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  • 1.
    Amadei, Damien
    et al.
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Chatzidaki, Maria D.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Inst Theoret & Phys Chem, Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Devienne, Julia
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Monteil, Julien
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Cansell, Maud
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Xenakis, Aristotelis
    Inst Theoret & Phys Chem, Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Leal-Calderon, Fernando
    Lab Chim & Biol Membranes & Nanoobjets (CBMN), UMR 5248, Univ Bordeaux, Pessac, France.
    Low shear-rate process to obtain transparent W/O fine emulsions as functional foods2014In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 62, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Edible transparent emulsions of the water-in-oil (W/O) type are highly sought after and currently not available. In such materials, the water droplets can be advantageously used as reservoirs to encapsulate biologically active hydrophilic substances (minerals, antioxidants, etc.). The emulsions must remain transparent, fluid and kinetically stable to meet consumers' requirements. In this paper, we describe a simple yet versatile process to fabricate food grade transparent W/O emulsions. Our method involves the preparation of coarse emulsions which are submitted to shear under laminar flow conditions to reduce their average droplet size. The process generates negligible heat and consequently, it preserves the integrity of thermally sensitive compounds. The obtained emulsions contain between 5 and 10 wt.% of aqueous droplets whose average droplet size is lower than 200 nm. They are kinetically stable for at least 2 months. Transparency results from the relatively low droplet size and the incorporation in the aqueous phase of hydrophilic solutes that decrease the refractive index mismatch between the two immiscible phases.

  • 2.
    Andrén, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Shao, Lei
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Länk, Nils Odebo
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Acimovic, Srdjan S.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Käll, Mikael
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Probing Photothermal Effects on Optically Trapped Gold Nanorods by Simultaneous Plasmon Spectroscopy and Brownian Dynamics Analysis2017In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 10053-10061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmonic gold nanorods are prime candidates for a variety of biomedical, spectroscopy, data storage, and sensing applications. It was recently shown that gold nanorods optically trapped by a focused circularly polarized laser beam can function as extremely efficient nanoscopic rotary motors. The system holds promise for-applications ranging from nanofluidic flow control and nanorobotics to biomolecular actuation and analysis. However, to fully exploit this potential, one needs to be able to control and understand heating effects associated with laser trapping. We investigated photothermal heating of individual rotating gold nanorods by simultaneously probing their localized surface plasmon resonance spectrum and rotational Brownian dynamics over extended periods of time. The data reveal an extremely slow nanoparticle reshaping process, involving migration of the order of a few hundred atoms per minute, for moderate laser powers and a trapping wavelength close to plasmon resonance. The plasmon spectroscopy and Brownian analysis allows for separate temperature estimates based on the refractive index and the viscosity of the water surrounding a trapped nanorod. We show that both measurements yield similar effective temperatures, which correspond to the actual temperature at a distance of the order 10-15 nm from the particle surface. Our results shed light on photothermal processes on the nanoscale and will be useful in evaluating the applicability and performance of nanorod motors and optically heated nanoparticles for a variety of applications.

  • 3.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans: from source of emission to human exposure2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which are ubiquitous in modern life and the environment, are the major source for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs). The knowledge about PBDD/Fs is lim-ited compared to other environmental pollutants, even though PBDD/Fs show similar toxicity as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) which are considered to be among the most toxic man-made substances. The aim of the thesis was to provide a better understanding of PBDD/Fs by investigating the occurrence and distribution of PBDD/Fs in the following matrices: soot and gas from an accidental fire site which is a typical source of emission, blubber from marine mammals living in both far remote areas as well as areas close to anthropogenic sources, and finally in human milk from ten nursing mothers.

    PBDD/Fs was detected in blubber from pilot whales sampled around Faroe Islands, which proved the occurrence in marine mammals in a far remote area. The findings of PBDD/Fs in blubber from Baltic ringed seals showed slightly higher concentrations compared to the pilot whales, which is expected since the Baltic Sea in among the world’s most contam-inated water areas. In the pilot whales and the ringed seals, the average contribution from PBDD/Fs to the total (PCDD/F+PBDD/F) Total Equiv-alent Quantity (TEQ) was low, (1-8%). In gas and soot samples from the accidental fire site, PBDD/Fs were detected in all samples and the contri-bution of PBDD/Fs to the total TEQ was close to 100%. In the human milk samples, PBDD/Fs were detected in all samples and the average con-tribution of PBDD/Fs to the total TEQ was 40%. The results indicate that PBDD/Fs are of concern for human exposure, and should be monitored together with PCDD/Fs in future studies. Moreover, the occurrence at ac-cidental fire sites indicate that PBDD/Fs are a source for occupational ex-posure for firefighters and other professionals. The impact from PBDD/Fs on marine mammalians seems to be of less concern.

    List of papers
    1. Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods
    2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, p. 1213-1221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    PBDD/F, PCDD/F, Fire, Cutting extinguisher, Foam, Additive, Nozzle, Formation
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59123 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.087 (DOI)000405253500018 ()28514839 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019068316 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency
    Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands
    2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    PBDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, Pilot whale blubber, Faroe Islands
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63414 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.044 (DOI)000424172400002 ()29248748 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85037990841 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Danish Environmental Protection Agency as part of the environmental support program Dancea - Danish Cooperation for Environment in the Arctic

    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 2015
    2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

    Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Dioxins, Furans, POPs, Marine mammal
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63413 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.178 (DOI)000424121800137 ()29066193 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85038955003 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency  2213-15-022

    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding duration
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-63415 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dam, Maria
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hoydal, Katrin
    Faroe Islands' Environment Agency, Argir, Denmark.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) caught around the Faroe Islands2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997–2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales. The concentration range for ∑PBDD/Fs among the samples was 0.080–71 pg/g l.w. (lipid weight), and the sum of toxic equivalents ranged from 0.0039 to 4.7 pg TEQ/g l.w. No relationship was found between PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. In addition, 20 pilot whale samples from the period 2010–2013 were analysed for PBDEs. Several PBDE congeners were found in all of the sampled pilot whales, and at noticeably higher levels than PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs. The ∑PBDEs ranged from 140 to 1900 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the most abundant congener detected in the samples. Results from the present study were then compared with data from previous studies on pilot wales to investigate temporal trends between 1986 and 2013. The comparison indicated that PBDE concentrations in juvenile males have decreased from 1996 to the latest observations in 2013. No relationship between the concentration levels of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the sampled pilot whales could be identified, which indicates possible differences in the metabolism of, or exposure to, PBDEs and PBDD/Fs.

  • 5.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and Stockholm Convention POPs in human milk: evaluation of the effects of breastfeeding durationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Temporal trends of PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs, PBDEs and PCBs in ringed seals from the Baltic Sea (Pusa hispida botnica) between 1974 and 20152018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 616-617, p. 1374-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal trends in exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were assessed in 22 pooled samples gathered from 69 individuals of Baltic ringed seal (Pusa hispida botnica) from 1974 to 2015. Samples were analysed for polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). No previous study has reported on the occurrence of PBDD/Fs in marine mammals in the Baltic Sea. Concentrations of pollutants in Baltic ringed seal, a marine mammal and top predator, can be used as an indicator of pollutants concentrations in the Baltic region.

    Visual inspection of data did not show any temporal trends for PBDD/Fs, while the PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed decreasing concentrations between 1974 and 2015. PBDEs increased until the end of the 1990s and then decreased until the end of the period. ∑ PBDD/Fs ranged from 0.5–52.3 pg/g lipid weight (l.w.) (0.08–4.8 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF contributing on average 61% to ∑ PBDD/Fs. ∑ PCDD/Fs ranged from 103 to 1480 pg/g l.w. (39–784 pg TEQ/g l.w.), with 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showing the highest average concentrations. PBDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQ) contributed on average 1.1% to the total (PBDD/F + PCDD/F) TEQ. The ∑ PBDEs concentration range was 18.7–503 ng/g l.w., with BDE #47 the predominant congener. The concentration range for ∑ PCBs was 2.8–40.1 μg/g l.w., with #138 and #153 the most abundant congeners. Visual inspection of the data showed decreasing concentrations for all compound groups except PBDD/Fs. A slight increase in the PBDD/Fs concentrations was observed from 2004 onwards. This observation needs to be investigated further.

  • 7.
    Breivik, Knut
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway.
    Alcock, Ruth
    Environmental Research Solutions, Witherslack, Cumbria, UK.
    Li, Yi-Fan
    Meteorological Service of Canada, Downsview, ON, Canada.
    Bailey, Robert E.
    Bailey Associates, Midland, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Pacyna, Jozef M.
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway.
    Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories2004In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 128, no 1-2, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for "non-pesticide" POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens.

  • 8.
    Cao, Zhiguo
    et al.
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Chemicals Branch, UNEP/DTIE, Châtelaine GE, Switzerland.
    Wang, Bin
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Tingting
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Gang
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Huang, Jun
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Deng, Shubo
    POPs Research Center, School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Economic status as a determinant of national PCDD/PCDF releases and implications for PCDD/PCDF reduction2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 328-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from 68 countries/regions were investigated by correlating quantitative emissions with economic status of the nations. The national dioxin/furan inventories were developed using the PCDD/PCDF Standardized Toolldt, which presents the quantitative releases from ten major source groups to five release vectors. The correlation between intensity of PCDDIPCDF release and economic status was discussed and the influence of economic status on composition of five release vectors and ten source groups was studied. As PCDD/PCDF are mainly released from human activities to environmental matrices, release per person (RpP) and release per unit area (RpA) are defined to reflect release burden (Donor) and contamination burden (Receptor), respectively. Based on these two concepts, International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden is characterized by burden quotient (BQ) and a calculation model is established. The numbers of countries/regions with high, moderate and low International PCDD/PCDF Reduction Burden were 19,31 and 18, respectively. The information in this paper can be used for politicians to develop legislations to improve International PCDD/PCDF Reduction.

  • 9.
    Chatzidaki, Maria D.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Formulation and characterization of W/O nano-dispersions for bioactive delivery applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was the formulation of food-grade water-in-oil (W/O) nano-dispersions based mainly on medium or long-chain triglycerides. Two types of dispersions were formulated and structurally compared, namely emulsions and microemulsions. The systems were used as matrices for encapsulating targeted bioactive molecules with specific characteristics such as antioxidants or peptides.

    The structural characterization of the formulated systems was investigated using techniques such as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and Small Angle Xray Scattering (SAXS). The existence of swollen inverse micelles was revealed for the case of microemulsions whereas larger droplets still at the nano-scale were observed for the case of emulsions. Structural differences in the presence of the bioactive molecules or induced by the alteration of components were also observed.

    In order to study the efficacy of the formulations, the proposed loaded systems were assessed either using EPR spectroscopy or Well Diffusion Assay (WDA) depending on the bioactive molecule. It was found that the encapsulated molecules retained their claimed characteristics when encapsulated to the proposed matrices.

    Finally, some of the formulated dispersions were investigated for their behavior under gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. A two-step digestion model using recombinant Dog Gastric Lipase (rDGL) and Porcine Pancreatic Lipase (PPL) was proposed to simulate lipid hydrolysis in humans. The studies revealed significant decrease of the rDGL specific activity in the presence of the microemulsion while in the presence of lower percent of surfactants (case of emulsion) no alterations were observed.

    List of papers
    1. Low shear-rate process to obtain transparent W/O fine emulsions as functional foods
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low shear-rate process to obtain transparent W/O fine emulsions as functional foods
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 62, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Edible transparent emulsions of the water-in-oil (W/O) type are highly sought after and currently not available. In such materials, the water droplets can be advantageously used as reservoirs to encapsulate biologically active hydrophilic substances (minerals, antioxidants, etc.). The emulsions must remain transparent, fluid and kinetically stable to meet consumers' requirements. In this paper, we describe a simple yet versatile process to fabricate food grade transparent W/O emulsions. Our method involves the preparation of coarse emulsions which are submitted to shear under laminar flow conditions to reduce their average droplet size. The process generates negligible heat and consequently, it preserves the integrity of thermally sensitive compounds. The obtained emulsions contain between 5 and 10 wt.% of aqueous droplets whose average droplet size is lower than 200 nm. They are kinetically stable for at least 2 months. Transparency results from the relatively low droplet size and the incorporation in the aqueous phase of hydrophilic solutes that decrease the refractive index mismatch between the two immiscible phases.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    W/O nanoemulsion, emulsification, coalescence, Ostwald ripening
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50112 (URN)10.1016/j.foodres.2014.03.069 (DOI)000340015100063 ()2-s2.0-84899521137 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2018-06-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Formulation and characterization of food-grade microemulsions as carriers of natural phenolic antioxidants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formulation and characterization of food-grade microemulsions as carriers of natural phenolic antioxidants
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 483, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Food-grade W/O microemulsions based on lecithin, caprylic/capric triglycerides, isopropyl myristate, alcohols and water were formulated and structurally characterized to be used as potential carriers of natural food antioxidants. Different well-known food antioxidants including gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and tyrosol were successfully encapsulated in the aqueous cores of the microemulsions. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed to determine the extent of the monophasic area that corresponds to an inverted type microemulsion. Apparent hydrodynamic diameter measurements of empty and loaded microemulsions were performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and swollen micelles with diameters smaller than 10 nm were detected. Interfacial properties of the microemulsions were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy employing the nitroxide spin probe 5-doxylstearic acid (5-DSA). A small increase in spin probe mobility upon addition of the antioxidants was observed; whereas the rigidity of the surfactants was not affected. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) indicated the existence of entangled thread-like reversed micelles. Finally, the investigated phenolics were assessed and compared for their radical scavenging activity using an EPR approach based on free radicals. The encapsulated gallic acid showed the highest antioxidant activity (0.93 mM trolox equivalents) as compared to other antioxidants assessed within the frame of this study.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    W/O microemulsion, Gallic acid, Antioxidant, EPR, DLS, Cryo-TEM
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50111 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfa.2015.03.060 (DOI)000362146200017 ()2-s2.0-84941745179 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Microemulsion versus emulsion as effective carrier of hydroxytyrosol
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microemulsion versus emulsion as effective carrier of hydroxytyrosol
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 146-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two edible Water-in-Oil (W/O) dispersions, an emulsion that remains kinetically stable and a microemulsion which is spontaneously formed, transparent and thermodynamically stable, were developed for potential use as functional foods, due to their ability to be considered as matrices to encapsulate biologically active hydrophilic molecules. Both systems contained Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) as the continuous phase and were used as carriers of Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a hydrophilic antioxidant of olive oil. A low energy input fabrication process of the emulsion was implemented. The obtained emulsion contained 1.3% (w/w) of surfactants and 5% (w/w) aqueous phase. The spontaneously formed microemulsion contained 4.9% (w/w) of surfactants and 2% (w/w) aqueous phase. A comparative study in terms of structural characterization of the systems in the absence and presence of HT was carried out. Particle size distribution obtained by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique and interfacial properties of the surfactants' layer, examined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of HT in the surfactant membrane. Finally, the proposed systems were studied for the scavenging activity of the encapsulated antioxidant toward galvinoxyl stable free radical showing a high scavenging activity of HT in both systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Emulsion, Microemulsion, Hydroxytyrosol, DLS, EPR, Antioxidant activity
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50110 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.04.053 (DOI)000367491200017 ()25999235 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84951573458 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-05-03 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
    4. Microemulsions as potential carriers of nisin: effect of composition on the structure and efficacy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microemulsions as potential carriers of nisin: effect of composition on the structure and efficacy
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50113 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    5. Water-in-Oil microemulsions versus emulsions as carriers of hydroxytyrosol: an in vitro gastrointestinal lipolysis study using the pHstat technique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water-in-Oil microemulsions versus emulsions as carriers of hydroxytyrosol: an in vitro gastrointestinal lipolysis study using the pHstat technique
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50119 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-05-03 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Chatzidaki, Maria D.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Arik, Nehir
    Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Monteil, Julien
    Institut de Chimie & Biologie des Membranes & des Nano-objets (CBMN), Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Papadimitriou, Vassiliki
    Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Leal-Calderon, Fernando
    Institut de Chimie & Biologie des Membranes & des Nano-objets (CBMN), Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Xenakis, Aristotelis
    Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.; Sch Sci & Technol, MTM Res Ctr, Univ Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Microemulsion versus emulsion as effective carrier of hydroxytyrosol2016In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 146-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two edible Water-in-Oil (W/O) dispersions, an emulsion that remains kinetically stable and a microemulsion which is spontaneously formed, transparent and thermodynamically stable, were developed for potential use as functional foods, due to their ability to be considered as matrices to encapsulate biologically active hydrophilic molecules. Both systems contained Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) as the continuous phase and were used as carriers of Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a hydrophilic antioxidant of olive oil. A low energy input fabrication process of the emulsion was implemented. The obtained emulsion contained 1.3% (w/w) of surfactants and 5% (w/w) aqueous phase. The spontaneously formed microemulsion contained 4.9% (w/w) of surfactants and 2% (w/w) aqueous phase. A comparative study in terms of structural characterization of the systems in the absence and presence of HT was carried out. Particle size distribution obtained by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique and interfacial properties of the surfactants' layer, examined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of HT in the surfactant membrane. Finally, the proposed systems were studied for the scavenging activity of the encapsulated antioxidant toward galvinoxyl stable free radical showing a high scavenging activity of HT in both systems.

  • 11.
    Chatzidaki, Maria D.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. National Hellenic Research Foundation Institute of Biology Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology.
    Eduardo, Mateos-Diaz
    CNRS, UMR7282 Enzymologie Interfaciale et Physiologie de la Lipolyse.
    Leal-Calderon, Fernando
    Polytechnic Institute of Bourdeaux, CBMN.
    Xenakis, Aristotelis
    National Hellenic Research Foundation Institute of Biology Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology.
    Carrière, Frédéric
    CNRS, UMR7282 Enzymology at Interfaces and Physiology of Lipolysis.
    Water-in-Oil microemulsions versus emulsions as carriers of hydroxytyrosol: an in vitro gastrointestinal lipolysis study using the pHstat techniqueManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Chatzidaki, Maria D.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Mitsou, Evgenia
    Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece..
    Yaghmur, Anan
    Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Pharm, Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Xenakis, Aristotelis
    Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece; Sch Sci & Technol, MTM Res Ctr, Univ Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Papadimitriou, Vassiliki
    Inst Biol Med Chem & Biotechnol, Natl Hellen Res Fdn, Athens, Greece..
    Formulation and characterization of food-grade microemulsions as carriers of natural phenolic antioxidants2015In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 483, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food-grade W/O microemulsions based on lecithin, caprylic/capric triglycerides, isopropyl myristate, alcohols and water were formulated and structurally characterized to be used as potential carriers of natural food antioxidants. Different well-known food antioxidants including gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and tyrosol were successfully encapsulated in the aqueous cores of the microemulsions. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed to determine the extent of the monophasic area that corresponds to an inverted type microemulsion. Apparent hydrodynamic diameter measurements of empty and loaded microemulsions were performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and swollen micelles with diameters smaller than 10 nm were detected. Interfacial properties of the microemulsions were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy employing the nitroxide spin probe 5-doxylstearic acid (5-DSA). A small increase in spin probe mobility upon addition of the antioxidants was observed; whereas the rigidity of the surfactants was not affected. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) indicated the existence of entangled thread-like reversed micelles. Finally, the investigated phenolics were assessed and compared for their radical scavenging activity using an EPR approach based on free radicals. The encapsulated gallic acid showed the highest antioxidant activity (0.93 mM trolox equivalents) as compared to other antioxidants assessed within the frame of this study.

  • 13.
    Chatzidaki, Maria D.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Institute of Biology Medicinal Chemistry & Biotechnology, NHRF, Athens, Greece.
    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos
    Agricultural University of Athens.
    Alexandraki, Voula
    Agricultural University of Athens.
    Tsirvouli, Eirini
    Institute of Biology Medicinal Chemistry & Biotechnology, NHRF, Athens, Greece.
    Chakim, Zena
    Institute of Biology Medicinal Chemistry & Biotechnology, NHRF, Athens, Greece.
    Ghazal, Aghiad
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mortensen, Kell
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Yaghmur, Anan
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salentinig, Stefan
    Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Papadimitriou, Vassiliki
    Institute of Biology Medicinal Chemistry & Biotechnology, NHRF, Athens, Greece.
    Tsakalidou, Effie
    Agricultural University of Athens.
    Xenakis, Aristotelis
    Institute of Biology Medicinal Chemistry & Biotechnology, NHRF, Athens, Greece; Örebro University, Sweden .
    Microemulsions as potential carriers of nisin: effect of composition on the structure and efficacyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Contribution of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) and other precursor compounds to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in humans and the environment2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are anthropogenic compounds that have been spread all over the world. The use of fluorotelomer compounds, short-chained homologues, and other PFASs with perfluorinated moieties has emerged recent years. One of these emerging compound classes is polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs), which have the ability to degrade into persistent PFCAs.

    The aim of this thesis was to assess the contribution of PAPs and other precursors to the exposure of PFCAs to humans and the environment. The main objective was to analyze a wide range of PFAS in human serum, wild bird eggs, indoor dust, waste water, and sludge. There was a significant contribution from selected precursors to the total amount of PFASs in the abiotic compartments indoor dust, waste water, and sludge. Levels of PAPs found in house dust exceeded those of PFCAs and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs), revealing PAPs as a world-wide important exposure source.

    A net increase was during waste water treatment was observed for several PFASs in Swedish waste water treatment plants. Together with presence of precursor compounds and intermediates in the influent water and the sludge, this suggest that degradation of PFCA precursors contributed to the increase of PFCAs. Detection of precursors in human serum, together with slow declining trends of PFCAs, revealed an ongoing exposure of PFCAs to the general population of Australia. The diPAPs and the FTSAs were also detected in raptor bird eggs from Sweden from both the terrestrial and the freshwater environment. The precursors concentrations and patterns observed reveal that current regulatory measures are insufficient for the purpose of protecting humans and the environment from PFASs exposure.

    List of papers
    1. World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>World-Wide Indoor Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Phosphate Esters (PAPs) and other PFASs in Household Dust
    2015 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 24, p. 14503-14511Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is ongoing and in some cases increasing, despite efforts made to reduce emissions. The role of precursor compounds such as polyfluorinated phosphate esters (PAPs) has received increasing attention, but there are knowledge gaps regarding their occurrence and impact on human exposure. In this study, mono-, di-, and triPAPs, perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), saturated, and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTCA/FTUCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonamides, and sulfonamidethanols (FOSA/FOSEs), and one fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (FTSA)) were compared in household dust samples from Canada, the Faroe Islands, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Nepal, Japan, and Australia. Mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including several diPAP homologues, were frequently detected in dust from all countries, revealing an ubiquitous spread in private households from diverse geographic areas, with significant differences between countries. The median levels of monoPAPs and diPAPs ranged from 3.7 ng/g to 1 023 ng/g and 3.6 ng/g to 692 ng/g, respectively, with the lowest levels found in Nepal and the highest in Japan. The levels of PAPs exceeded those of the other PFAS classes. These findings reveal the importance of PAPs as a source of PFAS exposure worldwide.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington, USA: American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46467 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.5b00679 (DOI)000366872300072 ()26000882 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84934903181 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52953 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-10-14 Created: 2016-10-14 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52964 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-10-14 Created: 2016-10-14 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 149, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ((13)C and (15)N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997-2001, 2008-2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008-2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02-2.4ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02-0.16ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3-52ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24-2.7ng/g). The (15)N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2-3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in birds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 2016
    Keywords
    diPAPs, PFAS, Bird of prey, Freshwater, Terrestrial
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50315 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2016.04.038 (DOI)000378366000006 ()27174782 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84965046283 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA)  2220-14-004

    Available from: 2016-05-27 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Contribution of precursor compounds to the release of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    University of Queensland, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
    Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Australia .
    Hobson, Peter
    Sullivan and Nicolaides Pathology, Taringa, Australia.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Temporal trends of PFSAs, PFCAs and selected precursors in Australian serum from 2002 to 2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Geng, Dawei
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Gas chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the determination of environmental contaminants2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent developments and improvements of instrumental methods for the analyses of the environmental contaminants, especially the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have made it possible to detect and quantify these at very low concentrations in environmental and biotic matrices.

    The main objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the capability of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization technique (APCI), using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of a wide range of environmental contaminants, including the POPs regulated by Stockholm Convention, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but also the derivates of PBDEs and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs).

    The APCI was operated in charge transfer condition, preferably producing molecular ions. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) experiments were optimized by adjusting cone voltage, collision energy and dwell time. Optimization of source parameters, such as gas flows and temperatures was also performed. Low concentration standards were analyzed, achieving a visible chromatographic peak for 2 fg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrating the excellent sensitivity of the system. Adequate linearity and repeatability were observed for all the studied compounds. The performance of APCI methods was validated against the conventional methods using gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for chlorinated compounds in a wide range of matrices including environmental, air, human and food matrices.

    The GC-APCI-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a set of 75 human serum samples to study the circulating levels of POPs in epidemiologic studies. Moreover the method was utilized to establish temporal trends of POPs in osprey eggs samples collected during the past five decades.

    List of papers
    1. Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1453, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300 pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r2) &gt;0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4 pg/μL) and CS 3 (4 pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    PCBs, OCPs, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS), human serum
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Analytical Chemistry; Environmental Chemistry; Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-50854 (URN)10.1016/j.chroma.2016.05.030 (DOI)000378182800010 ()27236485 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84969722268 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    China Scholarship Council (CSC) under the Grant CSC 201206400003

    Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2018-09-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (APGC/MS/MS) an Alternative to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the Determination of Dioxins
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (APGC/MS/MS) an Alternative to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the Determination of Dioxins
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 17, p. 9047-9053Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of a new atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization source for gas chromatography (APGC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) system, as an alternative to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), for the determination of PCDDs/PCDFs is described. The potential of using atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a tandem quadrupole analyzer has been validated for the identification and quantification of dioxins and furans in different complex matrices. The main advantage of using the APCI source is the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure, which results in very limited fragmentation. APCI mass spectra are dominated by the molecular ion cluster, in contrast with the high energy ionization process under electron ionization (El). The use of the molecular ion as the precursor ion in MS/MS enhances selectivity and, consequently, sensitivity by increasing the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N). For standard solutions of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, injections of 10 fg in the splitless mode on 30- or 60-m-length, 0.25 mm inner diameter (id), and 25 mu m film thickness low-polarity capillary columns (DB5MS type), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of >10:1 were routinely obtained. Linearity was achieved in the region (correlation coefficient of r(2) > 0.998) for calibration curves ranging from 100 fg/mu L, to 1000 pg/mu L. The results from a wide variety of complex samples, including certified and standard reference materials and samples from several QA/QC studies, which were previously analyzed by EI HRGC/HRMS, were compared with the results from the APGC/MS/MS system. Results between instruments showed good agreement both in individual congeners and toxic equivalence factors (TEQs). The data show that the use of APGC in combination with MS/MS for the analysis of dioxins has the same potential, in terms of sensitivity and selectivity, as the traditional HEMS instrumentation used for this analysis. However, the APCI/MS/MS system, as a benchtop system, is much easier to use.

    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Research subject
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46035 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.5b02264 (DOI)000360773100062 ()26267710 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84940971553 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Generalitat Valenciana, as research group of excellence PROMETEO/2009/054

    Serveis Centrals d'Instrumentacio Cientifica (SCIC) of the University Jaume I

    China Scholarship Council 201206400003

    Available from: 2015-10-07 Created: 2015-10-07 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of Novel and Legacy Brominated Flame Retardants Including Their Derivates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Using Gas Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Novel and Legacy Brominated Flame Retardants Including Their Derivates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Using Gas Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52072 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 2013
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 2013
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52073 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. RECETOX Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grahn, Hans
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Roos, Anna
    Department for Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal Trends of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Osprey Eggs in Sweden over the Years 1966 – 2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Geng, Dawei
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. RECETOX Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysis of Novel and Legacy Brominated Flame Retardants Including Their Derivates by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Using Gas Chromatography Coupled to Triple Quadrupole Mass SpectrometryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Advances in Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique widely implemented for the measurement of environmental pollutants. A critical tool for the analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over several decades, MS as coupled with liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) techniques enables the analysis of emerging POPs. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of alternative MS-based techniques to assist specific analytical challenges including separation of stereoisomers using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), reduced ionization competition with appropriate mobile phase additives, and applied rotationally averaged collision-cross section (CCS) of ions via ion mobility measurements of emerging POPs.

    Chromatographic efficiency improvements for the brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), were implemented through the development of two supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) methods. Based on the inherent qualities of supercritical fluids, separation of both predominant diastereomers and respective enantiomers was performed in a shorter time with wider chromatographic resolution using SFC than existing LC methods.

    Turning next to MS ionization considerations, the emerging perfluoroalkyl substance hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) was investigated. Following a survey of analytical methodologies for HFPO-DA, the challenge of extreme dimer formation, in-source fragmentation and very low [M-H]- production was described. Method development using alternative mobile phase additives in currently used LC-MS acquisition techniques was deployed.

    Finally, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was implemented in a non-targeted acquisition study of indoor dust samples. This study used IMS coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight MS to identify a wide range of contaminant classes, including emerging POPs. Identification confidence is a challenge currently facing non-targeted studies, and the use of prediction mechanisms of analyte IMS gas-phase separations was explored.

    Through applying diverse alternative techniques, increased method performance was explored for emerging POPs analyses.

    List of papers
    1. Rapid separation of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers using a novel method combining convergence chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid separation of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers using a novel method combining convergence chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry
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    2015 (English)In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 2950-2958Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is characterized by the separation of its three predominant diastereomers. This analysis is typically performed using reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) detection with analysis times in the order of 10 minutes or greater. Here we describe a rapid method using supercritical CO2 and methanol to baseline separate the three most abundant HBCDD diastereomers within a three minute run time using a High Strength Silica (HSS) C18 1.8 mu m particle size column. A unique elution order of the alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCDD diastereomers using supercritical CO2 was observed, and can be used as an orthogonal separation for further confidence in diastereomer identification when used in conjuction with RPLC. A tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer with negative mode electrospray ionization was used for detection, operating in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ionization was enhanced by the addition of a make-up flow, which was introduced to the post-column effluent. Method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCDD were based on peak-to-peak signal to noise ratios of greater than 3 or 10, respectively. The LOD for all HBCDD diastereomers as solvent standards was 100 fg on-column, and LOQs 500 fg on-column for alpha- and gamma-HBCDD and 250 fg on-column for beta-HBCDD. In order to test the efficiency of this method, small subsets of complex human serum and whale blubber extracts were analyzed using this method, resulting in positive detections in samples of alpha-HBCDD.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Research subject
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-44434 (URN)10.1039/c4ay02923b (DOI)000351931000008 ()
    Available from: 2015-04-24 Created: 2015-04-24 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
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    2016 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 21, no 11, article id 1509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant which has been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention for elimination of production and use. It has been reported to persist in the environment and has the potential for enantiomer-specific degradation, accumulation, or both, making enantioselective analyses increasingly important. The six main stereoisomers of technical HBCDD (i.e., the (+) and (-) enantiomers of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD) were separated and isolated for the first time using enantioselective packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) separation methods on a preparative scale. Characterization was completed using published chiral liquid chromatography (LC) methods and elution profiles, as well as X-ray crystallography, and the isolated fractions were definitively identified. Additionally, the resolution of the enantiomers, along with two minor components of the technical product (δ- and ε-HBCDD), was investigated on an analytical scale using both LC and pSFC separation techniques, and changes in elution order were highlighted. Baseline separation of all HBCDD enantiomers was achieved by pSFC on an analytical scale using a cellulose-based column. The described method emphasizes the potential associated with pSFC as a green method of isolating and analyzing environmental contaminants of concern.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Basel, Switzerland: MDPI AG, 2016
    Keywords
    hexabromocyclododecane, enantiomeric separation, supercritical fluid chromatography
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53487 (URN)10.3390/molecules21111509 (DOI)000389918200091 ()27834934 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84997428723 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of current approaches and environmental levels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of current approaches and environmental levels
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    2019 (English)In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 118, p. 828-839Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental monitoring, one being hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA), commonly referred to as GenX. The following review describes existing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods used to analyse HFPO-DA, including sample preparation and method sensitivity relative to other PFAS. Analytical challenges are also described, in particular the significant formation of in-source fragmentation, dimer and dimer adducts which detract from [M-H](-) signal. Lastly, detected levels of HFPO-DA in environmental and biological samples are compared across the limited number of available field exposure studies, which found several mu g/L concentrations in water samples taken near fluorochemical plant discharges.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    HFPO-DA, GenX, Negative polarity electrospray ionisation, Liquid chromatography, Mass spectrometry
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76970 (URN)10.1016/j.trac.2019.05.015 (DOI)000486383900064 ()31501636 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Intramural EPA  EPA999999

    Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
    4. Ionization Enhancement of Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) Through Mobile Phase Additive Selection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionization Enhancement of Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) Through Mobile Phase Additive Selection
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76979 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
    5. Liquid Chromatography-Ion Mobility-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Pollutants in Indoor Dust: Identification and Predictive Capabilities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liquid Chromatography-Ion Mobility-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Pollutants in Indoor Dust: Identification and Predictive Capabilities
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-76980 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-10-02 Created: 2019-10-02 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
  • 21.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    DiLorenzo, Robert A.
    Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Mouse Imaging Centre, Toronto ON, Canada.
    Jobst, Karl
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s NL, Canada.
    Ladak, Adam
    Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham MA, USA.
    Plumb, Robert
    Waters Corporation, Milford MA, USA.
    Reiner, Eric J.
    Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, Laboratory Services Branch, Etobicoke ON, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Liquid Chromatography-Ion Mobility-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Pollutants in Indoor Dust: Identification and Predictive CapabilitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corp, Milford MA, USA.
    Plumb, Robert
    Waters Corp, Milford MA, USA.
    Characterization of metabolic variability in red wines using a highly selective non-targeted acquisition approach2018In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Mullin, Lauren Gayle
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Riddell, Nicole
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Plumb, Robert S.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Burgess, Jennifer A.
    Waters Corporation, Milford, USA.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ionization Enhancement of Hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) Through Mobile Phase Additive SelectionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Persson, Josefin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Indoor air quality and chemical emissions of organic compounds in newly built low-energy preschools2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, the European Union (EU) introduced the “Energy performance of Buildings” directive, which stipulates that all new buildings must reduce their energy consumption by constructing low-energy buildings. This could be achieved by constructing airtight and energy efficient envelopes with functional building materials such as age-resistant plastic films, insulation and different sealing products. However, functional building materials are known to contain a large amount of man-made chemicals that could be released to the indoor environment and might cause health issues among the occupants. In view of this, the indoor air quality (IAQ) and contamination of selected organic compounds were investigated in newly built low-energy preschools in order to evaluate whether the new building concept, low-energy housing, can have a negative effect to the indoor environment and the occupants. The IAQ was satisfactory in all preschools and the indoor air chemical mixture was heavily influenced by the mechanical heat recovery ventilation system. Furthermore, the levels of formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were lower in the environmental certified low-energy preschools compared to those preschools without environmental certification. Thus, a conscious choice of building materials, interior decoration and chemical products can reduce the occurrence and levels of hazardous organic compounds. Emission tests showed that collected building materials only contributed to a small fraction of the measured indoor chemical levels. Furthermore, preliminary exposure risk estimation of the indoor chemical mixture showed potential health risk from some individual compounds to the occupants, but further investigations are needed for a more complete risk assessment. In conclusion, the comprehensive and unique study design presented in this thesis will contribute to the ongoing work towards a non-toxic environment, further development of the low-energy building concept and the legislative movement on limit values for chemical emissions from building materials.

    List of papers
    1. Indoor air quality of newly built low-energy preschools: Are chemical emissions reduced in houses with eco-labelled building materials?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor air quality of newly built low-energy preschools: Are chemical emissions reduced in houses with eco-labelled building materials?
    2019 (English)In: Indoor and Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 506-519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of an airtight frame in low-energy buildings could increase the risk of health-related problems, such as allergies and sick building syndromes (SBS), associated with chemical emissions from building materials, especially if the ventilation system is not functioning properly. In this study, the indoor air quality (IAQ) was investigated in newly built low-energy and conventional preschools by monitoring the indoor air temperature, relative humidity, particle-size distribution and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). The thermal comfort was satisfactory in all preschools, with average indoor air temperature and a relative humidity at 21.4C and 36%, respectively. The highest levels of TVOC (range: 130–1650 mg/m3 toluene equivalents) and formaldehyde (range: 1.9–28.8 mg/m3) occurred during the first sampling period associated with strong emissions from building materials. However, those preschools constructed with environmental friendly building materials (such as Swan Eco-label) had lower initial TVOC levels compared to those preschools constructed with conventional building materials. The IAQ and indoor chemical emissions were also strongly dependent on the functioning of the ventilation system. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that exposure to acrolein and crotonaldehyde might lead to respiratory-tract irritation among occupants.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2019
    Keywords
    Indoor air quality, Low-energy preschool, Ventilation, Indoor air pollutants, Temporal trends, Maximum cumulative ratio, Volatile organic compounds
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70261 (URN)10.1177/1420326X18792600 (DOI)000461388600007 ()2-s2.0-85052561103 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Örebro University  

    Healthy Building Forum (HBF)  

    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (AMM) at Örebro University Hospital 

    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Temporal trends of decabromodiphenyl ether and emerging brominated flame retardants in dust, air and window surfaces of newly built low-energy preschools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal trends of decabromodiphenyl ether and emerging brominated flame retardants in dust, air and window surfaces of newly built low-energy preschools
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70262 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor dust, air and window wipes in newly built low-energy preschools
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in indoor dust, air and window wipes in newly built low-energy preschools
    2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628-629, p. 159-168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of extremely airtight and energy efficient low-energy buildings is achieved by using functional building materials, such as age-resistant plastics, insulation, adhesives, and sealants. Additives such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) can be added to some of these building materials as flame retardants and plasticizers. Some OPFRs are considered persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Therefore, in this pilot study, the occurrence and distribution of nine OPFRs were determined for dust, air, and window wipe samples collected in newly built low-energy preschools with and without environmental certifications. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were detected in all indoor dust samples at concentrations ranging from 0.014 to 10 μg/g and 0.0069 to 79 μg/g, respectively. Only six OPFRs (predominantly chlorinated OPFRs) were detected in the indoor air. All nine OPFRs were found on the window surfaces and the highest concentrations, which occurred in the reference preschool, were measured for 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) (maximum concentration: 1500 ng/m2). Interestingly, the OPFR levels in the environmental certified low-energy preschools were lower than those in the reference preschool and the non-certified low-energy preschool, probably attributed to the usage of environmental friendly and low-emitting building materials, interior decorations, and consumer products.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Organophosphate flame retardant, Plasticizer, Low-energy preschool, Environmental certified building, Indoor dust, Surface wipe
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65565 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.053 (DOI)000432462000018 ()29432927 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85041523162 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies:

    Healthy Building Forum (HBF)

    Örebro University

    Department of Occupational and Environ-mental Medicine at Örebro University Hospital

    Available from: 2018-03-08 Created: 2018-03-08 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
    4. Chemical emissions from building materials used in low-energy constructions and their presence in the indoor air
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical emissions from building materials used in low-energy constructions and their presence in the indoor air
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70263 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • 25.
    Riddell, Nicole
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: Applications in Environmental Chemistry2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although gas and liquid chromatography have emerged as dominant separation techniques in environmental analytical chemistry, these methods do not allow for the concurrent analysis of chemically diverse groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). There are also a small number of compounds which are not easily amenable to either of these traditional separation techniques. The main objective of this thesis was to address these issues by demonstrating the applicability of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) in various aspects of environmental chemistry.

    First, pSFC/MS analytical methods were developed for legacy POPs (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) as well as the emerging environmental contaminant Dechlorane Plus (DP), and issues relating to the ionization of target analytes when pSFC was coupled to MS were explored. Novel APPI and APCI reagents (fluorobenzene and triethylamine) were optimized and real samples (water and soil) were analyzed to demonstrate environmental applicability.

    The possibility of chiral and preparative scale pSFC separations was then demonstrated through the isolation and characterization of thermally labile hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) stereoisomers. The analytical pSFC separation of the α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD enantiomers as well as the δ and ε meso forms was shown to be superior to results obtained using a published LC method.

    Finally, technical mixtures of phosphorus flame retardants (RBDPP, BPA-BDPP, and DOPO; a group of related compounds which are challenging to analyze concurrently) were examined using multiple analytical techniques and pSFC was found to be the only method which facilitated the accurate determination of the components of all 3 mixtures. This thesis confirms the potential of pSFC/MS as a fast, green, and cost effective means of separating and analyzing environmental contaminants.

    List of papers
    1. Comparative assessment of the chromatographic separation of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans using supercritical fluid chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative assessment of the chromatographic separation of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans using supercritical fluid chromatography and high resolution gas chromatography
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 7, no 21, p. 9245-9253Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of legacy environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) is well established and universally accepted. The use of an alternative separation technique, such as packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC), may be of interest as a fast, green, and cost effective method of analyzing environmental samples. The technique is amenable to a broad range of chemical compounds and could facilitate the simultaneous analysis of multiple compound classes as well as the inclusion of thermally labile compounds in a single targeted analysis. The recent re-emergence of this technology due to the introduction of more robust and efficient instrumentation may result in an increased acceptance of pSFC analytical techniques in this area. Herein, the first reported analytical separation of PCDDs and PCDFs by pSFC is described and its separation capabilities are compared with established HRGC protocols. Elution profiles of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were examined and the separation of PCDD/PCDF homologue groups was found to be comparable to those accomplished using HRGC. Similarly, the resolution of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) congeners, as required by current regulatory methods utilizing HRGC, was demonstrated and the separation of possible co-eluting PCDD/PCDF congeners was examined and compared to that achieved using popular HRGC capillary columns. The possibility of concurrent analysis of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with PCDDs and PCDFs using the developed pSFC method was also investigated. The effective separation of these environmental contaminants obtained using pSFC and subsequent detection utilizing atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry at environmentally relevant levels demonstrates the promise associated with this technique for the analysis of environmental extracts.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Food Science
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46699 (URN)10.1039/c5ay01644d (DOI)000363732900034 ()2-s2.0-84945421701 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Coupling Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Positive Ion Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Ionization Optimization of Halogenated Environmental Contaminants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupling Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Positive Ion Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Ionization Optimization of Halogenated Environmental Contaminants
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57150 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Coupling of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of Relevant Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mechanisms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupling of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of Relevant Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mechanisms
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57152 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enantioselective Analytical- and Preparative-Scale Separation of Hexabromocyclododecane Stereoisomers Using Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
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    2016 (English)In: Molecules, ISSN 1420-3049, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 21, no 11, article id 1509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is an additive brominated flame retardant which has been listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention for elimination of production and use. It has been reported to persist in the environment and has the potential for enantiomer-specific degradation, accumulation, or both, making enantioselective analyses increasingly important. The six main stereoisomers of technical HBCDD (i.e., the (+) and (-) enantiomers of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD) were separated and isolated for the first time using enantioselective packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) separation methods on a preparative scale. Characterization was completed using published chiral liquid chromatography (LC) methods and elution profiles, as well as X-ray crystallography, and the isolated fractions were definitively identified. Additionally, the resolution of the enantiomers, along with two minor components of the technical product (δ- and ε-HBCDD), was investigated on an analytical scale using both LC and pSFC separation techniques, and changes in elution order were highlighted. Baseline separation of all HBCDD enantiomers was achieved by pSFC on an analytical scale using a cellulose-based column. The described method emphasizes the potential associated with pSFC as a green method of isolating and analyzing environmental contaminants of concern.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Basel, Switzerland: MDPI AG, 2016
    Keywords
    hexabromocyclododecane, enantiomeric separation, supercritical fluid chromatography
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-53487 (URN)10.3390/molecules21111509 (DOI)000389918200091 ()27834934 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84997428723 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2019-10-02Bibliographically approved
    5. Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, no June 2017, p. 333-341Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The application of phosphorus based flame retardants as replacements for commonly used halogenated flame retardants has been gaining interest due to the possibility that these compounds may have a less significant impact on human and environmental health. Unfortunately, little is known about the chemical compositions of many of the technical products (which often are mixtures) and a single separation technique for concurrent analysis of these types of compounds has not been identified. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the constituents of three halogen free organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDBPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The major components of commercial samples of RDBPP and BPA-BDPP were isolated by preparative TLC and characterized by NMR. A commercial sample of DOPO was found to be essentially pure, but its analysis is complicated by the fact that it can exist in ring-open and ring-closed forms. With the structures of the components confirmed by NMR, multiple analytical separation techniques (gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC)) were investigated for the analysis of these three technical products. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography allows the separation of the components of all three OPFRs, including the two forms of DOPO, in a single run.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs); pSFC/MS method; NMR; RDBPP; BPA-BDPP; DOPO
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57461 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.129 (DOI)000399849300038 ()28282639 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85015851681 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2017-09-11Bibliographically approved
  • 26.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Coupling of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Dechlorane Plus: Examination of Relevant Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization MechanismsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    Coupling Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Positive Ion Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Ionization Optimization of Halogenated Environmental ContaminantsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Riddell, Nicole
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    McCrindle, Robert
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada; Chemistry Department, University of Guelph, Guelph ON, Canada.
    McAlees, Alan
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Chittim, Brock
    Wellington Laboratories Inc., Guelph ON, Canada.
    Examination of technical mixtures of halogen-free phosphorus based flame retardants using multiple analytical techniques2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, no June 2017, p. 333-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of phosphorus based flame retardants as replacements for commonly used halogenated flame retardants has been gaining interest due to the possibility that these compounds may have a less significant impact on human and environmental health. Unfortunately, little is known about the chemical compositions of many of the technical products (which often are mixtures) and a single separation technique for concurrent analysis of these types of compounds has not been identified. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the constituents of three halogen free organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDBPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The major components of commercial samples of RDBPP and BPA-BDPP were isolated by preparative TLC and characterized by NMR. A commercial sample of DOPO was found to be essentially pure, but its analysis is complicated by the fact that it can exist in ring-open and ring-closed forms. With the structures of the components confirmed by NMR, multiple analytical separation techniques (gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC)) were investigated for the analysis of these three technical products. Packed column supercritical fluid chromatography allows the separation of the components of all three OPFRs, including the two forms of DOPO, in a single run.

  • 29.
    Saqib, Naeem
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Distribution and chemical association of trace elements in incinerator residues and mining waste from a leaching perspective2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration is a mainstream strategy for solid waste management in Sweden and all over the world. Improved knowledge and understanding about the distribution of trace elements (in ashes) during incineration, and how trace element partitioning respond to the changes in waste composition, are important in terms of combustion process optimization and plant efficiency. Moreover, determination of chemical association of trace elements in ashes are vital for avoiding environmental concerns and to promote possible reuse. In this study, partitioning of trace elements in ashes during incineration as function of input waste fuel and incineration technology was investigated. Further, chemical association of trace elements in resulting ashes was studied. An evaluation was also performed about feasibility of metal extraction from sulfidic mining waste and flotation tailings. Moreover, green liquor dreg (GLD) was tested with respect to stabilization of metals within the sulfidic mining waste.

    Findings showed that the total input of trace elements and chlorine affects the partitioning and increasing chlorine in the input waste caused increase in transfer of trace elements to fly ash especially for lead and zinc. Vaporization, condensation on fly ash particles and adsorption mechanisms play an important role for metal distribution. Firing mixed waste, especially biofuel mix, in grate or fluidized (CFB) boilers caused increased transfer into fly ash for almost all trace elements particularly lead and zinc. Possible reasons might be either an increased input concentration of respective element in the waste fuel, or a change in volatilization behavior due to the addition of certain waste fractions. Chemical association study for fly ashes indicated that overall, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Sb are presenting major risk in most of the fly ashes, while in bottom ashes, most of elements are associated with stable fraction. Further, fuel type affects the association of elements in ashes. Chemical leaching of mining waste materials showed that sulfuric acid (under different conditions) is the best reagent to recover zinc and copper from sulfidic mining waste and also copper from flotation tailings. GLD indicates potential for metal stabilization in mining waste by reducing the metal mobility. Extraction methods could be applied to treat mining waste in order to meet the regulatory level at a specific mining site.Similarly stabilization/solidification  methods might be applied after leaching for recovery of metals.

    List of papers
    1. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature
    2014 (English)In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 2505-2519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature.

    Keywords
    Ash; Incineration residue; Solid waste management; Trace element partitioning
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry; Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-41179 (URN)10.1016/j.wasman.2014.08.025 (DOI)000347019700009 ()25263218 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84910639884 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-01-13 Created: 2015-01-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Sciences(China), ISSN 1001-0742, E-ISSN 1878-7320, Vol. 36, no 1 Oct., p. 9-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Sb > As > Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in > 50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Science Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Incineration residues; Leaching behavior; Biofuel incineration; Metal distribution; Waste incineration
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry; Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-45103 (URN)10.1016/j.jes.2015.03.006 (DOI)000362983500002 ()26456601 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84943225103 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Varmeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Association) Q4-251

    Available from: 2015-07-04 Created: 2015-07-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration fly ashes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration fly ashes
    2015 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 165, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of trace elements from waste incineration fly ash is problematic during utilization/ landfilling. This study investigated the chemical association and potential mobility of trace elements in fly ashes originating from incineration of different fuels [virgin wood, recovered waste wood (RWW), mixed wooden fuel/waste, household, industrial, and mixed waste]. Fly ashes were characterized for total content of trace elements, chemical association by sequential extraction and leaching behaviour by standard leaching method (EN 12457-3). Results showed that average total content of trace elements in 13 fly ashes decreased in the order Zn > Cu > Pb > Sb > Cr > As > Cd. Sequential extraction results indicated that overall, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Sb were the most mobile elements and excessive leaching was associated with high content of acid exchangeable fractions. Sequential extraction showed thatthe average percentage of trace elements in labile and stable fractions for all 13 fly ashes decreased in the order:Cd > Cu > Sb > Zn > As > Pb > Cr (ion-exchangeable), Pb > Zn > Sb > Cd > Cu > As > Cr(acid soluble),Cr > As > Pb > Sb > Cu > Zn > Cd (residual). The standard leaching procedure of ashes indicated that the leached amount of Pb in all samples, Zn in 7 while Cu in 6 (out of 13) samples, respectively, exceeded the regulatory level for disposal. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fuel type affects the chemical association of trace elements in fly ash. Further, risk assessment code (RAC) suggested that most of fly ashes presented very high risk due to high RAC values for Cd, Zn, Cu and Sb.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Chemical speciation; Fly ash; Risk assessment; Trace elements mobility; MSWI
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46305 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2015.10.062 (DOI)000364655000023 ()2-s2.0-84946087137 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration bottom ashes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical association and mobility of trace elements in 13 different fuel incineration bottom ashes
    2016 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 172, p. 105-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The release of trace elements from waste incineration bottom ash is problematic during utilization/landfilling. Thirteen bottom ashes (from various waste fuels and wooden/mixed wooden fuel) were investigated with respect to the total content, leaching behaviour by standard leaching procedure (EN 12457-3), and chemical association of trace elements by sequential extraction. Results showed that the content of trace elements in household/or industrial waste bottom ashes were of high level in comparison to in wooden/mixed wooden fuel/mixed wooden waste ashes. Type of fuel being treated greatly impacts the total inventory of trace elements. On average, trace element content in 13 ashes followed the decreasing order; Cu > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Sb > As. In this study the average total content of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cr was higher in grate bottom ash treating household/industrial waste in comparison to fluidized boilers ash using same waste, however, there were too few data points and variation in data was large. By Standard leaching procedure, an excessive amount (more than disposal limit) of leached Cr, Pb, Sb and Cu (mostly in household/industrial waste ash) was observed in 6, 5, 5 and 4 of the 13 samples, respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) found between total and water leachable contents for Cu, Sb and As were 0.8, 0.7 and 0.6 respectively. Sequential extraction indicated that residual was the major fraction mostly, however, considerable amounts of trace elements had the potential to leach out. A large fraction of arsenic (57% based on average values) in 5 samples (mostly in waste/virgin wood and mixed wooden waste/fuel) and Zn (49% based on average values) in 4 of 13 samples (mostly household/or industrial) were found in the fractions that are easily available (acid soluble and exchangeable). Further, a considerable amount of Cu in 4 samples were found associated with the organic-bound phase. Dissolved organic matter might play an important role in leaching of Cu during utilization/landfilling. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fuel type affects the association of trace elements in bottom ash. Amounts of labile trace elements in wooden/mixed wooden fuel/waste bottom ashes were comparatively lower than other fuel bottom ashes. None of the samples exceeded the limit of disposal with respect to DOC leaching while chlorine in two and sulphate in three samples (household/industrial) exceeded limit. LOI (550 °C) values were higher for bottom ash from grate facilities probably due to no-pre-treatment of the waste fuel. While comparatively low values of LOI (1 000 °C) in few samples implies that the oxidation might have outweighed the loss of carbonates.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Bottom ash; Speciation; Trace elements; Incineration; Mobility
    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47348 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2016.01.010 (DOI)000368881200013 ()2-s2.0-84954326717 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Varmeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Association)

    Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    5. Chemical leaching of Zn, Cu and Pb from oxidized sulfidic mining waste followed by stabilization using green liquor dreg
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical leaching of Zn, Cu and Pb from oxidized sulfidic mining waste followed by stabilization using green liquor dreg
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49743 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
    6. Flotation tailings as a copper resource - Extraction and characterization through chemical leaching
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flotation tailings as a copper resource - Extraction and characterization through chemical leaching
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-49744 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 30.
    Saqib, Naeem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Chemical leaching of Zn, Cu and Pb from oxidized sulfidic mining waste followed by stabilization using green liquor dregManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Saqib, Naeem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Flotation tailings as a copper resource - Extraction and characterization through chemical leachingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Schönlau, Christine
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Microplastics in the marine environment and the assessment of potential adverse effects of associated chemicals2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade plastics have gained interest by scientists as emerging pollutants particularly in the marine environment due to their ubiquity and persistence. While several studies report the occurrence of microplastics in surface waters globally, there are no harmonized methods to sample and measure microplastics, and the knowledge of toxicological effects in the marine ecosystem is scarce. One of the concerns is that microplastics could transfer hazardous chemicals into organism upon ingestion.

    In this thesis chemical and bioanalytical methods were combined to address the hypothesis that plastic pollution poses a risk for marine ecosystems by exposure to plastic associated chemicals such as sorbed environmental pollutants, additives, and monomers. Six different pristine plastic polymers were studied which have been deployed in the marine and freshwater system for up to 12 months. Potential adverse effects of plastic associated chemicals were investigated with in vitro reporter gene assays which can be activated by several chemical classes. The main focus was on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity for the assessment of dioxin-like chemicals. Different groups of persistent environmental pollutants, which are present in the aquatic environment, were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometric methods. The contribution of the targeted chemicals to the measured biological activities was examined by conducting potency balance calculations. A better knowledge about the occurrence of microplastics in the waters surrounding Sweden was gained by sampling surface waters comparing two different sampling techniques, trawl and in-situ pump.

    The plastic pellets induced bioactivities in most tested reporter gene assays and the activities varied by type of polymer. In the majority of samples the contribution of the targeted environmental pollutants to the observed bioactivities was low. Concentrations of microplastics > 0.3 mm in surface waters around Sweden were observed to be low and the findings of this thesis suggest that the tested polymers with sizes 2-4 mm will not lead to an increased risk for marine ecosystems in terms of exposure to chemicals.

    List of papers
    1. Microplastics in sea-surface waters surrounding Sweden sampled by manta trawl and in-situ pump
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microplastics in sea-surface waters surrounding Sweden sampled by manta trawl and in-situ pump
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75767 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated potencies in field-deployed plastics vary by type of polymer
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 9097-9088Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic is able to sorb environmental pollutants from ambient water and might act as a vector for these pollutants to marine organisms. The potential toxicological effects of plastic-sorbed pollutants in marine organisms have not been thoroughly assessed. In this study, organic extracts from four types of plastic deployed for 9 or 12 months in San Diego Bay, California, were examined for their potential to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway by use of the H4IIE-luc assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including the 16 priority PAHs, were quantified. The AhR-mediated potency in the deployed plastic samples, calculated as bio-TEQ values, ranged from 2.7 pg/g in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to 277 pg/g in low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Concentrations of the sum of 24 PAHs in the deployed samples ranged from 4.6 to 1068 ng/g. By use of relative potency factors (REP), a potency balance between the biological effect (bio-TEQs) and the targeted PAHs (chem-TEQs) was calculated to 24-170%. The study reports, for the first time, in vitro AhR-mediated potencies for different deployed plastics, of which LDPE elicited the greatest concentration of bio-TEQs followed by polypropylene (PP), PET, and polyvinylchloride (PVC).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2019
    Keywords
    Ah receptor, H4IIE-luc, In vitro bioassays, Microplastics, PAH
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-72376 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-04281-4 (DOI)000464851100063 ()30715715 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061216163 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 223-2014-1064Knowledge Foundation
    Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect-Directed Analysis of Ah Receptor-Mediated Potencies in Microplastics Deployed in a Remote Tropical Marine Environment
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the study of potential harmful compounds sorbed to microplastics, an effect-directed analysis using the DR CALUX® assay as screening tool for Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active compounds in extracts of marine deployed microplastics and chemical analysis of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) was conducted. Pellets of three plastic polymers [low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS)] were deployed at Heron Island in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for up to 8 months. Detected AhR-mediated potencies (bio-TEQs) of extracted plastic pellets ranged from 15 to 100 pg/g. Contributions of target HOCs to the overall bioactivities were negligible. To identify the major contributors, remaining plastic pellets were used for fractionation with a gas chromatography (GC) fractionation platform featuring parallel mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The bioassay analysis showed two bioactive fractions of each polymer with bio-TEQs ranging from 5.7 to 14 pg/g. High resolution MS was used in order to identify bioactive compounds in the fractions. No AhR agonists could be identified in fractions of HDPE or LDPE. Via a multivariate statistical approach the polystyrene (PS) trimer 1e- Phenyl-4e-(1- phenylethyl)-tetralin was identified in fractions of HIPS and in fractions of the blank polymer of HIPS.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
    Keywords
    polyethylene, polystyrene, PCBs, reporter gene assay, fractionation
    National Category
    Analytical Chemistry Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75769 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2019.00120 (DOI)000478726600002 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 223-2014-1064Knowledge Foundation, 20160019
    Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Screening for bioactivities in three types of microplastics deployed in Swedish aquatic environments using a battery of reporter gene assays
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening for bioactivities in three types of microplastics deployed in Swedish aquatic environments using a battery of reporter gene assays
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-75770 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
  • 33.
    Schönlau, Christine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Holmes, Breanne
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Screening for bioactivities in three types of microplastics deployed in Swedish aquatic environments using a battery of reporter gene assaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Schönlau, Christine
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Therese
    Örebro University, MTM Research Centre, Örebro, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Department of Marine Sciences, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Örebro University, MTM Research Centre, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, MTM Research Centre, Örebro, Sweden; Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. MTM Research Centre.
    Microplastics in sea-surface waters surrounding Sweden sampled by manta trawl and in-situ pumpManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Assessing the longitudinal trend of POP concentrations in humans using high-throughput sample preparation methods developed for low-volume samples2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human exposure to anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their related effects on human health widely vary from person to person, making population-based risk assessment difficult.

    This thesis aimed to evaluate how individual changes and implemented re-strictions in POP production influenced human exposure. High-throughput sample preparation methods were developed and applied to plasma samples col-lected for an epidemiological study so that the longitudinal change in concen-trations of a broad range of chlorinated (Cl), brominated (Br) and fluorinated POPs in humans could be efficiently evaluated.

    Two 96-well plate extraction methods were used to determine the concentra-tions of Cl/Br POPs and fluorinated POPs in 150μL of plasma samples collected for the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Plasma samples from 1,016 men and women were collected three times between 2001 and 2014, after participants turned 70, 75 and 80 years old. Dif-ferences in longitudinal trends were observed between Cl/Br POPs and fluori-nated POPs as a result of their differences in time of production and imple-mented restrictions in use. The five year trend in 17 Cl POPs (14 polychlorinated biphenyls and 3 organochlorine pesticides), detected in the majority of the co-hort, and a tetra-brominated diphenyl ether detected in 34% of the follow-up samples showed a significant decrease in plasma concentrations. However, the change in Cl/Br POP concentrations was found to be slower in those who lost more weight and had greater increases in plasma lipids, and showed a faster decline in men versus women. The 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) detected in the majority of the cohort showed an overall increase in PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, while PFHpA, PFOA, FOSA, and L-PFOS showed a de-crease over ten years. One of the PFASs that showed an overall increasing trend was heavily influenced by the percentage of PFAS-contaminated drinking water distributed to the residential area.

    The developed and applied methods showed a high-throughput with precise and consistent results using small sample amounts and the longitudinal trend of POPs in a prospective cohort was efficiently produced. Important information was gained on how residential location, physiological differences and changes, and implemented restrictions in POP production has effected human trends.

    List of papers
    1. Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in serum levels of perfluoroalkyl substances during a 10-year follow-up period in a large population-based cohort
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    2016 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 95, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of man-made fluorinated chemicals which have, at background levels, been associated with negative health effects in humans. Thus far, most human biomonitoring studies have evaluated the general change in PFAS concentration over time by continuously testing various individuals. This is one of the few studies to report the longitudinal trend of a range of PFAS concentrations in humans. In addition, this is the first known longitudinal study to include a large background level exposed cohort of both men and women with the same age and location who were repeatedly sampled from 2001 to 2014.

    The longitudinal change in concentration of eight PFASs detected in serum collected from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort were determined and compared to results from general population studies. The sex-dependent changes in PFAS concentrations over time were also assessed.

    Serum was sampled from the same individuals at ages 70 (collection period 2001-2004), 75 (2006-2009) and 80 (2011-2014,). Eight (C6-11) of fourteen (C4-13) analyzed PFASs were usually detected in over 75% of individuals and assessed using a random effects (mixed) model.

    In the 579 individuals attending all three examinations, PFOSA and PFOS concentrations significantly decreased, while the remaining six PFASs significantly increased between ages 70 and 75. However, between ages 75 and 80 all PFAS concentrations significantly decreased. Overall from age 70 to 80, concentrations of PFHxS, PFUnDA, PFNA, and PFDA showed a significant increase (7% to 34%), whereas concentrations of PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOS, and PFOA (-75% to -27%) significantly decreased. Over time PFHxS concentrations increased more among women, while PFHpA concentrations showed a greater decrease among men.

    From age 70 to age 80, spanning from 2001-2004 to 2011-2014, the PIVUS cohort showed decreases in circulating levels of some PFASs phased out of production with the exception of PFHxS and C>8 PFASs. Contrary to other studies, PFHxS concentrations showed the greatest overall increase, which is likely attributed to a local drinking water contamination incident.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford, United Kingdom: Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Perfluoroalkyl substances, PFASs, perfluoroalkyl acids, longitudinal trends, human serum, biomonitoring
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51743 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2016.08.002 (DOI)000384789500010 ()27542758 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992116107 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, K2009-64X-21031-01-3Swedish Research Council Formas, 216-2007-2047
    Available from: 2016-08-23 Created: 2016-08-23 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
    2. The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of drinking water contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances on a 10-year longitudinal trend of plasma levels in an elderly Uppsala cohort
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 159, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, drinking water contaminated with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), foremost perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) at levels over 20ng/L and 40ng/L, respectively, was confirmed in Uppsala, Sweden.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed how a longitudinally sampled cohort's temporal trend in PFAS plasma concentration was influenced by their residential location and determined the plausible association or disparity between the PFASs detected in the drinking water and the trend in the study cohort.

    METHODS: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort provided plasma samples three times from 2001 to 2014. Individuals maintaining the same zip code throughout the study (n = 399) were divided into a reference (no known PFAS exposure), low, intermediate and high exposure area depending on the proportion of contaminated drinking water received. Eight PFASs detected in the majority (75%) of the cohort's plasma samples were evaluated for significant changes in temporal PFAS concentrations using a random effects (mixed) model.

    RESULTS: PFHxS plasma concentrations continued to significantly increase in individuals living in areas receiving the largest percentage of contaminated drinking water (p < 0.0001), while PFOS showed an overall decrease. The temporal trend of other PFAS plasma concentrations did not show an association to the quality of drinking water received.

    CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of contaminated drinking water had a direct effect on the trend in PFHxS plasma levels among the different exposure groups, resulting in increased concentrations over time, especially in the intermediate and high exposure areas. PFOS and the remaining PFASs did not show the same relationship, suggesting other sources of exposure influenced these PFAS plasma trends.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Academic Press, 2017
    Keywords
    Perfluoroalkyl substances, Drinking water, Longitudinal trend, PIVUS cohort, Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61461 (URN)10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.050 (DOI)000413280500011 ()28780137 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85026781229 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR; K2009-64X-21031-01-3Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; 216-2007-2047
    Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
    3. A new method for analysis of marker POPs in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new method for analysis of marker POPs in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extraction
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64493 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
    4. Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over 5 years in a sample of elderly men and women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over 5 years in a sample of elderly men and women
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Other Chemistry Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-64494 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-01-24 Created: 2018-01-24 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
  • 36.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    A new method for analysis of marker POPs in low-volume plasma and serum samples using 96-well plate solid phase extractionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Stubleski, Jordan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Monica P.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Longitudinal changes in persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over 5 years in a sample of elderly men and womenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 37 of 37
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