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  • 1.
    Yan, Yan
    et al.
    Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.
    Stoddard, Frederick L.
    Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.
    Neugart, Susanne
    Leibniz-Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Grossbeeren, Germany.
    Sadras, Victor O.
    South Australian Research and Development Institute, Australia.
    Lindfors, Anders
    Finnish Meteorological institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Morales, Luis Orlando
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro Life Science Centre.
    Aphalo, Pedro J.
    Viikki Plant Science Centre (ViPS), Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland.
    Responses of flavonoid profile and associated gene expression to solar blue and UV radiation in two accessions of Vicia faba L. from contrasting UV environments2019In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 434-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue light and UV radiation shape a plant's morphology and development, but accession-dependent responses under natural conditions are unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that two faba bean (Vicia faba L.) accessions adapted to different latitudes and altitudes vary in their responses to solar blue and UV light. We measured growth, physiological traits, phenolic profiles and expression of associated genes in a factorial experiment combining two accessions (Aurora, a Swedish cultivar adapted to high latitude and low altitude; ILB938, from the Andean region of Colombia and Ecuador, adapted to low latitude and high altitude) and four filter treatments created with plastic sheets: 1. transparent as control; 2. attenuated short UV (290-350 nm); 3. attenuated UV (290-400 nm); 4. attenuated blue and UV light. In both accessions, the exclusion of blue and UV light increased plant height and leaf area, and decreased transcript abundance of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and TYROSINE AMINOTRANSFERASE 3 (TAT3). Blue light and short UV induced the accumulation of epidermal and whole-leaf flavonoids, mainly quercetins, and the responses in the two accessions were through different glycosides. Filter treatments did not affect kaempferol concentration, but there were more tri-glycosides in Aurora and di-glycosides in ILB938. Furthermore, fewer quercetin glycosides were identified in ILB938. The transcript abundance was consistently higher in Aurora than in ILB938 for all seven investigated genes: HY5, TAT3, CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS), CHALCONE ISOMERASE (CHI), DON-GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE 1 (DOGT1), ABA INSENSITIVE 2 (ABI2), AUXIN-INDUCIBLE 2-27 (IAA5). The two largest differences in transcript abundance between the two accessions across treatments were 132-fold in CHS and 30-fold in DOGT1 which may explain the accession-dependent glycosylation patterns. Our findings suggest that agronomic selection for adaptation to high altitude may favour phenotypes with particular adaptations to the light environment, including solar UV and blue light.

  • 2.
    Ågren, Richard
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Århem, Peter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Closed and open state dependent block of potassium channels cause opposing effects on excitability - a computational approach2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 8175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Block of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels has been demonstrated to affect neuronal activity described as increasing excitability. The effect has been associated with a closed-state dependent block. However, the block of Kv channels in e.g. local anesthetic and antiarrhythmics, is open state-dependent. Since the reduced excitability in this case mainly is due to sodium channel block, the role of the Kv channel block is concealed. The present investigation aims to analyse the specific role of state-dependent Kv channel block for excitability. Using a computational approach, with introduced blocked states in the Kv channel of the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley axon membrane model, we calculated the effects on threshold, firing and presynaptic Ca influx. The Ca influx was obtained from an N-type Cav channel model linked to the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley membrane. The results suggested that a selective block of open Kv channels decreased the rate of repetitive firing and the consequent Ca influx, thus challenging the traditional view. In contrast, presence of a closed-state block, increased the firing rate and the Ca influx. These findings propose that Kv channel block may either increase or decrease cellular excitability, thus highlighting the importance of further investigating the role of state-specific blocking mechanisms.

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