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  • 1.
    Abad, Esteban
    et al.
    CSIC, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Laboratory of Dioxins, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abalos, Manuela
    CSIC, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Laboratory of Dioxins, Barcelona, Spain.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Air monitoring with passive samplers for dioxin-like persistent organic pollutants in developing countries (2017-2019)2021Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 287, nr Pt 1, artikel-id 131931Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the global monitoring plan on persistent organic pollutants (GMP) under the Stockholm Convention passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam disks (PUFs) were applied to monitor dioxin-like POPs. For sampling, toluene-pretreated PUFs were exposed for three months during two years. Chemical analysis was performed in one accredited expert laboratory using internationally accepted methods; for comparison, all results were normalized to one PUF and 3 month exposure. Total TEQs, using WHO2005-TEFs, were lowest in the Pacific Islands countries (PAC) and had similar mean values in Africa (16.8 pg TEQ/PUF), Asia (16.9 pg TEQ/PUF), and Latin American and Caribbean countries (GRULAC, 13.3 pg TEQ/PUF). Using median values, Asia (13.4 pg TEQ/PUF) and GRULAC (13.1 pg TEQ/PUF) had higher amounts than Africa (6.1 pg TEQ/PUF) and PAC (2.1 pg TEQ/PUF). The contribution of PCDD/PCDF to the total TEQ was 2-3-times higher than from the dl-PCB. Mono-ortho PCB did not play a role in any of the samples. The previous 40 samples during 2010/2011 and the present 195 samples from 2017/2018 did not show a statistical difference (p value = 0.3), only for GRULAC, a downward trend was identified. It is recommended combining 4 PUFs to ‘annual’ samples.

  • 2.
    Adediran, Gbotemi A.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Liem-Nguyen, Van
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Song, Yu
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Jeffra K.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Microbial Biosynthesis of Thiol Compounds: Implications for Speciation, Cellular Uptake, and Methylation of Hg(II)2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 14, s. 8187-8196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular uptake of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) is a key step in microbial formation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg), but the mechanisms remain largely unidentified. We show that the iron reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces and exports appreciable amounts of low molecular mass thiol (LMM-RSH) compounds reaching concentrations of about 100 nM in the assay medium. These compounds largely control the chemical speciation and bioavailability of Hg(II) by the formation of Hg(LMM-RS)<INF><INF><INF>2</INF></INF> </INF>complexes (primarily with cysteine) in assays without added thiols. By characterizing these effects, we show that the thermodynamic stability of Hg(II)-complexes is a principal controlling factor for Hg(II) methylation by this bacterium such that less stable complexes with mixed ligation involving LMM-RSH, OH<SUP>-</SUP>, and Cl<SUP>-</SUP> are methylated at higher rates than the more stable Hg(LMM-RS)<INF>2</INF> complexes. The Hg(II) methylation rate across different Hg(LMM-RS)<INF>2</INF> compounds is also influenced by the chemical structure of the complexes. In contrast to the current perception of microbial uptake of Hg, our results adhere to generalized theories for metal biouptake based on metal complexation with cell surface ligands and refine the mechanistic understanding of Hg(II) availability for microbial methylation.

  • 3.
    Ahlinder, Jenny
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Drav som ingrediens i framtidens bröd2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Drav är en biprodukt från ölbryggning som årligen produceras i stora volymer och som huvudsakligen består av skalrester från olika sädesslag. Att berika bröd med drav skulle potentiellt kunna öka möjligheterna att använda olika näringspåståenden vid profilering av brödprodukter, såsom högt fiberinnehåll och proteinkälla. Vissa konsumenter är benägna att betala mer för en produkt som innehåller höga halter av ett visst näringsämne, vilket kan vara betydelsefullt ur ett försäljningsperspektiv för innovativa aktörer inom livsmedelssystemet. Denna litteraturstudie syftar till att granska och sammanfatta vetenskaplig litteratur som undersöker dravens bidrag och påverkan på näringsvärdet och de sensoriska egenskaperna vid tillsats i bröd. Studien är utförd enligt systematisk metodik som kännetecknas av hög transparens och en kritisk granskning. Resultatet visar att draven innehåller rikligt av protein (31.4g per 100g), kolhydrater (49.9g per 100g) och fiber (42.6g per 100g) (Neylon et al., 2021). Detta bidrar således till ett ökat innehåll av dessa näringsämnen vid tillsats i bröd. Tillsatsen verkar även möjliggöra användandet av vissa näringspåståenden vid profilering av brödet, såsom fiberkälla. Vid en tillsats över 10% drav i förhållande till mängden mjöl, verkar de sensoriska egenskaperna påverkas negativt. Genom att tillsätta drav i bröd bakat på fullkornsvetemjöl verkar dock risken för negativ påverkan på de sensoriska egenskaperna minska. Det beror på att tillsatsen blir mindre tydlig eftersomfullkornsvetemjöl redan innehåller rikligt med fibrer i jämförelse med bröd bakat på enbart vetemjöl. Framtida forskning bör undersöka möjligheterna att använda och bearbeta drav ur ett storskaligt och industriellt perspektiv, i syfte att öka möjligheterna att använda drav som en livsmedelsingrediens i framtiden.

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  • 4.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan; Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), China.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Tokyo Bay, Japan2010Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, nr 3, s. 266-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the environmental behaviour and fate of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) found in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment. The sampling of the sediment was performed at two stations from Tokyo Bay, Japan, in 2008. In addition, a depth profile of seawater was collected at three water layers from both sampling stations. The ∑PFC concentrations ranged from 16.7 to 42.3 ng L-1 in the water column, from 6.4 to 15.1 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) in the SPM fraction and from 0.29 to 0.36 dw in surface sediment. The distribution of PFCs was found to depend on their physicochemical characteristics. While short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C < 7) were exclusively detected in the dissolved phase, longer-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 7), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) appeared to bind more strongly to particles. Results showed that the sorption of PFCs on SPM increases by 0.52-0.75 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that the sorption of PFSAs was 0.71-0.76 log units higher compared to the PFCA analogs. In addition, the sorption of PFCs was influenced by the organic carbon content. These data are essential for modelling the transport and environmental fate of PFCs.

  • 5.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany; Institute for Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Horii, Yuichi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Ebinghaus, Ralf
    Institute for Coastal Research, GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Partitioning Behavior of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds between Pore Water and Sediment in Two Sediment Cores from Tokyo Bay, Japan2009Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 18, s. 6969-6975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The partitioning behavior of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) between pore water and sediment in two sediment cores collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was investigated. In addition, the fluxes and temporal trends in one dated sediment core were studied. Short-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (C ≤ 7) were found exclusively in pore water, while long-chain PFCAs (C ≥ 11) were found only in sediment. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), n-ethylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) seemed to bind more strongly to sediment than PFCAs. The enrichment of PFCs on sediment increased with increasing organic matter and decreasing pH. The perfluorocarbon chain length and functional group were identified as the dominating parameters that had an influence on the partitioning behavior of the PFCs in sediment. The maximum ΣPFC contamination in sediment was observed in 2001-2002 to be a flux of 197 pg cm-2 yr-1. Statistically significant increased concentrations in Tokyo Bay were found for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) (1956-2008), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (1990-2008), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (1990-2008). Concentrations of PFOSA and N-EtFOSAA increased between 1985 and 2001, but after 2001, the concentration decreased significantly, which corresponded with the phase out of perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride-based compounds by the 3M Company in 2000.

  • 6.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    et al.
    Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Taniyasu, Sachi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Lam, Paul K. S.
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Japan.
    Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment2011Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 85, nr 5, s. 731-737Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory partitioning experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption behaviour and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs). Three different sediment types were used and separately spiked with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) at low environmentally realistic concentrations. PFOA, PFOS and PFOSA were mainly distributed in the dissolved phase at low suspended solid concentrations, indicating their long-range transport potential in the marine environment. In all cases, the equilibrium isotherms were linear and the organic carbon normalised partition coefficients (K OC) decreased in the following order: PFOSA (log K OC=4.1±0.35cm 3g -1)>PFOS (3.7±0.56cm 3g -1)>PFOA (2.4±0.12cm 3g -1). The level of organic content had a significant influence on the partitioning. For the sediment with negligible organic content the density of the sediment became the most important factor influencing the partitioning. Ultimately, data on the partitioning of PFCs between aqueous media and suspended solids are essential for modelling their transport and environmental fate.

  • 7.
    Alfonso, Sébastien
    et al.
    Ifremer, Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, Place Gaby Coll, F-17137, L'Houmeau, France; UMR MARBEC, Ifremer, IRD, UM2, CNRS, Laboratoire Adaptation et Adaptabilités des Animaux et des Systèmes, Route de Maguelone, F-34250, Palavas-les-Flots, France.
    Blanc, Mélanie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Ifremer, Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, Place Gaby Coll, F-17137, L'Houmeau, France.
    Joassard, Lucette
    Ifremer, Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, Place Gaby Coll, F-17137, L'Houmeau, France.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Munschy, Catherine
    Ifremer, Laboratoire Biogéochimie des Contaminants Organiques, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311, Nantes, Cedex 3, France.
    Loizeau, Véronique
    Ifremer, Laboratoire Biogéochimie des Contaminants Organiques, ZI Pointe du Diable, CS 10070, F-29280, Plouzané, France.
    Bégout, Marie-Laure
    Ifremer, Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, Place Gaby Coll, F-17137, L'Houmeau, France.
    Cousin, Xavier
    UMR MARBEC, Ifremer, IRD, UM2, CNRS, Laboratoire Adaptation et Adaptabilités des Animaux et des Systèmes, Route de Maguelone, F-34250, Palavas-les-Flots, France; Inra, UMR GABI, Inra, AgroParisTech, Domaine de Vilvert, Batiment 231, F-78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France.
    Examining multi- and transgenerational behavioral and molecular alterations resulting from parental exposure to an environmental PCB and PBDE mixture2019Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 208, s. 29-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants extensively used during the 20th century and still present in aquatic environments despite their ban. Effects of exposure to these compounds over generations are poorly documented. Therefore, our aims were to characterize behavioral responses and underlying molecular mechanisms in zebrafish exposed to an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs and PBDEs as well as in four unexposed offspring generations. Zebrafish (F0) were chronically exposed from the first meal onward to a diet spiked with a mixture containing 22 PCB and 7 PBDE congeners in proportions and concentrations reflecting environmental situations (ΣPCBs = 1991 and ΣPBDEs = 411 ng/g). Four offspring generations (F1 to F4) were obtained from this F0 and were not further exposed. Behavior was assessed at both larval and adult stages. Mechanisms related to behavioral defects (habenula maturation and c-fos transcription) and methylation (dnmts transcription) were monitored in larvae. Exposed adult F0 as well as F1 and F3 adults displayed no behavioral change while F2 expressed anxiety-like behavior. Larval behavior was also disrupted, i.e. hyperactive after light to dark transition in F1 or hypoactive in F2, F3 and F4. Behavioral disruptions may be related to defect in habenula maturation (observed in F1) and change in c-fos transcription (observed in F1 and F2). Transcription of the gene encoding DNA methyltransferase (dnmt3ba) was also modified in all generations. Our results lead us to hypothesize that chronic dietary exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of PCB and PBDE triggers multigenerational and transgenerational molecular and behavioral disruptions in a vertebrate model.

  • 8.
    Alheim, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Klimatförändringarnas påverkan på kaffeproduktionoch producenters möjlighet till anpassning2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt FN:s klimatpanel IPCC kommer klimatförändringarna att påverka jordens yta och den globalalivsmedelsproduktionen radikalt det närmaste århundradet. Kaffeproduktionen i samtligakaffeproducerande länder kommer att drabbas, vilket kommer slå hårdast mot småskaliga och redansocioekonomiskt utsatta kaffeproducenter. Den här litteraturstudien undersöker dels hurklimatförändringarna kan komma att påverka kaffeproduktionen men även olika möjligaanpassningsstrategier för kaffeproducenter för att parera dessa. Studiens frågeställningar är (1) “Hurkan klimatförändringarna påverka områden för kaffeproduktion?”, (2) “Vilka lösningar ochanpassningsstrategier förslås i vetenskapliga studier för kaffeproducenter inför klimatförändringarna,med fokus på odlingssystem, kaffearter och skadegörare?” och (3) “Vilka anpassningsstrategier påinstitutionell nivå lyfter litteraturen fram som särskilt viktiga inför klimatförändringarna?”.Studiens fokus ligger främst på påverkan och anpassning utifrån odlingssystem och altitud, men ävenkaffeart och skadegörare har en framträdande roll i studien då dess förutsättningar påverkas avklimatförändringarna. Till följd av klimatförändringarna kommer dagens odlingsareal för både arabica(Coffea arabica L.) och robusta (Coffea canephora) att minska i storlek. Framtidens odlingsareal förkaffe kommer framför allt lämpa sig för robustaproduktion då robusta tål högre temperaturer änarabica samtidigt som den lämpliga odlingsarealen för arabica kommer att flytta till högre altitud därdet är svalare klimat. Både robusta och arabica kommer däremot gynnas av att odlas integrerat medandra träd och grödor, vilket ger skugga samt ökar den biologiska mångfalden i odlingssystemet, medett naturligt skydd mot skadegörare som följd. Även integrerat växtskydd kan bidra till ökat skyddmot skadegörare under klimatförändringarna, vilket innebär att kaffeproducenter fördjupar sinkunskap kring faktorer som skyddar mot skadegörare. För att kaffeproducenter ska kunna anpassaproduktionen till framtida klimat och förändringar i lokala väderförhållanden behöver förändringarske även på institutionell nivå. Myndigheter, producentkooperativ och fristående organisationerbehöver investera i infrastruktur och teknik samt bistå kaffeproducenter med rådgivning ochekonomiska medel för att möjliggöra de omställningar kaffeproducenter står inför

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  • 9.
    Alijagic, A.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Center (iRiSC).
    Scherbak, N.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kotlyar, O.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, P.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, A.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Center (iRiSC).
    Hedbrant, A.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Center (iRiSC).
    Norinder, U.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Larsson, M.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Felth, J.
    Uddeholms AB, Hagfors, Sweden.
    Andersson, L.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Center (iRiSC); , Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Särndahl, E.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Center (iRiSC).
    Engwall, M.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Cell Painting unveils cell response signatures to (nano)particles formed in additive manufacturing2022Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, P17-01, Vol. 368, nr Suppl. 1, s. S226-S227, artikel-id P17-01Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Alijagic, Andi
    et al.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l'Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Barbero, Francesco
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Gaglio, Daniela
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare (IBFM), Segrate, MI, Italy; SYSBIO.IT, Centre of Systems Biology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Napodano, Elisabetta
    SYSBIO.IT, Centre of Systems Biology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Benada, Oldřich
    Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kofroňová, Olga
    Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Puntes, Victor F
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain; Vall d Hebron, Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain.
    Bastús, Neus G
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pinsino, Annalisa
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l'Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Gold nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and sea urchin extracellular molecules induce transient immune activation2021Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 402, artikel-id 123793Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report that the immunogenicity of colloidal gold nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-AuNPs) in a model organism, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, can function as a proxy for humans for in vitro immunological studies. To profile the immune recognition and interaction from exposure to PVP-AuNPs (1 and 10 μg mL-1), we applied an extensive nano-scale approach, including particle physicochemical characterisation involving immunology, cellular biology, and metabolomics. The interaction between PVP-AuNPs and soluble proteins of the sea urchin physiological coelomic fluid (blood equivalent) results in the formation of a protein "corona" surrounding the NPs from three major proteins that influence the hydrodynamic size and colloidal stability of the particle. At the lower concentration of PVP-AuNPs, the P. lividus phagocytes show a broad metabolic plasticity based on the biosynthesis of metabolites mediating inflammation and phagocytosis. At the higher concentration of PVP-AuNPs, phagocytes activate an immunological response involving Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathway at 24 hours of exposure. These results emphasise that exposure to PVP-AuNPs drives inflammatory signalling by the phagocytes and the resolution at both the low and high concentrations of the PVP-AuNPs and provides more details regarding the immunogenicity of these NPs. 

  • 11.
    Alijagic, Andi
    et al.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l’Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Bonura, Angela
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l’Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Barbero, Francesco
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Puntes, Victor F.
    Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and BIST, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain; Vall d Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain.
    Gervasi, Fransesco
    Specialistic Oncology Laboratory Unit, ARNAS Hospitals Civico Di Cristina e Benfratelli, Palermo, Italy.
    Pinsino, Annalisa
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Ricerca e l’Innovazione Biomedica (IRIB), Palermo, Italy.
    Immunomodulatory Function of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles in Vibrio-Stimulated Sea Urchin Immune Cells2021Ingår i: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 11, nr 10, artikel-id 2646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the role of the gold nanoparticles functionalized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP–AuNPs) on the innate immune response against an acute infection caused by Vibrio anguillarum in an in vitro immunological nonmammalian next-generation model, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. To profile the immunomodulatory function of PVP–AuNPs (0.1 μg mL−1) in sea urchin immune cells stimulated by Vibrio (10 μg mL−1) for 3 h, we focused on the baseline immunological state of the donor, and we analysed the topography, cellular metabolism, and expression of human cell surface antigens of the exposed cells, as well as the signalling leading the interaction between PVP–AuNPs and the Vibrio-stimulated cells. PVP–AuNPs are not able to silence the inflammatory signalling (TLR4/p38MAPK/NF-κB signalling) that involves the whole population of P. lividus immune cells exposed to Vibrio. However, our findings emphasise the ability of PVP–AuNPs to stimulate a subset of rare cells (defined here as Group 3) that express CD45 and CD14 antigens on their surface, which are known to be involved in immune cell maturation and macrophage activation in humans. Our evidence on how PVP–AuNPs may stimulate sea urchin immune cells represents an important starting point for planning new research work on the topic. 

  • 12.
    Alijagic, Andi
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kotlyar, Oleksandr
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Alexander
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Persson, Alexander
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Scherbak, Nikolai
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Färnlund, Kim
    AMEXCI AB, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC), Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Immunotoxic, genotoxic, and endocrine disrupting impacts of polyamide microplastic particles and chemicals2024Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, artikel-id 108412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their exceptional properties and cost effectiveness, polyamides or nylons have emerged as widely used materials, revolutionizing diverse industries, including industrial 3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM). Powder-based AM technologies employ tonnes of polyamide microplastics to produce complex components every year. However, the lack of comprehensive toxicity assessment of particulate polyamides and polyamide-associated chemicals, especially in the light of the global microplastics crisis, calls for urgent action. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of polyamide-12 microplastics used in AM, and assessed a number of toxicity endpoints focusing on inflammation, immunometabolism, genotoxicity, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation, endocrine disruption, and cell morphology. Specifically, microplastics examination by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that work flow reuse of material created a fraction of smaller particles with an average size of 1-5 µm, a size range readily available for uptake by human cells. Moreover, chemical analysis by means of gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry detected several polyamide-associated chemicals including starting material, plasticizer, thermal stabilizer/antioxidant, and migrating slip additive. Even if polyamide particles and chemicals did not induce an acute inflammatory response, repeated and prolonged exposure of human primary macrophages disclosed a steady increase in the levels of proinflammatory chemokine Interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL-8). Moreover, targeted metabolomics disclosed that polyamide particles modulated the kynurenine pathway and some of its key metabolites. The p53-responsive luciferase reporter gene assay showed that particles per se were able to activate p53, being indicative of a genotoxic stress. Polyamide-associated chemicals triggered moderate activation of AhR and elicited anti-androgenic activity. Finally, a high-throughput and non-targeted morphological profiling by Cell Painting assay outlined major sites of bioactivity of polyamide-associated chemicals and indicated putative mechanisms of toxicity in the cells. These findings reveal that the increasing use of polyamide microplastics may pose a potential health risk for the exposed individuals, and it merits more attention.

  • 13.
    Alijagic, Andi
    et al.
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biomedicina e Immunologia Molecolare “A. Monroy”, Palermo, Italy.
    Pinsino, Annalisa
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biomedicina e Immunologia Molecolare “A. Monroy”, Palermo, Italy.
    Probing safety of nanoparticles by outlining sea urchin sensing and signaling cascades2017Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 144, s. 416-421Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among currently identified issues presenting risks and benefits to human and ocean health, engineered nanoparticles (ENP) represent a priority. Predictions of their economic and social impact appear extraordinary, but their release in the environment at an uncontrollable rate is in striking contrast with the extremely limited number of studies on environmental impact, especially on the marine environment. The sea urchin has a remarkable sensing environmental system whose function and diversity came into focus during the recent years, after sea urchin genome sequencing. The complex immune system may be the basis wherefore sea urchins can adapt to a dynamic environment and survive even in hazardous conditions both in the adult and in the embryonic life. This review is aimed at discussing the literature in nanotoxicological/ecotoxicological studies with a focus on stress and innate immune signaling in sea urchins. In addition, here we introduce our current development of in vitro-driven probes that could be used to dissect ENP aftermaths, suggesting their future use in immune-nanotoxicology.

  • 14.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2018Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 5848-5861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994-2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 15.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Alunskiffer – avfall eller råvara?: vittring och lakbarhet vid naturligt pH-intervall2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Passive barriers as a tool to treat environmental pollution2012Ingår i: / [ed] Mattiasson B, 2012, s. 50-51Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sustainable Business Mälardalen: sustainable environmental technology in a global arena2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Uranbrytning i Sverige: ett miljöproblem?2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Andrusikiewicz, Waclaw
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bilstad, Torleiv
    Cala, Marek
    Cholewa, Marcin
    Drielsma, Johannes
    Galos, Krzysztof
    Gehör, Seppo
    Karu, Veiko
    Kotarska, Izabela
    Koch, Lutz
    Kreisel, Stefan
    Kuiala, Kauko
    Kulczycka, Joanna
    Ostrega, Anna
    Repo, Hanna
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Szcech, Anna
    Szlugaj, Jaroslaw
    Szmigielski, Piotr
    Swierczynski, Wieslaw
    Uberman, Ryszard
    Valgma, Ingo
    Wrzosek, Krzysztof
    Mining waste management in the Baltic Sea Region: Min-Novation project2013Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining waste and what to do about it is a common challenge facing companies, local authorities, environmental organizations, policymakers and increasingly other stakeholders in several countries of the Baltic Sea Region. From 2011 to 2013, a network of scientific and regional expertise brought together in the Min-Novation project has put this topic in the spotlight. The importance of the management of waste from extractive industries is due to the substantial share this waste has in the overall stream of waste generated in the EU. In 2010, 672 Mt or 28.3% of the total waste generated in the EU was attributable to the mining and quarrying industry, second only to construction (34.4%) and ahead of manufacturing (11.0%) and households (8.7%)1. Apart from this, mining waste is the raw material for one of the more visible man-made landmarks that surround us, with waste heaps of various shapes and sizes dotting the landscape up and down the Baltic Sea Region. Despite this dual prominence, mining waste is most often seen only as an environmental problem and in no way a resource. To move away from a one-sided view of mining waste, a life-cycle approach, which recognises that value can be recovered from waste and re-introduced into the product cycle is of the essence. It cannot be stressed enough that mining waste is a source of secondary raw materials, the use of which helps to protect the natural mineral deposits for future generations. Equally important is an appreciation of how the waste can be re-cycled in the excavation process (preventionand recovery) and adapted to create value for local communities (reclamation and revitalisation). However, for there to be effective mining waste management, both in the prevention stage, as well as in the recovery stage, and finally during land reclamation many conditions must be fulfilled. Of these the most important are access to appropriate technologies and methods and common sense legislation. Another condition not without importance is social acceptance for the recovery of waste located in old landfills. The Min-Novation Network over a span of 3 years has worked to understand and appreciate mining waste both as a corporate, community, regulatory and strategic issue. Set against the background of mining activity and waste management in the partner countries: Estonia, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland and Sweden, both good practices and problem areas, which need to be addressed have been presented in this monograph. The purpose of this monograph is to show a cross-section of topics that affect how mining waste management works today, and which will play a decisive role in whether management of mining waste remains – an issue of primarily local relevance or whether it becomes a growth opportunity of national and EU-wide importance. The monograph focuses primarily on issues related to the management of waste from extractive industries in the countries whose representatives were involved in the Min-Novation project. Examples from outside the Baltic Sea Region of the use of waste heaps as an industrial heritage of the mining regions and also as attractions for local communities are presented as well. Indeed, every experience is valuable for the environment and socio-economic development of the Baltic Sea Region.

  • 20.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Cala, Marek
    Ostreca, A.
    Reclamation and revitalisation of waste dumps or land after waste recovery2013Ingår i: Mining waste management in the Baltic Sea Region: Min-Novation project / [ed] Marek Cała, Krakow, Poland: Wydawnictwa AGH , 2013, s. 195-236Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Control of metal releases from historic sulphidic mine waste: Experience from the test site at the Ljusnarsberg mine field, Sweden (Project Bergskraft Bergslagen)2010Ingår i: Proc. EU Mine Drainage Research Exchange Conf. PADRE, June 11, Freiberg, Germany, 2010, s. 1 p-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen.
    Strategy for treatment of historic sulphidic mine waste: Experiences from the Ljusnarsberg Mine Field, Sweden2009Ingår i: Proc. 12th EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment, June 14-17, Stockholm, 2009, s. 197-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Grandin, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Black shale: a biogeochemical archive2014Ingår i: Sedimentary Pore Space Cementation: Role of Microbes / [ed] Kothe E, Büchel G, 2014, s. 6-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Mälardalen Univ., Västerås, Sweden.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ingvar
    Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Metal mobility or metal concentration as the basis for remediation strategy: a case study2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Linköpng Univ.
    Düker, Anders
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Redistribution of Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment: Wigtown Merse, Irish Sea2009Ingår i: 8th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC VIII) / [ed] Rolf Zeisler, Kenan Ünlü, Susan Heller-Zeisler, Melville, N.Y.: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2009, s. 1-24Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Greis, Christina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Håkan
    Düker, Anders
    Redistribution pf Pu, Am, Cs and Np in salt marsh sediment - Wigtown Merse, Irish SeaManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Metal loads or metal concentrations as the basis for risk assessment of a polluted site: a case study2013Ingår i: Sardinia 2013: executive summaries : proceedings of the fourteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium / [ed] Raffaello Cossu, Pinjing He, Peter Kjeldsen, Yasushi Matsufuji, Debra Reinhart, Rainer Stegmann, Cagliari: CISA , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Mälardalen Univ., Västerås, Sweden.
    Martell, Ulrika
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Nordén, Anna
    Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Structor Miljöteknik AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Reduction in situ of chromium(VI) at a heavily polluted site: a feasible remediation strategy2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Paneva, E.
    Saint Petersburg state university, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Black shales in northern Europe: biogeochemical impact2014Ingår i: Biogenic-Abiogenic interactions in natural and anthropogenic systems, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Metal releases from historic sulphidic mine site (Ljusnarsberg, Sweden): mobilization and attenuation processes2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Allen, Joseph G.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA.
    Gale, Sara
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA.
    Zoeller, R. Thomas
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, USA.
    Spengler, John D.
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA.
    Birnbaum, Linda
    National Cancer Institute, NIEHS, USA.
    McNeely, Eileen
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, USA.
    PBDE flame retardants, thyroid disease, and menopausal status in U.S. women2016Ingår i: Environmental Health, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Women have elevated rates of thyroid disease compared to men. Environmental toxicants have been implicated as contributors to this dimorphism, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), flame retardant chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone action. PBDEs have also been implicated in the disruption of estrogenic activity, and estrogen levels regulate thyroid hormones. Post-menopausal women may therefore be particularly vulnerable to PBDE induced thyroid effects, given low estrogen reserves. The objective of this study was to test for an association between serum PBDE concentrations and thyroid disease in women from the United States (U.S.), stratified by menopause status.

    METHODS: Serum PBDE concentrations (BDEs 47, 99, 100 and 153) from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) and reports on thyroid problems were available in the NHANES 2003-2004 cycle. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression models accounting for population-weighted survey techniques and controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, alcohol consumption and thyroid medication. Menopause status was obtained by self-reported absence of menstruation in the previous 12 months and declared menopause.

    RESULTS: Women in the highest quartile of serum concentrations for BDEs 47, 99, and 100 had increased odds of currently having thyroid disease (ORs: 1.5, 1.8, 1.5, respectively) compared to the reference group (1st and 2nd quartiles combined); stronger associations were observed when the analysis was restricted to postmenopausal women (ORs: 2.2, 3.6, 2.0, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: Exposure to BDEs 47, 99, and 100 is associated with thyroid disease in a national sample of U.S. women, with greater effects observed post-menopause, suggesting that the disruption of thyroid signaling by PBDEs may be enhanced by the altered estrogen levels during menopause.

  • 32.
    Almeida, Juan Pablo
    et al.
    Lund University, Microbial Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund, Sweden; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Biosystems and Technology, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Menichetti, Lorenzo
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rosenstock, Nicholas P.
    Center for Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wallander, Hakan
    Lund University, Microbial Ecology, Department of Biology, Lund, Sweden.
    Phosphorus regulates ectomycorrhizal fungi biomass production in a Norway spruce forest2023Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 20, nr 7, s. 1443-1458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and EMF biomass can potentially increase carbon (C) stocks by accumulating in the soils as necromass and producing recalcitrant structures. EMF growth depends on the C allocated belowground by the host trees, and the nutrient limitation on tree growth is expected to influence this allocation. Therefore, studying EMF production and understanding the factors that regulates it in natural soils are important to understand C cycling in forests.

    Fungal mycelium collected from ingrowth mesh bags is commonly used to estimate EMF biomass, but these measurements might not reflect the total EMF production since turnover rates of the hyphae are not considered. Here we estimated EMF production and turnover in response to P fertilization (applied as superphosphate) in a Norway spruce forest where nitrogen (N) deposition has resulted in phosphorus (P) limitation of plant production by using a combination of mesh bags with different incubation periods and with Bayesian inferences. To test how localized patches of N and P influence EMF production and turnover we amended some bags with a nitrogen source (methylene urea) or P source (apatite). Additionally, the Bayesian model tested the effect of seasonality (time of mesh-bag harvesting) on EMF production and turnover.

    We found that turnover of EMF was not affected by P fertilization or mesh-bag amendment. P fertilization had a negative effect on EMF production in all the mesh-bag amendments, suggesting a reduced belowground C allocation to the EMF when P limitation is alleviated. Apatite amendment significantly increased EMF biomass production in comparison with the pure quartz bags in the control plots but not in the P-fertilized plots. This indicates that P-rich patches enhance EMF production in P-limited forests, but not when P is not limiting. Urea amendment had a generally positive effect on EMF production, but this was significantly reduced by P fertilization, suggesting that a decrease in EMF production due to the alleviated P limitation will affect N foraging. Seasonality had a significant effect on EMF production, and the differences registered between the treatments were higher during the warmer months and disappeared at the end of the growing season.

    Many studies highlight the importance of N for regulating belowground C allocation to EMF in northern coniferous forests, but here we show that the P status of the forest can be equally important for belowground carbon allocation to EMF production in areas with high N deposition.

  • 33.
    Amdany, Robert
    et al.
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chimuka, Luke
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Cukrowska, Ewa
    Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Tölgyessy, Peter
    Water Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Assessment of bioavailable fraction of POPS in surface water bodies in Johannesburg City, South Africa, using passive samplers: an initial assessment2014Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 186, nr 9, s. 5639-5653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) passive samplers were used to determine freely dissolved concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in selected water bodies situated in and around Johannesburg City, South Africa. The devices were deployed for 14 days at each sampling site in spring and summer of 2011. Time weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the water-borne contaminants were calculated from the amounts of analytes accumulated in the passive samplers. In the area of interest, concentrations of analytes in water ranged from 33.5 to 126.8 ng l(-1) for PAHs, from 20.9 to 120.9 pg l(-1) for PCBs and from 0.2 to 36.9 ng l(-1) for OCPs. Chlorinated pesticides were mainly composed of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (0.15-36.9 ng l(-1)) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethane (DDT) with its metabolites (0.03-0.55 ng l(-1)). By applying diagnostic ratios of certain PAHs, identification of possible sources of the contaminants in the various sampling sites was performed. These ratios were generally inclined towards pyrogenic sources of pollution by PAHs in all study sites except in the Centurion River (CR), Centurion Lake (CL) and Airport River (AUP) that indicated petrogenic origins. This study highlights further need to map up the temporal and spatial variations of these POPs using passive samplers.

  • 34.
    Amdany, Robert
    et al.
    School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand (WITS), Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chimuka, Luke
    School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand (WITS), Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Cukrowska, Ewa
    School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand (WITS), Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kohoutek, Jiri
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Vrana, Branislav
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Investigating the temporal trends in PAH, PCB and OCP concentrations in Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)2014Ingår i: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 425-436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal variability of persistent organic pollutants in Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa, was investigated using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers. Freely dissolved waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were sampled to investigate seasonal changes in their concentrations. Exposure of the passive samplers was done for 14 days at the same sampling site in each of the four seasons of the year, in 2011. The SPMD-derived analyte amounts enabled the calculation of time-weighted averages of free dissolved waterborne levels of the contaminants. Concentrations ranged from 30.0 ng.l(-1) to 51.5 ng.l(-1) for PAHs, 38 pg l(-1) to 150 pg.l(-1) for PCBs, 9.2 to 10.4 ng.l(-1) for HCHs and 0.3 to 0.8 ng.l(-1) for DDTs, respectively. It was also noted that the winter season generally exhibited higher contaminant concentrations for most compounds studied, which likely reflects the seasonality of their atmospheric deposition. An attempt was also made to identify possible sources of PAH contaminants in the dam by examining PAH ratios. These diagnostic ratios were inclined towards pyrogenic sources of pollution, except for the winter season where both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources likely contribute to the contamination pattern.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Antonia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Fytoremediering med perenn solros i åkerjord2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Jordar förorenade med höga halter giftiga metaller till följd av antropogen verksamhet förekommer på flera platser på jorden och kan utgöra hälsorisk för både människor, djur och miljö. Därför finns orsak att se på miljövänliga metoder för sanering av förorenad mark. Då konventionella saneringsmetoder där jorden förflyttas från platsen ofta är mycket kostsamma och riskerar störa ekosystemen i hög grad är fytoremediering en metod med stor potential, vilken går ut på att rena mark eller vatten med växter. Studier har bland annat gjorts där annuell solros visat sig användbar för rening mark. Däremot verkar inga studier finns för perenn solros förmåga att ackumulera metaller från mark. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att undersöka perenn solros H. maximilianis upptag av metaller från jord hämtad från en åker i Mellansverige, samt att kvantifiera och kemiskt karakterisera metallerna i jorden. Frågeställningen studien ämnar besvara är om solrosen H. maximiliani lämpar sig för fytoremediering av metallförorenad mark. Metod: Perenn solros av sorten Helianthus maximiliani såddes i jord hämtad från en åker i Mellansverige och placerades i ett klimatreglerat växthus på Örebro universitet. Frön såddes samtidigt i såjord och vermiculit för senare omplantering till krukor med åkerjorden. Åkerjorden analyserades innan sådd på syralakbar halt metaller samt på växttillgänglig, reducerbar och oxiderbar halt. Plantorna skördades vid två tillfällen varpå metallinnehållet mättes för olika växtdelar. Jorden analyserades efter skörd. Metallanalysen gjordes i IPC-MS Agilent 7500 cx. Resultaten analyserades utifrån en signifikansnivå på 5 % och plantans ackumuleringseffektivitet beräknades och bedömdes utifrån BCF (bioconcentration factors). Resultat och slutsats: H. maximilianis tillväxt i åkerjorden var låg. Möjligtvis på grund av låg syrehalt och/eller lågt pH i jorden. H. maximiliani tog effektivt upp metaller som V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Cd, Ba och Tl från den växttillgängliga fraktionen i marken till blad och stjälk. För att i realiteten kunna använda den perenna solrosen H maximiliani som fytoremedieringsgröda krävs högre tillväxt än vad som åstadkommits i studien. Åkerjorden från Kvinnersta innehöll halter av Cd, Cu, Zn och Ni högre än riktvärdena för acceptabel nivå innan slamgödsling bör ske, samt halter som översteg eller gränsade till riktvärdena för högsta acceptabla nivå för känslig markanvändning för metallerna As, Ba, Cd, Cu, och Zn. Halten uran var mellan cirka 5 och 50 gånger högre än den genomsnittliga uranhalten för jordar i Europa. De metaller av dem som förekom i hög halt i jorden (jämfört med Naturvårdsverkets gränsvärden för känslig markanvändning, samt gräns vid slamgödsling) som H. maximiliani inte tog upp effektivt var As, Pb och U.

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  • 36.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Rotander, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    von Kronhelm, Thomas
    SAKAB.
    Berggren, Anna
    Analycen AB.
    Ivarsson, Per
    Analycen AB.
    Hollert, Henner
    RWTH Aachen university.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    AhR agonist and genotoxicant bioavailability in a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing biological treatment2009Ingår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 521-530Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of the 16 US EPA priority PAHs in soil subjected to bioremediation is often achieved. However, the PAH loss is not always followed by a reduction in soil toxicity. For instance, bioanalytical testing of such soil using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) assay, measuring the combined effect of all Ah receptor (AhR) activating compounds, occasionally indicates that the loss of PAHs does not correlate with the loss of Ah receptor-active compounds in the soil. In addition, standard PAH analysis does not address the issue of total toxicant bioavailability in bioremediated soil.

    To address these questions, we have used the CALUX AhR agonist bioassay and the Comet genotoxicity bioassay with RTL-W1 cells to evaluate the toxic potential of different extracts from a PAH-contaminated soil undergoing large-scale bioremediation. The extracts were also chemically analyzed for PAH16 and PCDD/PCDF. Soil sampled on five occasions between day 0 and day 274 of biological treatment was shaken with n-butanol with vortex mixing at room temperature to determine the bioavailable fraction of contaminants. To establish total concentrations, parts of the same samples were extracted using an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) with toluene at 100A degrees C. The extracts were tested as inducers of AhR-dependent luciferase activity in the CALUX assay and for DNA breakage potential in the Comet bioassay.

    The chemical analysis of the toluene extracts indicated slow degradation rates and the CALUX assay indicated high levels of AhR agonists in the same extracts. Compared to day 0, the bioavailable fractions showed no decrease in AhR agonist activity during the treatment but rather an up-going trend, which was supported by increasing levels of PAHs and an increased effect in the Comet bioassay after 274 days. The bio-TEQs calculated using the CALUX assay were higher than the TEQs calculated from chemical analysis in both extracts, indicating that there are additional toxic PAHs in both extracts that are not included in the chemically derived TEQ.

    The response in the CALUX and the Comet bioassays as well as the chemical analysis indicate that the soil might be more toxic to organisms living in soil after 274 days of treatment than in the untreated soil, due to the release of previously sorbed PAHs and possibly also metabolic formation of novel toxicants.

    Our results put focus on the issue of slow degradation rates and bioavailability of PAHs during large-scale bioremediation treatments. The release of sorbed PAHs at the investigated PAH-contaminated site seemed to be faster than the degradation rate, which demonstrates the importance of considering the bioavailable fraction of contaminants during a bioremediation process.

    It has to be ensured that soft remediation methods like biodegradation or the natural remediation approach do not result in the mobilization of toxic compounds including more mobile degradation products. For PAH-contaminated sites this cannot be assured merely by monitoring the 16 target PAHs. The combined use of a battery of biotests for different types of PAH effects such as the CALUX and the Comet assay together with bioavailability extraction methods may be a useful screening tool of bioremediation processes of PAH-contaminated soil and contribute to a more accurate risk assessment. If the bioremediation causes a release of bound PAHs that are left undegraded in an easily extracted fraction, the soil may be more toxic to organisms living in the soil as a result of the treatment. A prolonged treatment time may be one way to reduce the risk of remaining mobile PAHs. In critical cases, the remediation concept might have to be changed to ex situ remediation methods.

  • 37.
    Andrén, O.
    et al.
    Departments of Ecology and Environmental Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Barley straw decomposition with varied levels of microbial grazing by Folsomia fimetaria (L.) (Collembola, Isotomidae)1985Ingår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 57-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Folsomia fimetaria (L.) were added (0, 5, 10, 20 animals) to 0.100 g barley straw which had been inoculated 10 days (244 h) earlier with a natural soil microflora. Respiration (CO2 evolution) was monitored continuously. Mass loss, fungal standing crop (total and FDA-active), bacterial and protozoan biomass were estimated 42 days (1,000 h) after microbial inoculation. The degree of surface cover by hyphae was surveyed at regular intervals. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in respiration, mass loss or microbial biomass, but the density of surface hyphae were reduced by addition of Collembola. Fungal production was low, less than 5% of the estimated microbial production, and could not account for all collembolan growth during incubation. F. fimetaria appeared to consume mainly bacteria and protozoa, and had little impact on carbon mineralization.

  • 38.
    Angelov, Christo
    et al.
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Nikolova, Nina
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Kalapov, Ivo
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Arsov, Todor
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Tchorbadjieff, Assen
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Boyadjieva, Aneta
    Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Tsakovski, Stefan
    Analytical Chemistry, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pribylová, Petra
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Kukucka, Petr
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Boruvková, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Klánová, Jana
    Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    High-mountain monitoring of persistent organic pollutants at the basic environmental observatory moussala2014Ingår i: Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences / Proceedings of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1310-1331, E-ISSN 2367-5535, Vol. 67, nr 8, s. 1129-1136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the performance of the equipment for passive air sampling installed at Basic Environmental Observatory (BEO) Moussala, together with the first results obtained during the campaigns conducted in the period March 2009 March 2011 within the framework of the network for POP monitoring (MONET EU Project).

    The advantage of sampling at BEO Moussala is that the observatory is located at a high altitude (Moussala Peak, 2925 m above sea level), away from industrial polluters and large transportation fluxes. This unique location allows one to gather data from a large region subjected to the influence of transboundary Mediterranean and continental air masses. This would further open possibilities for studying the pollutants' levels and their correlation with the local climatic factors, the latter being well known in this region.

  • 39.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Andersson, Kjell
    Isacson, Maths
    Gavrilov, Dmitri V.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Degerman, Erik
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Kazakova-Apkarimova, Elena Yu.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Sadbom, Stefan
    Törnblom, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Learning about the history of landscape use for the future: consequences for ecological and social systems in Swedish Bergslagen2013Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 146-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers and bridges to implement policies about sustainable development and sustainability commonly depend on the past development of social-ecological systems. Production of metals required integration of use of ore, streams for energy, and wood for bioenergy and construction, as well as of multiple societal actors. Focusing on the Swedish Bergslagen region as a case study we (1) describe the phases of natural resource use triggered by metallurgy, (2) the location and spatial extent of 22 definitions of Bergslagen divided into four zones as a proxy of cumulative pressure on landscapes, and (3) analyze the consequences for natural capital and society. We found clear gradients in industrial activity, stream alteration, and amount of natural forest from the core to the periphery of Bergslagen. Additionally, the legacy of top-down governance is linked to today's poorly diversified business sector and thus municipal vulnerability. Comparing the Bergslagen case study with other similar regions in Russia and Germany, we discuss the usefulness of multiple case studies.

  • 40.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap. Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Britt-Inger
    Div. of Geogr. Info. Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Space Corporation, Swedish Land Survey, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Östman, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Geographical Information Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Intergraph, Sweden .
    Lazdinis, Marius
    Lithuanian Agricultural University, Lithuania; Southern Illinois University, United States; Lithuanian Ministry of Environment, Lithuania; Department of Conservation Biology, Swedish University of Agriculture, Sweden; Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Université Laval, Canada; Department of Conservation Biology, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden .
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Olsson, Jan
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Two-dimensional gap analysis: a tool for efficient conservation planning and biodiversity policy implementation2003Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 527-534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of biodiversity by securing representative and well-connected habitat networks in managed landscapes requires a wise combination of protection, management, and restoration of habitats at several scales. We suggest that the integration of natural and social sciences in the form of "Two-dimensional gap analysis" is an efficient tool for the implementation of biodiversity policies. The tool links biologically relevant "horizontal" ecological issues with "vertical" issues related to institutions and other societal issues. Using forest biodiversity as an example, we illustrate how one can combine ecological and institutional aspects of biodiversity conservation, thus facilitating environmentally sustainable regional development. In particular, we use regional gap analysis for identification of focal forest types, habitat modelling for ascertaining the functional connectivity of "green infrastructures", as tools for the horizontal gap analysis. For the vertical dimension we suggest how the social sciences can be used for assessing the success in the implementation of biodiversity policies in real landscapes by identifying institutional obstacles while implementing policies. We argue that this interdisciplinary approach could be applied in a whole range of other environments including other terrestrial biota and aquatic ecosystems where functional habitat connectivity, nonlinear response to habitat loss and a multitude of economic and social interests co-occur in the same landscape.

  • 41.
    Angergård, Ida
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Ungdomars val av mat relaterat till deras uppfattning om hälsa och miljö2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mat, miljö och hälsa är ett genomgående tema för den här uppsatsen som vill visa på positiva möjligheter med att utbilda unga människor i matens miljöpåverkan. Personliga matval gör skillnad för miljön men miljöanpassade matval kan dessutom ha en positiv effekt på hälsan. Några av orsakerna till varför viss mat föredras framför annan tas upp i studiens bakgrund. Intervjuer har gjorts med fyra ungdomar från två olika skolor. Resultaten visar att högstadieungdomar gärna skulle äta mat som är bra för miljön men saknar information om vilken mat det är.

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  • 42.
    Appelqvist, Martin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kväve- och fosforanvändningen i hydroponiska och akvaponiska odlingssystem2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturstudie har tagits fram genom en semi-systematisk litteraturgenomgång samt genom modellen grindbalanser: en modell för att beräkna näringsbalanser och näringseffektivitet i jordbruk.

    I litteraturstudien undersöks näringsutnyttjandet av kväve och fosfor i två jordlösa växtodlingssystem som förespråkas vara strategier för framtidens matproduktion: Recirkulerande hydroponik (enbart växtodling) och akvaponik (samodling med fisk). I studien undersöks även källorna till kväve och fosfor i respektive odlingssystem och hur effektivt näringsutnyttjandet är jämfört mot svenskt jordbruk (avseende hela jordbrukssektorn). Studien syftar till att skapa förståelse för betydelsen av resurseffektiva och resursmässigt hållbara odlingssystem i matproduktionen med fokus på kväve och fosfor.

    Kväve och fosfor är två essentiella näringsämnen för vår matproduktion. De är naturresurser som människan lärt sig att tillföra till jordbruksmark och har möjliggjort ökade skördar. I takt med en växande befolkning har behovet av kontinuerlig tillförsel till jordbruk gjort oss beroende av gruvbrytning av fosfor och industriell kvävefixering vilket också lett till allvarliga miljö- och klimatproblem. Mängderna som genom mänsklig aktivitet tillförs globala matproduktionen beräknas nu uppgå till 150 miljoner ton kväve/år respektive 17.5 miljoner ton fosfor/år. Framställningsmetoderna och läckaget av kväve och fosfor är årligen orsaker till förstärkt växthuseffekt, eutrofiering, föroreningar, förluster av habitat och biologisk mångfald. Dessutom beräknas fosforn ta slut om 50 - 100 år.

    Grindbalanserna visar att kväveeffektiviteten i recirkulerande hydroponik är högre än i både akvaponik och svenskt jordbruk med ett medelvärde på 54 %, 42 % respektive 39 %.Fosforeffektiviteten är högre i svenskt jordbruk än akvaponik, 85 % respektive 73 %. Underlag för att beräkna fosforeffektiviteten saknas för recirkulerande hydroponik och vetenskapliga studier på resursutnyttjande är överlag väldigt få. Källorna till kväve och fosfor i båda odlingssystemen är direkt eller indirekt kopplade till industriell kvävefixering och gruvbrytning. Källorna bidrar även till skogsomvandling, förstörelse av habitat och biologisk mångfald.

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    Kväve- och fosforanvändningen i hydroponiska och akvaponiska odlingssystem
  • 43.
    Appelqvist, Martin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kväve- och fosforanvändningen i hydroponiska och akvaponiska odlingssystem2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna litteraturstudie har tagits fram genom en semi-systematisk litteraturgenomgång samt genom modellen grindbalanser: en modell för att beräkna näringsbalanser och näringseffektivitet i jordbruk.

    I litteraturstudien undersöks näringsutnyttjandet av kväve och fosfor i två jordlösa växtodlingssystem som förespråkas vara strategier för framtidens matproduktion: Recirkulerande hydroponik (enbart växtodling) och akvaponik (samodling med fisk). I studien undersöks även källorna till kväve och fosfor i respektive odlingssystem och hur effektivt näringsutnyttjandet är jämfört mot svenskt jordbruk (avseende hela jordbrukssektorn). Studien syftar till att skapa förståelse för betydelsen av resurseffektiva och resursmässigt hållbara odlingssystem i matproduktionen med fokus på kväve och fosfor.

    Kväve och fosfor är två essentiella näringsämnen för vår matproduktion. De är naturresurser som människan lärt sig att tillföra till jordbruksmark och har möjliggjort ökade skördar. I takt med en växande befolkning har behovet av kontinuerlig tillförsel till jordbruk gjort oss beroende av gruvbrytning av fosfor och industriell kvävefixering vilket också lett till allvarliga miljö- och klimatproblem. Mängderna som genom mänsklig aktivitet tillförs globala matproduktionen beräknas nu uppgå till 150 miljoner ton kväve/år respektive 17.5 miljoner ton fosfor/år. Framställningsmetoderna och läckaget av kväve och fosfor är årligen orsaker till förstärkt växthuseffekt, eutrofiering, föroreningar, förluster av habitat och biologisk mångfald. Dessutom beräknas fosforn ta slut om 50 - 100 år.

    Grindbalanserna visar att kväveeffektiviteten i recirkulerande hydroponik är högre än i både akvaponik och svenskt jordbruk med ett medelvärde på 54 %, 42 % respektive 39 %.

    Fosforeffektiviteten är högre i svenskt jordbruk än akvaponik, 85 % respektive 73 %. Underlag för att beräkna fosforeffektiviteten saknas för recirkulerande hydroponik och vetenskapliga studier på resursutnyttjande är överlag väldigt få. Källorna till kväve och fosfor i båda odlingssystemen är direkt eller indirekt kopplade till industriell kvävefixering och gruvbrytning. Källorna bidrar även till skogsomvandling, förstörelse av habitat och biologisk mångfald.

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  • 44.
    Aro, Rudolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Carlsson, Pernilla
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway.
    Vogelsang, Christian
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo, Norway.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Fluorine mass balance analysis of selected environmental samples from Norway2021Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 283, artikel-id 131200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of unidentified organofluorine compounds (UOF) has been investigated in recent publication, but their environmental occurrence is still poorly understood. Fluorine mass balance analysis was performed on environmental samples from lake Mjøsa and river Alna (surface water (n = 9), sediment (n = 5) and fish liver (n = 4)) and sewage samples from Oslo (n = 5), to reveal to the fraction of UOF. In samples that had extractable organofluorine (EOF) concentrations above the limit of detection (LoD), more than 70% of their EOF could not be accounted for by the 37 PFAS monitored in this study. The surface water samples from lake Mjøsa had EOF concentrations several times higher than what has been reported elsewhere in Nordic nations. The flux of EOF in river Alna and selected sewage pipes revealed that it was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the flux of the measured PFAS. The elevated concentrations of EOF in all samples pose a potential health and environmental hazard, as their composition remains mostly unknown.

  • 45.
    Aro, Rudolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Chen, Fangfang
    Man-Technology-Environment (MTM) Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wang, Thanh
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Fluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Effluent and Sludge from Nordic Countries2021Ingår i: ACS - ES & T Water, E-ISSN 2690-0637, Vol. 1, nr 9, s. 2087-2096Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent publications have highlighted the ubiquitous presence of unidentified organofluorine compounds, whose environmental occurrence is poorly understood. In this study, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and sludge samples from seven countries were analyzed for extractable organofluorine (EOF) and target PFAS, to evaluate which compounds are released back into the environment. Fluorine mass balance analysis of effluent samples (n = 14) revealed that on average 90% of the EOF could not be explained by the 73 PFAS monitored in this investigation. The levels of EOF in effluent (324–1460 ng of F/L) and sludge (39–210 ng of F/g of dry weight) indicate that a substantial amount of organofluorine compounds is released back into nature. A commonly overlooked PFAS class, ultra-short-chain PFCAs, accounted for 4% of EOF on average, while the remaining 71 compounds explained only a further 6% of EOF on average. The highest number of PFAS was detected in the effluent dissolved phase (37), compared to 29 and 23 PFAS in sludge and effluent particulate phase, respectively. The increased concentrations of EOF in both WWTP effluent and sludge are of concern, as the chemical species contained therein remain largely unknown, and thus, their potential health and environmental risks cannot be assessed.

  • 46.
    Aro, Rudolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik. Man-Technology-Environment (MTM) Research Centre.
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Extractable organofluorine analysis: A way to screen for elevated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance contamination in humans?2022Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 159, artikel-id 107035Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous occurrence of a few per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in humans and the environment has been previously reported. However, the number of PFAS humans and the environment are potentially exposed to is much higher, making it difficult to investigate every sample in detail. More importantly, recent studies have shown an increasing fraction of potentially unknown PFAS in human samples. A screening tool for identifying samples of concern that may contain high PFAS levels, to be studied more thoroughly, is needed. This study presents a simplified workflow to detect elevated PFAS levels using extractable organofluorine (EOF) analysis. A fluorine mass balance analysis on samples with high EOF, targeting 63 PFAS, can then confirm the PFAS contamination. Whole blood samples from a cohort of individuals with historical drinking water contamination from firefighting foams (n = 20) in Ronneby (Sweden) and a control group (n = 9) with background exposure were used as a case study. The average EOF concentration in the Ronneby group was 234 ng/mLF (<107-592 ng/mLF) vs 24.8 ng/mLF (17.6-37.8 ng/mL F) in the control group. The large difference (statistically significant, p < 0.05) in the EOF levels between the exposed and control groups would have made it possible to identify samples with high PFAS exposure only using EOF data. This was confirmed by target analysis, which found an average ∑PFAS concentration of 346 ng/mL in the exposed group and 7.9 ng/mL in the control group. The limit of quantification for EOF analysis (up to 107 ng/mLF using 0.5 mL whole blood) did not allow for the detection of PFAS levels in low or sub parts per billion (ng/mL) concentrations, but the results indicate that EOF analysis is a suitable screening method sensitive enough to detect elevated/significant/exposure above background levels by known or unknown PFAS.

  • 47.
    Aro, Rudolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Reber, Iris
    Metrohm AG, Ionenstrasse, Herisau, Switzerland.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Combustion ion chromatography for extractable organofluorine analysis2021Ingår i: iScience, E-ISSN 2589-0042 , Vol. 24, nr 9, artikel-id 102968Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion ion chromatography (CIC) has found a role in environmental analytical chemistry for fluorine content analysis. It is used for extractable organofluorine (EOF) analysis to evaluate perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and other organofluorine burden. The prevailing assumption has been that all PFASs are incinerated in CIC and matrix components have no impact on this process, but this has not been experimentally evaluated. In this work, the combustion efficiencies of 13 different PFASs were determined (66-110%). A notable difference was observed between calibrating the CIC with inorganic fluorine or organofluorine. Potential interferences from cations and coextracted matrix components from whole blood and surface water samples were evaluated. These observations should be acknowledged when performing EOF analysis using CIC, overlooking either non-100% combustion efficiencies or the differences in calibrating the CIC with inorganic fluorine or organofluorine could lead to underestimating EOF content and through that to misguide policy decisions.

  • 48.
    Aro, Rudolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Organofluorine Mass Balance Analysis of Whole Blood Samples in Relation to Gender and Age2021Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, nr 19, s. 13142-13151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have highlighted the increasing fraction of unidentified organofluorine (UOF) compounds in human blood, whose health effects are not known. In this study, 130 whole blood samples from the Swedish general population were analyzed for extractable organofluorine (EOF) and selected per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Organofluorine mass balance analysis revealed that 60% (0-99%) of the EOF in female samples could not be explained by the 63 monitored PFAS; in males, 41% (0-93%) of the EOF was of unidentified origin. Significant differences between both age groups and gender were seen, with the highest fraction of UOF in young females (70% UOF, aged 18-44), which is contrary to what has been reported in the literature for commonly monitored compounds (e.g., perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, PFOS). Increasing the number of monitored PFAS did not lead to a large decrease of the UOF fraction; the seven highest PFAS (C8-C11 PFCAs, C6-C8 PFSAs) accounted for 98% of sum 63 PFAS. The high fraction of UOF in human samples is of concern, as the chemical species of these organofluorine compounds remain unknown and thus their potential health risks cannot be assessed.

  • 49.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Organic complexing agents for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil may be enhanced by the addition of synthetic chelators. Since many of these chelators may imply stress to soil organisms and are poorly biodegraded, identification and evaluation of effective biodegradable or recyclable chelators (synthetic and/or naturally produced) is of great interest. The efficiency of biodegradable synthetic chelators was evaluated both in bench- (0.3 kg) and meso- (10 kg) scale. Results demonstrated that the solubilization of copper, lead, and zinc was similar in bench- and meso-scale systems, which indicated that these systems could be used in a technical scale. However, the arsenic extraction in meso-scale system, were non-conclusive. Due to the high cost involved in the purchase of synthetic chelating agents, recycling of the solutions is of great interest, and this was achieved in five consecutive washing cycles. Considering the economy of a full-scale process, recycling of complexing solutions with sulfide addition at each cycle, both at the 100 mM-level, appears feasible. Naturally derived chelators were produced by saprotrophic fungi and through alkaline degradation of humic substances and cellulose. The results demonstrated that these types of complexing agents are not as effective as the synthetic chelators. In the fungal systems, desorption of metals was related to production of organic complexing acids, but mainly to the pH-decrease. Nonetheless, in some systems, formation of soluble complexes was indicated (copper). Enhancement of copper, lead, and zinc release with the use of alkaline leachates from wood and peat appeared possible. Since these agents have a natural origin and are derived from rather cheap raw material, recycling is not an issue.

     

    Delarbeten
    1. Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi I—Production of Organic Acids
    Visa övriga...
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 205, nr 1-4, s. 215-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations were made on living strains offungi in a bioremediation process of three metal (lead)contaminated soils. Three saprotrophic fungi (Aspergillusniger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp.) wereexposed to poor and rich nutrient conditions (no carbonavailability or 0.11 M D-glucose, respectively) andmetal stress (25 μM lead or contaminated soils) for5 days. Exudation of low molecular weight organicacids was investigated as a response to the metal andnutrient conditions. Main organic acids identified wereoxalic acid (A. niger) and citric acid (P. bilaiae).Exudation rates of oxalate decreased in response tolead exposure, while exudation rates of citrate were lessaffected. Total production under poor nutrient conditionswas low, except for A. niger, for which nosignificant difference was found between the poor andrich control. Maximum exudation rates were 20 μmoloxalic acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (A. niger) and 20 μmolcitric acid g^−1 biomass h^−1 (P. bilaiae), in the presenceof the contaminated soil, but only 5 μmol organic acidsg^−1 biomass h^−1, in total, for the Penicillium sp. Therewas a significant mobilization of metals from the soilsin the carbon rich treatments and maximum release ofPb was 12% from the soils after 5 days. This was notsufficient to bring down the remaining concentration tothe target level 300 mg kg^−1 from initial levels of 3,800,1,600, and 370 mg kg^−1in the three soils. Target levelsfor Ni, Zn, and Cu, were 120, 500, and 200 mg kg^−1,respectively, and were prior to the bioremediationalready below these concentrations (except for Cu Soil1). However, maximum release of Ni, Zn, and Cu was28%, 35%, and 90%, respectively. The release of metalswas related to the production of chelating acids, but alsoto the pH-decrease. This illustrates the potential to usefungi exudates in bioremediation of contaminated soil.Nonetheless, the extent of the generation of organicacids is depending on several processes and mechanismsthat need to be further investigated.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2008
    Nyckelord
    Bioremediation, Citric acid, Fungi, Lead, Organic acids, Oxalic acid
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap Miljövetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Miljökemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11843 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0067-z (DOI)000272851000016 ()2-s2.0-75049083063 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2010-09-15 Skapad: 2010-09-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi II-Metal Redistribution
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil by Organic Metabolites from Fungi II-Metal Redistribution
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 207, nr 1-4, s. 5-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Exudation of low molecular weight organic acids by fungi was studied in a project focusing on bioremediation of metal-contaminated soils. The production of acids (mainly oxalic and citric acid) as a response to nutrient variations and presence of metals has recently been reported (Arwidsson et al. 2009). A significant release of metals was observed and was related not only to the production of organic acids but also to the resulting pH decrease in the systems. The processes governing the release and redistribution of metals in the soil-water fungus system were the focus of the present continuation of the project, based on observations of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium bilaiae, and a Penicillium sp. The release of lead was 12% from the soil with the second highest initial load (1,600 mg kg(-1)), while the release of copper was 90% from the same soil (140 mg kg(-1)). The dominating mechanism behind the release and subsequent redistribution was the change in pH, going from near neutral to values in the range 2.1-5.9, reflecting the production of organic acids. For some of the systems, the formation of soluble complexes is indicated (copper, at intermediate pH) which favors the metal release. Iron is assumed to play a key role since the amount of secondary iron in the soils is higher than the total load of secondary heavy metals. It can be assumed that most of the heavy metals are initially associated with iron-rich phases through adsorption or coprecipitation. These phases can be dissolved, or associated metals can be desorbed, by a decrease in pH. It would be feasible to further develop a process in technical scale for remediation of metal-contaminated soil, based on microbial metabolite production leading to formation of soluble metal complexes, notably with copper.

    Nyckelord
    Bioremediation, Fungi, Metals, Oxalic acid, Citric acid
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kemi
    Forskningsämne
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13015 (URN)10.1007/s11270-009-0222-6 (DOI)000274550700002 ()2-s2.0-77249142248 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-01-03 Skapad: 2011-01-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Leaching of metals from contamined soil with polyhydroxycarboxylic acids of natural origin
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Leaching of metals from contamined soil with polyhydroxycarboxylic acids of natural origin
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15427 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-04-29 Skapad: 2011-04-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil washing residues with amino polycarboxylic acids
    Visa övriga...
    2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 173, nr 1-3, s. 697-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the action of the two biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), as well as citric acid, was tested. Three soil samples, which had previously been treated by conventional soil washing (water), were utilized in the leaching tests. Experiments were performed in batches (0.3 kg-scale) and with a WTC-mixer system (Water Treatment Construction, 10 kg-scale). EDDS and MGDA were most often equally efficient in removing Cu, Pb, and Zn after 10-60 min. Nonetheless, after 10 d, there were occasionally significant differences in extraction efficiencies. Extraction with citric acid was generally less efficient, however equal for Zn (mainly) after 10 d. Metal removal was similar in batch and WTC-mixer systems, which indicates that a dynamic mixer system could be used in full-scale. Use of biodegradable amino polycarboxylic acids for metal removal, as a second step after soil washing, would release most remaining metals (Cu, Pb and Zn) from the present soils, however only after long leaching time. Thus, a full-scale procedure, based on enhanced metal leaching by amino polycarboxylic acids from soil of the present kind, Would require a pre-leaching step lasting several days in order to be efficient. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Nyckelord
    Heavy metals, Amino polycarboxylic acids, Soil, Remediation, EDDS, MGDA
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kemi
    Forskningsämne
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13043 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.141 (DOI)000273135600098 ()2-s2.0-72049093476 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-01-03 Skapad: 2011-01-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soil
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15428 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-04-29 Skapad: 2011-04-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Laboratory and pilot scale soil washing of PAH and arsenic from a wood preservation site: Changes in concentration and toxicity
    Visa övriga...
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 172, nr 2-3, s. 1033-1040Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Soil washing of a soil with a mixture of both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and As was evaluated in laboratory and pilot scale, utilizing both single and mixtures of different additives. The highest level of decontamination was achieved with a combination of 0.213 M of the chelating agent MGDA and 3.2xCMC* of a nonionic, alkyl glucoside surfactant at pH 12 (Ca(OH)2). This combination managed to reach Swedish threshold values within 10 min of treat­ment when performed at elevated temperature (50°C), with initial conta­minant concentrations of As = 105±4 mg/kg and US-EPA PAH16 = 46.0±2.3 mg/kg. The main mechanisms behind the removal were the pH-effect for As and a combina­tion of SOM-ionization as a result of high pH and micellar solu­bilization for PAHs. Implementation of the laboratory results utilizing a pilot scale equipment did not improve the performance, which may be due to the shorter contact time between the washing solution and the particles, or changes in physical characte­ristics of the leaching solution due to the elevated pressure utilized. The ecotox­icological evaluation, Microtox®, demonstrated that all soil washing treatments increased the toxicity of soil leachates, possibly due to in­creased availability of contaminants and toxicity of soil washing solutions to the test organism.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Nyckelord
    Arsenic, Microtox®, PAH, Soil washing, Surfactant
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljövetenskap
    Forskningsämne
    Miljövetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7988 (URN)10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.092 (DOI)000271980800068 ()19699582 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-71049155866 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-23 Skapad: 2009-09-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 50.
    Arwidsson, Zandra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Elgh-Dalgren, Kristin
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    van Hees, Patrick
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Recycling of amino polycarboxylic acids in soil washing of heavy metal contaminated soilManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
1234567 1 - 50 av 958
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