oru.sePublikationer
Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 589
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.
    Distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Tokyo Bay, Japan2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 3, 266-272 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the environmental behaviour and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) found in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment. The sampling of the sediment was performed at two stations from Tokyo Bay, Japan, in 2008. In addition, a depth profile of seawater was collected at three water layers from both sampling stations. The ∑PFC concentrations ranged from 16.7 to 42.3 ng L-1 in the water column, from 6.4 to 15.1 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) in the SPM fraction and from 0.29 to 0.36 dw in surface sediment. The distribution of PFCs was found to depend on their physicochemical characteristics. While short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C < 7) were exclusively detected in the dissolved phase, longer-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 7), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) appeared to bind more strongly to particles. Results showed that the sorption of PFCs on SPM increases by 0.52-0.75 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that the sorption of PFSAs was 0.71-0.76 log units higher compared to the PFCA analogs. In addition, the sorption of PFCs was influenced by the organic carbon content. These data are essential for modelling the transport and environmental fate of PFCs.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany; Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Horii, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Partitioning Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds between Pore Water and Sediment in Two Sediment Cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 18, 6969-6975 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C ≤ 7) were found exclusively in pore water, while long-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 11) were found only in sediment. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment. The maximum ΣPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm-2 yr-1. Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  • 3.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, HKSAR, China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, no 5, 731-737 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K OC) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K OC=4.1±0.35cm 3g -1)>PFOS (3.7±0.56cm 3g -1)>PFOA (2.4±0.12cm 3g -1). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate.

  • 4.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alunskiffer – avfall eller råvara?: vittring och lakbarhet vid naturligt pH-intervall2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Passive barriers as a tool to treat environmental pollution2012In: / [ed] Mattiasson B, 2012, 50-51 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sustainable Business Mälardalen: sustainable environmental technology in a global arena2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Uranbrytning i Sverige: ett miljöproblem?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andrusikiewicz, Waclaw
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bilstad, Torleiv
    Cala, Marek
    Cholewa, Marcin
    Drielsma, Johannes
    Galos, Krzysztof
    Gehör, Seppo
    Karu, Veiko
    Kotarska, Izabela
    Koch, Lutz
    Kreisel, Stefan
    Kuiala, Kauko
    Kulczycka, Joanna
    Ostrega, Anna
    Repo, Hanna
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Szcech, Anna
    Szlugaj, Jaroslaw
    Szmigielski, Piotr
    Swierczynski, Wieslaw
    Uberman, Ryszard
    Valgma, Ingo
    Wrzosek, Krzysztof
    Mining waste management in the Baltic Sea Region: Min-Novation project2013Book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cala, Marek
    Ostreca, A.
    Reclamation and revitalisation of waste dumps or land after waste recovery2013In: Mining waste management in the Baltic Sea Region: Min-Novation project / [ed] Marek Cała, Krakow: Wydawnictwa AGH , 2013, 195-236 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft, Bergslagen.
    Control of metal releases from historic sulphidic mine waste: Experience from the test site at the Ljusnarsberg mine field, Sweden (Project Bergskraft Bergslagen)2010In: Proc. EU Mine Drainage Research Exchange Conf. PADRE, June 11, Freiberg, Germany, 2010, 1 p- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen.
    Strategy for treatment of historic sulphidic mine waste: Experiences from the Ljusnarsberg Mine Field, Sweden2009In: Proc. 12th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment, June 14-17, Stockholm, 2009, 197- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grandin, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Black shale: a biogeochemical archive2014In: Sedimentary Pore Space Cementation: Role of Microbes / [ed] Kothe E, Büchel G, 2014, 6- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Mälardalen Univ., Västerås, Sweden.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Metal mobility or metal concentration as the basis for remediation strategy: a case study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköpng Univ.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Redistribution of Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment: Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea2009In: 8th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC VIII) / [ed] Rolf Zeisler, Kenan Ünlü, Susan Heller-Zeisler, Melville, N.Y.: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2009, 1-24 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Düker, Anders
    Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish SeaManuscript (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Metal loads or metal concentrations as the basis for risk assessment of a polluted site: a case study2013In: Sardinia 2013: executive summaries : proceedings of the fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Pinjing He, Peter Kjeldsen, Yasushi Matsufuji, Debra Reinhart, Rainer Stegmann, Cagliari: CISA , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Mälardalen Univ., Västerås, Sweden.
    Martell, Ulrika
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Nordén, Anna
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Reduction in situ of chromium(VI) at a heavily polluted site: a feasible remediation strategy2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Paneva, E.
    Saint Petersburg state university, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Black shales in northern Europe: biogeochemical impact2014In: Biogenic-Abiogenic interactions in natural and anthropogenic systems, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Metal releases from historic sulphidic mine site (Ljusnarsberg, Sweden): mobilization and attenuation processes2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Amdany, Robert
    et al.
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chimuka, Luke
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Cukrowska, Ewa
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Tölgyessy, Peter
    Water Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Assessment of bioavailable fraction of POPS in surface water bodies in Johannesburg City, South Africa, using passive samplers: an initial assessment2014In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 186, no 9, 5639-5653 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) passive samplers were used to determine freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in selected water bodies situated in and around Johannesburg City, South Africa. The devices were deployed for 14 days at each sampling site in spring and summer of 2011. Time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the water-borne contaminants were calculated from the amounts of analytes accumulated in the passive samplers. In the area of interest, concentrations of analytes in water ranged from 33.5 to 126.8 ng l(-1) for PAHs, from 20.9 to 120.9 pg l(-1) for PCBs and from 0.2 to 36.9 ng l(-1) for OCPs. Chlorinated pesticides were mainly composed of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (0.15-36.9 ng l(-1)) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethane (DDT) with its metabolites (0.03-0.55 ng l(-1)). By applying diagnostic ratios of certain PAHs, identification of possible sources of the contaminants in the various sampling sites was performed. These ratios were generally inclined towards pyrogenic sources of pollution by PAHs in all study sites except in the Centurion River (CR), Centurion Lake (CL) and Airport River (AUP) that indicated petrogenic origins. This study highlights further need to map up the temporal and spatial variations of these POPs using passive samplers.

  • 21.
    Amdany, Robert
    et al.
    School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chimuka, Luke
    School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Cukrowska, Ewa
    School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Investigating the temporal trends in PAH, PCB and OCP concentrations in Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)2014In: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 40, no 3, 425-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal variability of persistent organic pollutants in Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa, was investigated using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers. Freely dissolved waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were sampled to investigate seasonal changes in their concentrations. Exposure of the passive samplers was done for 14 days at the same sampling site in each of the four seasons of the year, in 2011. The SPMD-derived analyte amounts enabled the calculation of time-weighted averages of free dissolved waterborne levels of the contaminants. Concentrations ranged from 30.0 ng.l(-1) to 51.5 ng.l(-1) for PAHs, 38 pg l(-1) to 150 pg.l(-1) for PCBs, 9.2 to 10.4 ng.l(-1) for HCHs and 0.3 to 0.8 ng.l(-1) for DDTs, respectively. It was also noted that the winter season generally exhibited higher contaminant concentrations for most compounds studied, which likely reflects the seasonality of their atmospheric deposition. An attempt was also made to identify possible sources of PAH contaminants in the dam by examining PAH ratios. These diagnostic ratios were inclined towards pyrogenic sources of pollution, except for the winter season where both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources likely contribute to the contamination pattern.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Antonia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fytoremediering med perenn solros i åkerjord2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Jordar förorenade med höga halter giftiga metaller till följd av antropogen verksamhet förekommer på flera platser på jorden och kan utgöra hälsorisk för både människor, djur och miljö. Därför finns orsak att se på miljövänliga metoder för sanering av förorenad mark. Då konventionella saneringsmetoder där jorden förflyttas från platsen ofta är mycket kostsamma och riskerar störa ekosystemen i hög grad är fytoremediering en metod med stor potential, vilken går ut på att rena mark eller vatten med växter. Studier har bland annat gjorts där annuell solros visat sig användbar för rening mark. Däremot verkar inga studier finns för perenn solros förmåga att ackumulera metaller från mark. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka perenn solros H. maximilianis upptag av metaller från jord hämtad från en åker i Mellansverige, samt att kvantifiera och kemiskt karakterisera metallerna i jorden. Frågeställningen studien ämnar besvara är om solrosen H. maximiliani lämpar sig för fytoremediering av metallförorenad mark. Metod: Perenn solros av sorten Helianthus maximiliani såddes i jord hämtad från en åker i Mellansverige och placerades i ett klimatreglerat växthus på Örebro universitet. Frön såddes samtidigt i såjord och vermiculit för senare omplantering till krukor med åkerjorden. Åkerjorden analyserades innan sådd på syralakbar halt metaller samt på växttillgänglig, reducerbar och oxiderbar halt. Plantorna skördades vid två tillfällen varpå metallinnehållet mättes för olika växtdelar. Jorden analyserades efter skörd. Metallanalysen gjordes i IPC-MS Agilent 7500 cx. Resultaten analyserades utifrån en signifikansnivå på 5 % och plantans ackumuleringseffektivitet beräknades och bedömdes utifrån BCF (bioconcentration factors). Resultat och slutsats: H. maximilianis tillväxt i åkerjorden var låg. Möjligtvis på grund av låg syrehalt och/eller lågt pH i jorden. H. maximiliani tog effektivt upp metaller som V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba och Tl från den växttillgängliga fraktionen i marken till blad och stjälk. För att i realiteten kunna använda den perenna solrosen H maximiliani som fytoremedieringsgröda krävs högre tillväxt än vad som åstadkommits i studien. Åkerjorden från Kvinnersta innehöll halter av Cd, Cu, Zn och Ni högre än riktvärdena för acceptabel nivå innan slamgödsling bör ske, samt halter som översteg eller gränsade till riktvärdena för högsta acceptabla nivå för känslig markanvändning för metallerna As, Ba, Cd, Cu, och Zn. Halten uran var mellan cirka 5 och 50 gånger högre än den genomsnittliga uranhalten för jordar i Europa. De metaller av dem som förekom i hög halt i jorden (jämfört med Naturvårdsverkets gränsvärden för känslig markanvändning, samt gräns vid slamgödsling) som H. maximiliani inte tog upp effektivt var As, Pb och U.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB.
    Berggren, Anna
    Analycen AB.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Analycen AB.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen university.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    AhR agonist and genotoxicant bioavailability in a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing biological treatment2009In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, no 5, 521-530 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. However, the PAH loss is not always followed by a reduction in soil toxicity. For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. In addition, standard PAH analysis does not address the issue of total toxicant bioavailability in bioremediated soil.

    To address these questions, we have used the CALUX AhR agonist bioassay and the Comet genotoxicity bioassay with RTL-W1 cells to evaluate the toxic potential of different extracts from a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing large-scale bioremediation. The extracts were also chemically analyzed for PAH16 and PCDD/PCDF. Soil sampled on five occasions between day 0 and day 274 of biological treatment was shaken with n-butanol with vortex mixing at room temperature to determine the bioavailable fraction of contaminants. To establish total concentrations, parts of the same samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with toluene at 100A degrees C. The extracts were tested as inducers of AhR-dependent luciferase activity in the CALUX assay and for DNA breakage potential in the Comet bioassay.

    The chemical analysis of the toluene extracts indicated slow degradation rates and the CALUX assay indicated high levels of AhR agonists in the same extracts. Compared to day 0, the bioavailable fractions showed no decrease in AhR agonist activity during the treatment but rather an up-going trend, which was supported by increasing levels of PAHs and an increased effect in the Comet bioassay after 274 days. The bio-TEQs calculated using the CALUX assay were higher than the TEQs calculated from chemical analysis in both extracts, indicating that there are additional toxic PAHs in both extracts that are not included in the chemically derived TEQ.

    The response in the CALUX and the Comet bioassays as well as the chemical analysis indicate that the soil might be more toxic to organisms living in soil after 274 days of treatment than in the untreated soil, due to the release of previously sorbed PAHs and possibly also metabolic formation of novel toxicants.

    Our results put focus on the issue of slow degradation rates and bioavailability of PAHs during large-scale bioremediation treatments. The release of sorbed PAHs at the investigated PAH-contaminated site seemed to be faster than the degradation rate, which demonstrates the importance of considering the bioavailable fraction of contaminants during a bioremediation process.

    It has to be ensured that soft remediation methods like biodegradation or the natural remediation approach do not result in the mobilization of toxic compounds including more mobile degradation products. For PAH-contaminated sites this cannot be assured merely by monitoring the 16 target PAHs. The combined use of a battery of biotests for different types of PAH effects such as the CALUX and the Comet assay together with bioavailability extraction methods may be a useful screening tool of bioremediation processes of PAH-contaminated soil and contribute to a more accurate risk assessment. If the bioremediation causes a release of bound PAHs that are left undegraded in an easily extracted fraction, the soil may be more toxic to organisms living in the soil as a result of the treatment. A prolonged treatment time may be one way to reduce the risk of remaining mobile PAHs. In critical cases, the remediation concept might have to be changed to ex situ remediation methods.

  • 24.
    Andrén, O.
    et al.
    Departments of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Barley straw decomposition with varied levels of microbial grazing by Folsomia fimetaria (L.) (Collembola, Isotomidae)1985In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 68, no 1, 57-62 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Folsomia fimetaria (L.) were added (0, 5, 10, 20 animals) to 0.100 g barley straw which had been inoculated 10 days (244 h) earlier with a natural soil microflora. Respiration (CO2 evolution) was monitored continuously. Mass loss, fungal standing crop (total and FDA-active), bacterial and protozoan biomass were estimated 42 days (1,000 h) after microbial inoculation. The degree of surface cover by hyphae was surveyed at regular intervals. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in respiration, mass loss or microbial biomass, but the density of surface hyphae were reduced by addition of Collembola. Fungal production was low, less than 5% of the estimated microbial production, and could not account for all collembolan growth during incubation. F. fimetaria appeared to consume mainly bacteria and protozoa, and had little impact on carbon mineralization.

  • 25.
    Angelov, Christo
    et al.
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Nikolova, Nina
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Kalapov, Ivo
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Arsov, Todor
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Tchorbadjieff, Assen
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Boyadjieva, Aneta
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Tsakovski, Stefan
    Analytical Chemistry, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pribylová, Petra
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Boruvková, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    High-mountain monitoring of persistent organic pollutants at the basic environmental observatory moussala2014In: Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences / Proceedings of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1310-1331, E-ISSN 2367-5535, Vol. 67, no 8, 1129-1136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the performance of the equipment for passive air sampling installed at Basic Environmental Observatory (BEO) Moussala, together with the first results obtained during the campaigns conducted in the period March 2009 March 2011 within the framework of the network for POP monitoring (MONET EU Project).

    The advantage of sampling at BEO Moussala is that the observatory is located at a high altitude (Moussala Peak, 2925 m above sea level), away from industrial polluters and large transportation fluxes. This unique location allows one to gather data from a large region subjected to the influence of transboundary Mediterranean and continental air masses. This would further open possibilities for studying the pollutants' levels and their correlation with the local climatic factors, the latter being well known in this region.

  • 26.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Isacson, Maths
    Gavrilov, Dmitri V.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Bäckstrom, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Degerman, Erik
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sadbom, Stefan
    Törnblom, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 42, no 2, 146-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  • 27.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences. Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    Div. of Geogr. Info. Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Space Corporation, Swedish Land Survey, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Östman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Intergraph, Sweden .
    Lazdinis, Marius
    Lithuanian Agricultural University, Lithuania; Southern Illinois University, United States; Lithuanian Ministry of Environment, Lithuania; Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture, Sweden; Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Université Laval, Canada; Department of Conservation Biology, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden .
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Two-dimensional gap analysis: a tool for efficient conservation planning and biodiversity policy implementation2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 32, no 8, 527-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  • 28.
    Angergård, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ungdomars val av mat relaterat till deras uppfattning om hälsa och miljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food, environment and human health is one consistent theme for this essay that aims to show on the positive opportunities whit educating young people in the environmental impacts of personal foodchoice. Personal choice of food makes a difference to the environment but those environmental friendly choices can also have a positive effect on the health of the individual. Some of the reasons why certain food is preferred before others is brought up in the background. Interviews have been done with four adolescents in the age group 13-15 years studying in two different schools. The results show that the adolescents in this study would like to eat food that is good for the environment but generally miss information about what food that is.

  • 29.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Organic complexing agents for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil may be enhanced by the addition of synthetic chelators. Since many of these chelators may imply stress to soil organisms and are poorly biodegraded, identification and evaluation of effective biodegradable or recyclable chelators (synthetic and/or naturally produced) is of great interest. The efficiency of biodegradable synthetic chelators was evaluated both in bench- (0.3 kg) and meso- (10 kg) scale. Results demonstrated that the solubilization of copper, lead, and zinc was similar in bench- and meso-scale systems, which indicated that these systems could be used in a technical scale. However, the arsenic extraction in meso-scale system, were non-conclusive. Due to the high cost involved in the purchase of synthetic chelating agents, recycling of the solutions is of great interest, and this was achieved in five consecutive washing cycles. Considering the economy of a full-scale process, recycling of complexing solutions with sulfide addition at each cycle, both at the 100 mM-level, appears feasible. Naturally derived chelators were produced by saprotrophic fungi and through alkaline degradation of humic substances and cellulose. The results demonstrated that these types of complexing agents are not as effective as the synthetic chelators. In the fungal systems, desorption of metals was related to production of organic complexing acids, but mainly to the pH-decrease. Nonetheless, in some systems, formation of soluble complexes was indicated (copper). Enhancement of copper, lead, and zinc release with the use of alkaline leachates from wood and peat appeared possible. Since these agents have a natural origin and are derived from rather cheap raw material, recycling is not an issue.

     

    List of papers
    1. Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 205, no 1-4, 215-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations were made on living strains offungi in a bioremediation process of three metal (lead)contaminated soils. Three saprotrophic fungi (Aspergillusniger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp.) wereexposed to poor and rich nutrient conditions (no carbonavailability or 0.11 M D-glucose, respectively) andmetal stress (25 μM lead or contaminated soils) for5 days. Exudation of low molecular weight organicacids was investigated as a response to the metal andnutrient conditions. Main organic acids identified wereoxalic acid (A. niger) and citric acid (P. bilaiae).Exudation rates of oxalate decreased in response tolead exposure, while exudation rates of citrate were lessaffected. Total production under poor nutrient conditionswas low, except for A. niger, for which nosignificant difference was found between the poor andrich control. Maximum exudation rates were 20 μmoloxalic acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (A. niger) and 20 μmolcitric acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (P. bilaiae), in the presenceof the contaminated soil, but only 5 μmol organic acidsg^−1 biomass h^−1, in total, for the Penicillium sp. Therewas a significant mobilization of metals from the soilsin the carbon rich treatments and maximum release ofPb was 12% from the soils after 5 days. This was notsufficient to bring down the remaining concentration tothe target level 300 mg kg^−1 from initial levels of 3,800,1,600, and 370 mg kg^−1in the three soils. Target levelsfor Ni, Zn, and Cu, were 120, 500, and 200 mg kg^−1,respectively, and were prior to the bioremediationalready below these concentrations (except for Cu Soil1). However, maximum release of Ni, Zn, and Cu was28%, 35%, and 90%, respectively. The release of metalswas related to the production of chelating acids, but alsoto the pH-decrease. This illustrates the potential to usefungi exudates in bioremediation of contaminated soil.Nonetheless, the extent of the generation of organicacids is depending on several processes and mechanismsthat need to be further investigated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2008
    Keyword
    Bioremediation, Citric acid, Fungi, Lead, Organic acids, Oxalic acid
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Environmental Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11843 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0067-z (DOI)000272851000016 ()2-s2.0-75049083063 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-09-15 Created: 2010-09-15 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi II-Metal Redistribution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi II-Metal Redistribution
    2010 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 207, no 1-4, 5-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by fungi was studied in a project focusing on bioremediation of metal-contaminated soils. The production of acids (mainly oxalic and citric acid) as a response to nutrient variations and presence of metals has recently been reported (Arwidsson et al. 2009). A significant release of metals was observed and was related not only to the production of organic acids but also to the resulting pH decrease in the systems. The processes governing the release and redistribution of metals in the soil-water fungus system were the focus of the present continuation of the project, based on observations of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp. The release of lead was 12% from the soil with the second highest initial load (1,600 mg kg(-1)), while the release of copper was 90% from the same soil (140 mg kg(-1)). The dominating mechanism behind the release and subsequent redistribution was the change in pH, going from near neutral to values in the range 2.1-5.9, reflecting the production of organic acids. For some of the systems, the formation of soluble complexes is indicated (copper, at intermediate pH) which favors the metal release. Iron is assumed to play a key role since the amount of secondary iron in the soils is higher than the total load of secondary heavy metals. It can be assumed that most of the heavy metals are initially associated with iron-rich phases through adsorption or coprecipitation. These phases can be dissolved, or associated metals can be desorbed, by a decrease in pH. It would be feasible to further develop a process in technical scale for remediation of metal-contaminated soil, based on microbial metabolite production leading to formation of soluble metal complexes, notably with copper.

    Keyword
    Bioremediation, Fungi, Metals, Oxalic acid, Citric acid
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13015 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0222-6 (DOI)000274550700002 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Leaching of metals from contamined soil with polyhydroxycarboxylic acids of natural origin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching of metals from contamined soil with polyhydroxycarboxylic acids of natural origin
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15427 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-29 Created: 2011-04-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, no 1-3, 697-704 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the action of the two biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), as well as citric acid, was tested. Three soil samples, which had previously been treated by conventional soil washing (water), were utilized in the leaching tests. Experiments were performed in batches (0.3 kg-scale) and with a WTC-mixer system (Water Treatment Construction, 10 kg-scale). EDDS and MGDA were most often equally efficient in removing Cu, Pb, and Zn after 10-60 min. Nonetheless, after 10 d, there were occasionally significant differences in extraction efficiencies. Extraction with citric acid was generally less efficient, however equal for Zn (mainly) after 10 d. Metal removal was similar in batch and WTC-mixer systems, which indicates that a dynamic mixer system could be used in full-scale. Use of biodegradable amino polycarboxylic acids for metal removal, as a second step after soil washing, would release most remaining metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from the present soils, however only after long leaching time. Thus, a full-scale procedure, based on enhanced metal leaching by amino polycarboxylic acids from soil of the present kind, Would require a pre-leaching step lasting several days in order to be efficient. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Keyword
    Heavy metals, Amino polycarboxylic acids, Soil, Remediation, EDDS, MGDA
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Research subject
    Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13043 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.141 (DOI)000273135600098 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-03 Created: 2011-01-03 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    5. Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15428 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-29 Created: 2011-04-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, no 2-3, 1033-1040 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keyword
    Arsenic, Microtox®, PAH, Soil washing, Surfactant
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences
    Research subject
    Enviromental Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7988 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.092 (DOI)000271980800068 ()19699582 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-71049155866 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-09-23 Created: 2009-09-23 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 30.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Odlare, Monica
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ribé, Veronica
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Ragnar
    Solventic AB, Motala, Sweden.
    von Kronhelm, Tomas
    SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    van Hees, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Remediation of soils and sludges containing organic contaminants as well as metals – soil-wash procedures combining biodegradation, chemical complexation and mechanical separation of particulate matter2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil contamination is an urgent issue world wide. More than 83,000 contaminated sites have been identified in Sweden alone, of which approximately some 4,000 require treatment in the near future. Most of the sites carry a mixture of contaminants, metals as well as persistent organics. Most soil remediation efforts are made ex situ, which means that the soil or sludge is dug up and transported to a facility for treatment, or simply for deposition. The aim of the present project is to design a strategy for ex situ treatment of soils with mixed contaminants. A variety of soils and sludges from different sites (around 10), essentially all with organic as well as inorganic (metallic) contaminants, have been selected for experimental studies in laboratory and pilot scale: Military sites (metals, explosives), wood preservation sites (PAHs, As, metals), industrial sites (metals, hydrocarbons, mercury, dioxins and others). Of particular importance in the present study are:

    Metals – Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Hg, as well as As Organics – PAHs, nitro aromatics, dioxins

    A number of processes are selected and applied: •Biodegradation - use of commercially available cultures, as well as bacteria cultivated from the contaminated site itself •Mobilisation of organics - use of surface active agents •Mobilisation of metals - use of (1) complexing microbial metabolites produced in the soil (by fungii in paricular), (2) complexing agents generated by degradation of natural organic products (polyhydroxy carboxylic acids), and (3) artificial complexing agents (polyamino carboxylic acids).

    Biodegradation is performed in batches (anaerobic in most cases), while release and mobilisation of contaminants from soil aggregates are achieved during soil-wash performed in a dynamic system where wash solution is forced through the soil under high pressure (the WTC-process). The efficiency of biodegradation and subsequent soil-wash under various conditions is evaluated from chemical analysis, but also by several ecotoxicological tests. Some results are given that illustrates suitable strategies for treatment of mixed contaminated soil from real sites (soil) as well as for treatment of residues from industrial production (sludges etc).

  • 32.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science & Technology, Örebro, Sweden; SAKAB AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB AB, Kumla Sweden.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    van Hees, Patrick A. W.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Eurofins Environment Sweden AB, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids2008In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 205, no 1-4, 215-226 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations were made on living strains offungi in a bioremediation process of three metal (lead)contaminated soils. Three saprotrophic fungi (Aspergillusniger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp.) wereexposed to poor and rich nutrient conditions (no carbonavailability or 0.11 M D-glucose, respectively) andmetal stress (25 μM lead or contaminated soils) for5 days. Exudation of low molecular weight organicacids was investigated as a response to the metal andnutrient conditions. Main organic acids identified wereoxalic acid (A. niger) and citric acid (P. bilaiae).Exudation rates of oxalate decreased in response tolead exposure, while exudation rates of citrate were lessaffected. Total production under poor nutrient conditionswas low, except for A. niger, for which nosignificant difference was found between the poor andrich control. Maximum exudation rates were 20 μmoloxalic acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (A. niger) and 20 μmolcitric acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (P. bilaiae), in the presenceof the contaminated soil, but only 5 μmol organic acidsg^−1 biomass h^−1, in total, for the Penicillium sp. Therewas a significant mobilization of metals from the soilsin the carbon rich treatments and maximum release ofPb was 12% from the soils after 5 days. This was notsufficient to bring down the remaining concentration tothe target level 300 mg kg^−1 from initial levels of 3,800,1,600, and 370 mg kg^−1in the three soils. Target levelsfor Ni, Zn, and Cu, were 120, 500, and 200 mg kg^−1,respectively, and were prior to the bioremediationalready below these concentrations (except for Cu Soil1). However, maximum release of Ni, Zn, and Cu was28%, 35%, and 90%, respectively. The release of metalswas related to the production of chelating acids, but alsoto the pH-decrease. This illustrates the potential to usefungi exudates in bioremediation of contaminated soil.Nonetheless, the extent of the generation of organicacids is depending on several processes and mechanismsthat need to be further investigated.

  • 33.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ålund, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Leaching of metals from contamined soil with polyhydroxycarboxylic acids of natural originManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Asnake, Solomon
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Banjop-Kharlyngdoh, Joubert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Modig, Carina
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH)-mediated steroid hormone receptor activation and gene regulation in chicken LMH cells2014In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 33, no 4, 891-899 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incorporation of brominated flame retardants into industrial and household appliances has increased their occurrence in the environment, resulting in deleterious effects on wildlife. With the increasing restraints on available compounds, there has been a shift to using brominated flame retardants that has seen the production of alternative brominated flame retardants such as 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH), which has been detected in the environment. In previous in silico and in vitro studies the authors have shown that TBECH can activate both the human androgen receptor (hAR) and the zebrafish AR (zAR) suggesting that it is a potential endocrine disruptor. The present study was aimed at determining the interaction of TBECH with the chicken AR (cAR). In the present study, TBECH bound to cAR, but in vitro activation assay studies using the chicken LMH cell line showed it had a potency of only 15% compared with testosterone. Sequence difference between ARs from different species may contribute to the different responses to TBECH. Further quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that TBECH interacted with and altered the expression of both thyroid receptors and estrogen receptors. In addition, the qRT-PCR analysis showed that TBECH altered the transcription pattern of genes involved in inflammatory, apoptotic, proliferative, DNA methylation, and drug-metabolizing pathways. This demonstrates that TBECH, apart from activating cAR, can also influence multiple biological pathways in the chicken.

  • 35.
    Avakian, Maureen D.
    et al.
    MDB Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Dellinger, Barry
    Louisiana State Univ, Dept Chem, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    United Nations Environment Program Chemicals, Chatelaine, Switzerland.
    Gullet, Brian
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Koshland, Catherine
    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Environmental Chemistry, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oberdorster, Günter
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, New York, USA.
    Safe, Stephen
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University, Texas , USA.
    Sarofim, Adel
    Department of Chemical anf Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Smith, Kirk R.
    Environmental Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.
    Schwartz, David
    Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Suk, William A.
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Resaearc Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
    The origin, fate, and health effects of combustion by-products: A research framework2002In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 110, no 11, 1155-1162 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomplete combustion processes can emit organic pollutants, metals, and fine particles. Combustion by-products represent global human and environmental health challenges that are relevant not only in heavily industrialized nations, but also in developing nations where up to 90% of rural households rely on unprocessed biomass fuels for cooking, warmth, and light. These issues were addressed at the Seventh International Congress on Combustion BY-Products, which convened 4-6 June 2001 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. This congress included a diverse group of multidisciplinary researchers and practitioners who discussed recent developments and future goals in the control of combustion by-products and their effects of exposure on human and ecologic health. Participants recommended that interdisciplinary, coordinated research efforts should be focused to capitalize on the important potential synergisms between efforts to reduce the adverse human health effects linked to exposures to combustion by-products and broader efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save energy through efficiency. In this article we summarize the principal findings and recommendations for research focus and direction.

  • 36.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampa, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. MTM Research Centre, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Per
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, 93-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

    Methods: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

    Results: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

    Conclusion: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

  • 37.
    Baduel, Christine
    et al.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Mueller, Jochen F.
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia.
    Corfield, John
    Brisbane Airport Corporation PTY Limited, Australia.
    Gomez-Ramos, Maria-Jose
    Queensland Alliance for Environmental Health Sciences (QAEHS), The University of Queensland, Coopers Plains QLD, Australia; Agrifood Campus of International Excellence (CeiA3), Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Almeria, European Union Reference Labora tory for Pesticide Residues in Fruit and Vegetables, Almería, Spain.
    Discovery of novel per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) at a fire fighting training ground and preliminary investigation of their fate and mobility2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 185, 1030-1038 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) have been released at fire training facilities for several decades resulting in the contamination of soil and groundwater by per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). AFFF compositions are proprietary and may contain a broad range of PFASs for which the chemical structures and degradation products are not known. In this study, high resolution quadrupole-time-of flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) in combination with data processing using filtering strategies was applied to characterize and elucidate the PFASs present in concrete extracts collected at a fire training ground after the historical use of various AFFF formulations. Twelve different fluorochemical classes, representing more than 60 chemicals, were detected and identified in the concrete extracts. Novel PFASs homologues, unmonitored before in environmental samples such as chlorinated PFSAs, ketone PFSAs, dichlorinated PFSAs and perfluoroalkane sulphonamides (FASAs) were detected in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the fire training ground. Their detection in the soil cores (from 0 to 2 m) give an insight on the potential mobility of these newly identified PFASs.

  • 38.
    Banjop-Kharlygdoh, Joubert
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Pradhan, Ajay
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Asnake, Solomon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Walstad, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ivarsson, Per
    ALS Laboratory Group, Analytical Chemistry & Testing Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Identification of a group of brominated flame retardants as novel androgen receptor antagonists and potential neuronal and endocrine disrupters2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 74, 60-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used in industrial products to reduce the risk of fire. However, their continuous release into the environment is a concern as they are often persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic. Information on the impact these compounds have on human health and wildlife is limited and only a few of them have been identified to disrupt hormone receptor functions. In the present study we used in silico modeling to determine the interactions of selected BFRs with the human androgen receptor (AR). Three compounds were found to dock into the ligand-binding domain of the human AR and these were further tested using in vitro analysis. Allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), 2-bromoallyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE) and 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) were observed to act as AR antagonists. These BFRs have recently been detected in the environment, in house dust and in aquatic animals. The compounds have been detected at high concentrations in both blubber and brain of seals and we therefore also assessed their impact on the expression of L-type amino acid transporter system (LAT) genes, that are needed for amino acid uptake across the blood-brain barrier, as disruption of LAT gene function has been implicated in several brain disorders. The three BFRs down-regulated the expression of AR target genes that encode for prostate specific antigen (PSA), 5. α-reductases and β-microseminoprotein. The potency of PSA inhibition was of the same magnitude as the common prostate cancer drugs, demonstrating that these compounds are strong AR antagonists. Western blot analysis of AR protein showed that ATE, BATE and DPTE decreased the 5. α-dihydrotestosterone-induced AR protein levels, further confirming that these BFRs act as AR antagonists. The transcription of the LAT genes was altered by the three BFRs, indicating an effect on amino-acid uptake across cellular membranes and blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrated that ATE, BATE and DPTE are potent AR antagonists and the alterations in LAT gene transcription suggest that these compounds can affect neuronal functions and should be considered as potential neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting compounds.

  • 39.
    Benisek, Martin
    et al.
    Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Mariani, Giulio
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, Ispra, Italy.
    Suurkuusk, Gert
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, Ispra, Italy.
    Gawlik, Bernd M.
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, Ispra, Italy.
    Locoro, Giovanni
    European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Unit H.01-Water Resources Unit, Ispra, Italy.
    Giesy, John P.
    Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, SK, Canada; Department of Biology & Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China.
    Bláha, Ludek
    Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 122, 168-175 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(bio)) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQ(bio), (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22 mu g (TEQ(bio)) kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts.

  • 40.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    et al.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, China.
    Martin, Jonathan W.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Perfluorinated Acid Isomer Profiling in Water and Quantitative Assessment of Manufacturing Source2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 23, 9049-9054 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C7F15COO -) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C 8F17SO3-) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.

  • 41. Berger, Urs
    et al.
    Kaiser, Mary A.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Barber, Jonathan L.
    van Leeuwen, Stefan P. J.
    Recent developments in trace analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances2011In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 400, no 6, 1625-1635 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Recent developments, improvements, and trends in the ultra-trace determination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in environmental and human samples are highlighted and the remaining challenges and uncertainties are outlined and discussed. Understanding the analytical implications of such things as adsorption of PFASs to surfaces, effects of differing matrices, varying PFAS isomer response factors, potential bias effects of sampling, sample preparation, and analysis is critical to measuring highly fluorinated compounds at trace levels. These intricate analytical issues and the potential consequences of ignoring to deal with them correctly are discussed and documented with examples. Isomer-specific analysis and the development of robust multi-chemical methods are identified as topical trends in method development for an ever-increasing number of PFASs of environmental and human interest. Ultimately, the state-of-the-art of current analytical method accuracy is discussed on the basis of results from interlaboratory comparison studies.

  • 42. Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Kucera, Adam
    Frech, Kristina
    Andersson, Erika
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rannug, Ulf
    Koci, Vladimir
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Haglund, Peter
    Tysklind, Mats
    Identification of potentially toxic compounds in complex extracts of environmental samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis2007In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 26, no 2, 208-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we examined 31 samples of varying chemical composition, including samples of soils from gasworks, coke production sites, and sites where wood preservatives were heavily used; ash and soot from municipal solid waste incinerators; antiskid sand; and dust from areas with heavy road traffic. The samples were comprehensively chemically characterized, especially their polycyclic aromatic compound contents, using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas their biological effects were assessed using dehydrogenase activity, root growth (Hordeum vulgare), reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida), algal growth (Desmodesmus subspicatus), germinability (Sinapis alba), Vibrio fischeri, DR-CALUX, and Ames Salmonella assays. The number of compounds detected in the samples ranged from 123 to 527. Using the multivariate regression technique of partial-least-squares projections to latent structures, it was possible to find individual compounds that exhibited strong correlations with the different biological responses. Some of the results, however, indicate that a broader chemical characterization may be needed to identify all the compounds that may cause the measured biological responses.

  • 43.
    Binnington, Matthew J
    et al.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Lei, Ying D
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada.
    Pokiak, Lucky
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Pokiak, James
    Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee, Tuktoyaktuk, Canada.
    Ostertag, Sonja K
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Loseto, Lisa L
    Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Chan, Hing M
    Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada .
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada .
    Huang, Haiyong
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Wania, Frank
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada .
    Effects of preparation on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels in Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) traditional foods2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 8, 1000-1015 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For Canadian Arctic indigenous populations, marine mammal (MM) traditional foods (TFs) represent sources of both important nutrients and hazardous environmental contaminants. Food preparation is known to impact the nutrient and environmental contaminant content of processed items, yet the impacts of preparation on indigenous Arctic MM TFs remain poorly characterized. In order to determine how the various processes involved in preparing beluga blubber TFs affect their levels of nutrients and environmental contaminants, we collected blubber samples from 2 male beluga whales, aged 24 and 37 years, captured during the 2014 summer hunting season in Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories, and processed them according to local TF preparation methods. We measured the levels of select nutrients [selenium (Se), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)] and contaminants [organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mercury (Hg)] in raw and prepared (boiled, roasted, aged) beluga blubber TFs. The impacts of beluga blubber TF preparation methods on nutrient and environmental contaminant levels were inconsistent, as the majority of processes either did not appear to influence concentrations or affected the two belugas differently. However, roasting and ageing beluga blubber consistently impacted certain compounds: roasting blubber increased concentrations of hydrophilic substances (Se and certain PFASs) through solvent depletion and deposited PAHs from cookfire smoke. The solid-liquid phase separation involved in ageing blubber depleted hydrophilic elements (Se, Hg) and some ionogenic PFASs from the lipid-rich liquid oil phase, while PUFA levels appeared to increase, and hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants were retained. Ageing blubber adjacent to in-use smokehouses also resulted in considerable PAH deposition to processed samples. Our findings demonstrated that contaminant concentration differences were greater between the two sets of whale samples, based on age differences, than they were within each set of whale samples, due to variable preparation methods. When considering means to minimize human contaminant exposure while maximizing nutrient intake, consumption of aged liquid from younger male whales would be preferred, based on possible PUFA enhancement and selective depletion of hydrophilic environmental contaminants in this food item.

  • 44.
    Bjurlid, Filip
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ricklund, Niklas
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Jessika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Occurrence of brominated dioxins in a study using various firefighting methods2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 599-600, 1213-1221 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different firefighting methods influences how fast a fire is extinguished and how fast the temperature drops in the area affected by the fire. These differences may also influence the formation of harmful pollutants during firefighting of an accidental fire. The aim was to study occurrence of brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) in gas and soot during five fire scenarios resembling a small apartment fire and where different firefighting methods were used. Samples of gas and soot were taken both during the buildup of the fire and during the subsequent extinguishing of the fire while using different firefighting methods (nozzle, compressed air foam system, cutting extinguisher) and an extinguishing additive. New containers equipped with identical sets of combustible material were used for the five tests. The use of different firefighting methods and extinguishing additive induced variations in concentration and congener profiles of detected PBDD/Fs. The concentration range of Sigma PBDD/Fs in gas was 4020-18,700 pg/m(3), and in soot 76-4092 pg/m(2). PBDFs were the predominant congeners and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF was the most abundant congener. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were also monitored. The PBDD/Fs contributed with in average 97% to the total (PCDD/Fs plus PBDD/Fs) toxic equivalents, in soot and gas. During extinguishing, the shorter time the temperature was around 300 degrees C, the lower occurrence of PBDD/Fs. In the study the firefighting methods showed a difference in how effectively they induced a temperature decrease below 300 degrees C in the fire zone during quenching, where cutting extinguishing using additive and the compressed air foam system showed the fastest drop in temperature.

  • 45.
    Björkblom, Carina
    et al.
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Högfors, Eva
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Salste, Lotta
    Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Bergelin, Eija
    Laboratory of Wood and Paper Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Katsiadaki, Ioanna
    Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Weymouth, United Kingdom.
    Wiklund, Tom
    Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Estrogenic and androgenic effects of municipal wastewater effluent on reproductive endpoint biomarkers in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2009In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, no 5, 1063-1071 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants have been associated with the release of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, which consequently lead to alterations of reproductive function in aquatic organisms. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has quantifiable biomarkers for assessment of both estrogen (vitellogenin) and androgen (spiggin) activity, which makes this species very valuable in the research of endocrine disruption. The estrogenic and androgenic biomarkers were used for evaluating exposure effects of municipal wastewater effluent. We evaluated the effects of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), and wastewater effluents on induction of vitellogenin and spiggin production, gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, nephrosomatic index, plasma steroid levels, and histopathology. Adult female and male sticklebacks were exposed to 20 ng/L of EE2, 10 microg/L of MT, and wastewater effluent (10, 50, and 80% of original concentration) in a flow-through system for an exposure of one week and an extended exposure of four weeks. Chemical analyses of the steroids were done for verification of exposure concentrations and presence in the used wastewater. Our results show that municipal wastewater effluent exerts estrogenic action on three-spined stickleback as observed by elevated vitellogenin levels in exposed fish, corresponding to the effect seen in fish exposed to EE2. Furthermore, wastewater and EE2 exerted similar histopathological effects on testis of exposed fish. Although domestic effluent is suspected to have a high content of natural androgens, no obvious androgenic effect of wastewater was observed in the present study.

  • 46.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P. (Mick)
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, PMB 1, Aspendale, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Environment Protection Agency, (E343-04), Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine (GE), Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Australia.
    Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open burning of biomass2012In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 38, no 1, 62-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment Development and implementation of policies to achieve this aim require accurate national inventories of releases of PCDD/PCDF/dl-PCB. To support this objective, the Conference of Parties established a process to review and update the UNEP Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. An assessment of all emission inventories was that for many countries open burning of biomass and waste was identified as the major source of PCDD/PCDF releases. However, the experimental data underpinning the release estimates used were limited in number and, consequently, confidence in the accuracy of the emissions predictions was low. There has been significant progress in measurement technology since the last edition of the Toolkit in 2005. In this paper we reassess published emission factors for release of PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB to land and air.

    In total, four types of biomass and 111 emission factors were assessed. It was found that there are no systematic differences in emission factors apparent between biomass types or fire classes. The data set is best described by a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean emission factors (EFs) for releases of PCDD/PCDF to air for the four biomass classes used in the Toolkit (sugarcane, cereal crops, forest and savannah/grass) are 1.6 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 0.49 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), 1.0 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1) and 0.4 mu g TEQ(t fuel)(-1), respectively. Corresponding EFs for release of PCDD/PCDF to land are 3.0 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1), 1.1 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1) and 0.67 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). There are now also sufficient published data available to evaluate EFs for dl-PCB release to air for sugarcane, forest and grass/savannah; these are 0.03 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), 0.09 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1) and 0.01 mu g TEQ (t fuel)(-1), respectively. The average EF for dl-PCB release to land is 0.19 ng TEQ (kg ash)(-1). Application of these EFs to national emissions of PCDD/PCDF for global estimates from open burning will lower previous estimates of PCDD/PCDF releases to air and to land by 85% and 90%, respectively. For some countries, the ranking of their major sources will be changed and open burning of biomass will become less significant than previously concluded.

  • 47.
    Black, R. R.
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Meyer, C. P.
    CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic, Australia.
    Touati, A.
    ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Gullett, B. K.
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NRMRL (E343-04), Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP/DTIE Chemicals Branch, Châtelaine, GE, Switzerland.
    Mueller, J. F.
    The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopersplains, Australia.
    Emissions of PCDD and PCDF from combustion of forest fuels and sugarcane: A comparison between field measurements and simulations in a laboratory burn facility2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, no 10, 1331-1338 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field experiments vary by several orders of magnitude from <0.51 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1) to >1001 mu g TEQ(t fuel consumed)(-1). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of experimental methods on the emission factor.

    A portable field sampler was used to measure PCDD/PCDF emissions from forest fires and the same fuel when burnt over a brick hearth to eliminate potential soil effects. A laboratory burn facility was used to sample emissions from the same fuels. There was very good agreement in emission factors to air (EF(Air)) for forest fuel (Duke Forest, NC) of 0.52 (range: 0.40-0.79), 0.59 (range: 0.18-1.2) and 0.75 (range: 0.27-1.2) mu g TEQ(WHO2005) (t fuel consumed)(-1) for the in-field, over a brick hearth, and burn facility experiments, respectively. Similarly, experiments with sugarcane showed very good agreement with EFAir of 1.1 (range: 0.40-2.2), 1.5 (range: 0.84-2.2) and 1.7 (range: 0.34-4.4) mu g TEQ (t fuel consumed)(-1) for in-field, over a brick hearth, open field and burn facility experiments respectively. Field sampling and laboratory simulations were in good agreement, and no significant changes in emissions of PCDD/PCDF could be attributed to fuel storage and transport to laboratory test facilities.

  • 48.
    Blanc, Mélanie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kukučka, Petr
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mixture-specific gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126)2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, 249-257 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are persistent organic pollutants of high concern because of their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic properties. Besides, the amphiphilic properties of fluorinated compounds such as PFOS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) suggest a role in increasing cell membrane permeability and solubilizing chemicals. The present study aimed at investigating whether PFOS and PFHxA are capable of modifying the activation of PCB126 toxicity-related pathways. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos were exposed in semi-static conditions to 7.5 μg/L of PCB126 alone, in the presence of 25 mg/L of PFOS, 15.7 mg/L of PFHxA or in the presence of both PFOS and PFHxA. Quantitative PCR was performed on embryos aged from 24 h post fertilization (hpf) to 96 hpf to investigate expression changes of genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics (ahr2, cyp1a), oxidative stress (gpx1a, tp53), lipids metabolism (acaa2, osbpl1a), and epigenetic mechanisms (dnmt1, dnmt3ba). Cyp1a and ahr2 expression were significantly induced by the presence of PCB126. However, after 72 and 78 h of exposure, induction of cyp1a expression was significantly lower when embryos were co-exposed to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA when compared to PCB126-exposed embryos. Significant upregulation of gpx1a occurred after exposure to PCB126 + PFHxA and to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 30 and 48 hpf. Besides, embryos appeared more sensitive to PCB126 + PFOS + PFHxA at 78 hpf: acaa2 and osbpl1a were significantly downregulated; dnmt1 was significantly upregulated. While presented as environmentally safe, PFHxA demonstrated that it could affect gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryos when combined to PFOS and PCB126, suggesting that such mixture may increase PCB126 toxicity. This is of particular relevance since PFHxA is persistent and still being ejected into the environment. Moreover, it provides additional information as to the importance to integrate mixture effects of chemicals in risk assessment and biomonitoring frameworks.

  • 49.
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Otte, Jens
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Yang, Lee
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Zinsmeister, Christian
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany; Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Kosmehl, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Group, Center for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Strähle, Uwe
    Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Hollert, Henner
    Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany; School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Environment of Education Ministry of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China; College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.
    Impacts of Different Exposure Scenarios on Transcript Abundances in Danio rerio Embryos when Investigating the Toxicological Burden of Riverine Sediments2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, e106523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Recently, a proof-of-concept study revealed the suitability of transcriptome analyses to obtain and assess changes in the abundance of transcripts in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after exposure to organic sediment extracts. The present study investigated changes in the transcript abundance in zebrafish embryos exposed to whole sediment samples and corresponding organic extracts in order to identify the impact of different exposure pathways on sediment toxicity.

    Materials and Methods: Danio rerio embryos were exposed to sublethal concentrations of three sediment samples from the Danube River, Germany. The sediment samples were investigated both as freeze-dried samples and as organic extracts. Silica dust and a process control of the extraction procedure were used as references. After exposure, mRNA was isolated and changes in profiles of gene expression levels were examined by an oligonucleotide microarray. The microarray results were compared with bioassays, chemical analysis of the sediments and profiles of gene expression levels induced by several single substances.

    Results and Discussion: The microarray approach elucidated significant changes in the abundance of transcripts in exposed zebrafish embryos compared to the references. Generally, results could be related to Ah-receptor-mediated effects asconfirmed by bioassays and chemical analysis of dioxin-like contaminants, as well as to exposure to stress-inducing compounds. Furthermore, the results indicated that mixtures of chemicals, as present in sediment and extract samples, result in complex changes of gene expression level profiles difficult to compare with profiles induced by single chemical substances. Specifically, patterns of transcript abundances were less influenced by the chemical composition at the sampling site compared t the method of exposure (sediment/extract). This effect might be related to different bioavailability of chemicals.

    Conclusions: The apparent difference between the exposure scenarios is an important aspect that needs to be addressed when conducting analyses of alterations in the expression level of mRNA.

  • 50.
    Bohlin, P.
    et al.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Audy, O.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Skrdliková, L.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Kukucka, Petr
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Pribylová, P.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Prokes, R.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Vojta, S.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Klánová, J.
    Resarch Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic .
    Outdoor passive air monitoring of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs): a critical evaluation of performance and limitations of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks2014In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, no 3, 433-444 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most commonly used passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. polyurethane foam (PUF) disk) is cheap, versatile, and capable of accumulating compounds present both in gas and particle phases. Its performance for particle associated compounds is however disputable. In this study, twelve sets of triplicate PUF-PAS were deployed outdoors for exposure periods of 1-12 weeks together with continuously operated active samplers, to characterize sampling efficiency and derive sampling rates (R-S) for compounds belonging to 7 SVOC classes (including particle associated compounds). PUF-PAS efficiently and consistently sampled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and eight novel brominated flame retardant (nBFR) compounds. Low accuracy and lack of sensitivity was observed for most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans PCDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (under the conditions of this study), with the exception of some congeners which may be used as qualitative markers for their respective classes. Application of compound specific R-S was found crucial for all compounds except PCBs. Sampling efficiency of the particle associated compounds was often low.

1234567 1 - 50 of 589
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf