed,the ultra-short-chain PFPrS could be detected and quantified in 22 samples. The concentrations for PFPrS in all the samples ranged between 0.93 ng/l to 390 μg/l. The ultra-short-chain PFPEtS could be quantified in 24 out of the 26 samples, with a concentration range between 0.07-5 680 ng/l. The highest concentrations represents highly contaminated ground water samples collected from a military airport.

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