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  • 1.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Environmental impact from an alum shale deposit, Kvarntorp, Sweden: Present and future scenarios2010In: Mine water & innovative thinking: proceedings 2010 / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C. and Freund, A., Nova Scotia, Canada: Cape Breton University Press , 2010, p. 551-554Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the second World War it was decided to produce oil through pyrolysis of alum shalegiving rise to waste products (coke and ash). Waste was deposited in the open pits and in a waste deposit.Due to the high remaining energy in the waste materials the waste deposit still today has significantlyelevated temperatures (above 500 °c). remaining pyrite in the waste material has also led to ArDwith elevated trace metal concentrations. the waste deposit is no great environmental problemtoday but as soon as the waste pile cools off both the volumes of drainage and concentrations oftrace metals will increase dramatically

  • 2.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Domeij, Joel
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Flooding of oxidized waste rock amended with alkaline by-products2010In: 34th British Columbia Mine Reclamation & 35th CLRA/ACRSD National Conference, 2010, p. 10 pages-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from oxidized waste rock amended with different alkaline by-products was studied during flooding. It has been argued that water covers for oxidized waste would significantly increase leaching through reductive dissolution of the pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides and the associated trace elements. After approximately three weeks pH in the reference had reached 2.5 and 3.3 in the pore and overlying water, respectively. This can be compared with pH from 6.1 (water works granules) to above 10 (lime kiln dust) in the amended systems. It is clear that the carbonate dominated alkaline by-products have lower pH than the oxide/hydroxide based by-products. However, the systems amended with carbonate based by-products have significantly higher alkalinity. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations within the waste decreased with at least 99% compared to the reference. In most systems the surface waters can even be used as drinking water. Cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations are clearly related to pH with decreasing concentrations with increasing pH. Lead concentrations, on the other hand, decrease to pH 8, where the concentrations start to increase slightly again due to the formation of soluble Pb(OH)₃⁻ and Pb(OH)₄²⁻ species. The results indicate that flooding of oxidized waste rock amended with alkaline by-products can be used as a successful remediation technique.

  • 3.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Stabilization of acid generating waste rock with fly ash: Immobilization of arsenic under alkaline conditions2010In: Mine water & innovative thinking: proceedings 2010 / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C. and Freund, A., ovaScotia, Canada: Cape Breton University Press , 2010, p. 555-558Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fly ash was used to increase pH and decrease arsenic leaching from an acidic mine waste.Both the amended system as well as the control system was leached with ultra pure water. pH in thecontrol increased from 1.7 to 2.7 at the end of the experiment while the pH in the amended systemdecreased from 12.6 to 11.5. compared to the control the initial concentrations of arsenic decreasedwith almost three orders of magnitude in the amended systems. A combination of co precipita-tion with iron and calcium arsenate precipitation were identified as the major arsenic immobi-lization mechanisms.

  • 4.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Mining Waste as an Exploration Tool and Secondary Resource2017In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 964-971Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is today no overall information about how much mining waste there is in Sweden and what it contains. This project focused on samples from waste rock, tailings and slag from the historical mining region Bergslagen, Sweden. Modern dissolution and analytical methods were used in order to determine approximately 50 elements in the samples. Modern analytical data for the historical mining waste is useful as an exploration tool and can provide information about remaining or new resources underground. Results show that there is a potential for recovery of critical elements from mining waste as well as dealing with environmental problems.

  • 5.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Suggestion for a protocol for detailed investigation of historical mine sites2012In: 9th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2012) / [ed] Price, W.A., Hogan, C. and Tremblay, G., Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2012, p. 1340-1350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A protocol for detailed investigation of mine sites is suggested. Results from the investigation are important when planning mine site reclamation. Initially, the mine site is divided into several sub sites according to topography. For general appearance the following parameters were developed and estimated directly in the field for every sub site:

    (1) shape, (2) historical land use, (3) amount of waste rock, (4) weathering, (5) waste rock size, (6) carbonates and silicates, (7) vegetation cover, (8) low and high species, (9) moss and grass/herbs, (10) broad-leaf and coniferous, (11) spruce and pine, (12) birch and aspen, and (13) blueberries and lingonberries. Every parameter was designated a numerical value between 0 and 5. After sampling ocular mineral/rock classification was performed on composite samples from every sub site and the following major components were determined: (14) silicate, (15) mica, (16) granite/pegmatite, (17) carbonates, (18) iron oxide ore and (19) sulphide ore. In addition the relative distribution between the different sulphide minerals was also determined: (20) chalcopyrite vs sphalerite; (21) galena vs sphalerite; (22) chalcopyrite vs galena and (23) pyrite vs pyrrhotite.

    Results from a historical mine site in Kopparberg, Sweden, are used to illustrate the methodology

  • 6.
    Ekblom, Sanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Treatment of Historical Mining Waste using different Incineration Ashes2017In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 1125-1132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ARD from historical mining sites in Sweden is a major source for trace elements to surface waters. In order to be able to treat a large portion of these sites cost effective reclamation methods is necessary. Incineration ashes were used in leaching tests to study their effect on a highly weathered mining waste in order to neutralize acidity and immobilize trace elements. This study shows that ashes can be used to increase pH and decrease trace element mobility from oxidized mining waste. Increased leaching of Cl, Mo and Sb, however, needs to be considered for waste fuel ashes before use.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Leaching of sulfidic alum shale waste at different temperatures2012In: 9th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD 2012) / [ed] Price, W.A., Hogan, C. and Tremblay, G., Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2012, p. 1015-1025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four different alum shale waste products (unprocessed shale, weathered fines, processed shale and shale ash) from Kvarntorp, Sweden, were leached at different temperatures (-18°C, +22°C and +70°C) in order to elucidate the influence from freezing (frost wedging) and high temperatures (heat generated during sulfide oxidation). Unprocessed shale and the weathered fine fraction have an acidic pH while the processed shale and the shale ash have circum neutral pH. Leaching was performed at liquid solid ratio of 10:1 at room temperature followed by treatment at different temperatures for 24 hours (cycle repeated 10 times). pH, electrical conductivity, redox, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, major cat ions and trace elements were measured. pH was almost one pH unit lower in the heat treated shale ash samples compared to the samples kept in the freezer. No significant pH differences were observed for the other samples. Iron and sulfate concentrations were found to be higher in the heat treated samples still containing pyrite (unprocessed shale and weathered fines) indicating a higher rate of oxidation. When it comes to trace elements molybdenum, for instance, significantly higher concentrations were leached from the processed shale compared to the unprocessed shale indicating increased leachability due to transformation of the primary minerals

  • 8.
    Routh, Joyanto
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Dept Earth Sci, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, Mohanpur, India.
    Hjelmquist, Per
    Dept Geol & Geochem, Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Distribution of arsenic and its mobility in shallow aquifer sediments from Ambikanagar, West Bengal, India2011In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 505-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments from a core retrieved during installation of a shallow drinking water well in Ambikanagar (West Bengal, India) were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The geochemical analyses included: (1) a 4-step sequential extraction scheme to determine the distribution of As between different fractions, (2) As speciation (As(3+) vs. As(5+)), and (3) C, N and S isotopes. The sediments have a low percentage of organic C and N (0.10-0.56% and 0.01-0.05%, respectively). Arsenic concentration is between 2 and 7 mg kg(-1), and it is mainly associated with the residual fraction, less susceptible to chemical weathering. The proportion of As(3+) in these sediments is high and ranges from 24% to 74%. Arsenic in the second fraction (reducible) correlates well with Mn, and in the residual fraction As correlates well with several transition elements. The stable isotope results indicate microbial oxidation of organic matter involving SO(4) reduction. Oxidation of primary sulfide minerals and release of As from reduction of Fe(oxy)hydroxides do not seem important mechanisms in As mobilization. Instead, the dominance of As(3+) and presence of As(5+) reducing microorganisms in this shallow aquifer imply As remobilization involving microbial processes that needs further investigations.

  • 9.
    Sartz, Lotta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alkaline by-products as amendments for stabilization and neutralization of oxidized sulphidic mine waste deposits2010In: 34th British Columbia Mine Reclamation & 35th CLRA/ACRSD National Conference, 2010, p. 10 pages-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stabilization of oxidized sulphidic mine waste deposits with alkaline by-products could be a way of controlling ARD. Mixtures of alkaline by-products (10% by volume) and oxidized waste rock have been studied during six months in 30 L experimental drums. Alkaline by-products are: lime mud (LM), green liquor dreg (GLD), lime kiln dust (LKD), LD slag (LD), water work granules (WWG), carbonized fly ash (FAE) and fresh fly ash (FAF). The experiments are fed with water once a week to imitate natural precipitation.

    pH of the reference (no alkaline amendment) is below 3 and trace metal concentrations are 2000 mg/l, 4 mg/l and 1 mg/l for Zn, Cd and Pb respectively. LKD, LM and LD amended systems (pH 6.7-7.5) are the most efficient for Cd- and Zn-removal (reduction at least 99 % compared to the reference), while GLD (tap pH 6.5) is the most efficient for Pb-removal (99 % reduction compared to the reference). FAE amended system only reaches pH around 5 and accordingly trace metal reduction is rather low. Geochemical simulations using PHREEQC indicate equilibrium with otavite and smithsonite in the WWG and GLD systems, whereas cerrusite is at equilibrium in the LKD, WWG and GLD systems.

  • 10.
    Sartz, Lotta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Hamilton, Ian
    Econova Recycling AB, c/o Alfred Nobel Science Park, Örebro Sweden.
    Macsik, Josef
    Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå, Sweden.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE Processum AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Green Liquor Dregs from Pulp and Paper Industry used in Mine Waste Management: a Symbiosis Project (GLAD) between two Swedish Base Industries2017In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 862-868Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining has been and still is an important industry in Sweden. Leaching from sulfidic mining waste is however a serious environmental issue that can bring acidity and metals in solution. Simultaneously, green liquor dreg (GLD) with potential to decrease oxygen transport to the waste and neutralize acid leachate, is generated by the pulp and paper industry and deposited in landfills. The aim of the project is to promote valorisation of GLD, identify hinders and create a database providing information about the material and its variability to enhance establishment of circular economy for the pulp and paper mill waste.

  • 11.
    Sartz, Lotta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Weathering of waste rock in different climatic conditions: A kinetic freeze/thaw and humidity cell experiment2011In: Mine water: Managing the challenges: proceedings of the International Mine Water Association Congress 2011 / [ed] Rüde, T.R., Freund, A. and Wolkersdorfer, C., Aachen: RWTH , 2011, p. 453-456Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferrous and ferric sulphates and (oxy)hydroxides can grow on pyrite surfaces and slow oxidationrates. However, in northern climates, repeated freeze/thaw cycles can cause cracks, channeling and exposureof new surfaces. In the present study, weathering in a repeated freeze/thaw experiment was compared to aregular humidity cell experiment. Introductory results (after 17 weeks) show very small changes in pH for thefreeze/thaw system (pH around 5), while pH in reference and humidity cell systems decreased rapidly thefirst weeks (to around 4). An increase in electrical conductivity, sulphate and major ions was noticed in thetwo latter systems.

  • 12.
    Sartz, Lotta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Sädbom, Stefan
    Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Remediation of Historic Waste Rock by Injection of Green Liquor Dregs: Results From a Field Scale Trial, Gladhammar, Southern Sweden2018In: Mine Water: Risk to Opportunity / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, Ch., Sartz, L., Weber, A., Burgess, J. and Tremblay, G, Pretoria, South Africa: Tshwane University of Technology , 2018, Vol. II, p. 1124-1129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining in Gladhammar, southern Sweden started in the 15th century, generating waste rock containing copper, cobalt, and arsenic. During remediation (2011) some waste rock was preserved, due to its geoscienti- c value, and placed on a geomembrane surface. Eventually, it became apparent that it had a substantial environmental impact (pH 3.8, Cu 96 mg/L, Co 21 mg/L). In 2017, green liquor dregs was injected in order to increase pH and decrease trace element mobility. Ten months a er injection pH was 8.3 and concentrations of copper and cobalt 1.3 mg/L and 1.1 mg/L, respectively. Evaluation will continue for at least five years.

  • 13.
    Schindler, Frank
    et al.
    Institute of Microbiology, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, Germany.
    Merbold, Lutz
    Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Sprocati, Anna Rosa
    Department of Environment, Global Change and Sustainable Development, ENEA Casaccia Research Center, Romea, Italy.
    Kothe, Erika
    Institute of Microbiology, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, Germany.
    Seasonal change of microbial activity inmicrobially aided bioremediation2017In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 174, p. 4-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial community patterns and their potential substrate utilization were examined to test for sustainability in metal polluted soil. The acid mine drainage (AMD) influenced test field was characterized for total soil respiration and the functional diversity of the soil bacterial communities using BIOLOG EcoPlate assays. Inoculation with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and two streptomycetes led to an altered metabolic diversity and soil vitality, with cell numbers increased by one to three orders of magnitude. The change in metabolic activity was stable even after one winter with severe frost periods. The inoculation thus resulted in enhanced microbial activities. This vitalization resulted in enhanced formation of soil organic matter which, in turn, can sustain higher microbial cell numbers. We therefore conclude that inoculation with indigenous bacteria and a versatile mycorrhizal fungus results in improved vitality suitable for plant growth at heavy metal polluted soils. This holds a huge potential for the remediation of the legacies of mining activities and allows for land-use strategies on metal contaminated sites the world-over.

  • 14. Skogsjö, Erika
    et al.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Barrier system for treatment of heavy metal drainage at Ranstad, Sweden2010In: Mine water & innovative thinking: Proceedings of the International Mine Water Association Symposium, 2010, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, CBU Press , 2010, p. 275-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alum shale was mined and processed (leaching with sulphuric acid for uranium recovery) atRanstad, Sweden, during 1965—69, and the shale residues were deposited on site. A barrier system fortreatment of leachates from the deposit was constructed in 1999: (1) Sedimentation pond (2) pre-treat-ment filter, and (3) final filter in sequence. Iron, Al and Mn were precipitated in section (2). Retention ofother elements (As, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn and U) is attributed to adsorption by precipitated iron and componentsin section (3). More than 90% of the Fe and As and 50% of the Cr, Cd, Zn and U were removed from theleachates.

  • 15.
    Åhlgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Leaching of U, V, Ni and Mo from Alum Shale Waste as a Function of Redox and pH - Suggestion for a Leaching method2018In: Mine Water: Risk to Opportunity / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, Ch., Sartz, L., Weber, A., Burgess, J. and Tremblay, G., Pretoria, South Africa: Tshwane University of Technology , 2018, Vol. II, p. 782-787Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alum shale residues in the form of nes and ash were leached at di erent pH and redox conditions. Total concentrations and mineral analysis indicate loss of some elements in burned shale, and redistribution of others. Uranium and nickel were shown to be more leachable from nes than from ashes. Decreased pH favoured leaching of Ni, U and V, whereas increased pH resulted in increased leaching of molybdenum. Redox conditions a ected leaching of Mo and V, but not U and Ni. us the method can be used as an estimate for leaching at di erent redox and pH conditions.

  • 16.
    Åhlgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sartz, Lotta
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kumla, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Understanding Groundwater Composition at Kvarntorp, Sweden, from Leaching Tests and Multivariate Statistics2017In: Mine Water & Circular Economy / [ed] Wolkersdorfer, C., Sartz, L., Sillanpää, M. and Häkkinen, A, Lappeenranta, Finland: Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2017, Vol. II, p. 770-776Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to oil production from alum shale, the Kvarntorp area is heavily polluted. A waste deposit consisting mostly of shale ash and fines is of important concern. Groundwater shows that parameters such as pH, U, V, Ni and Mo are different at different localities around the deposit. Leaching tests indicate that burned and unburned shale residues leave different signatures on leachates. Principal component analysis of groundwater and leaching tests suggest that ground-water is affected by the waste deposit and that it is more influenced by shale ash than by fines.

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