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  • 1.
    Abdirazak Mohamed, Warsame
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sultan, Ahmed
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fallstudier i IDA ICE2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Case studies have been performed on a room, of which the U-values, the outer wall orientation and the ventilation system are adjusted, to study how such measures affect the energy usage of said room. The aim is to create a frame of reference that can be used to give quick answers to questions regarding the amount of energy that could be saved by applying the methods discussed in this thesis. During said studies, the U-value of a simulated room’s outer wall has been decreased from 0,15 to 0,11, and the U-value of the windows of the same room has been decreased from 1,2 to 0,9. The room has been moved so that the outer wall would face west, south, east and north respectively. Finally, the simulated room’s energy and heat balance have been simulated in two cases for a person load of 20 persons, of which the first case presents a room with a CAV (Constant Air Volume) ventilation system, and the second case presents a room with a VAV (Varied Air Volume) ventilation system. The following results are obtained from the simulations: Choosing a window with a U-value of 0.9 instead of 1.2 W/m2Kdecreases the room’s energy usage by 15 %. Choosing an outer wall with a U-value of 0.11 instead of 0.15W/m2K decreases the room’s energy usage by 9 %. Choosing a VAV ventilation system instead of a CAV ventilation system decreases the room’s energy usage by up to 16 %. Constructing the outer wall to face south decreases the room’s energy usage by 14-29 %.

  • 2.
    Abdullah, Aram
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Oktay, Samuel
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Översyn av arbetstidsförläggning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to keep up with the construction industry development it is important to be competitive. Many building contractors strive short construction times, which some- times can be difficult to achieve. In order to achieve short construction times you have to find clever solutions and a good production technic that ultimately gives a good re- sult. Shorter construction time contributes to lower costs for contractors.

    Something that is rare in today's construction industry is an extended working time this is something untried in Örebro. In the current situation a construction site opens about 07.00 and closes again for the day at 16.00, Monday to Friday. After 16.00 the construc- tion is stopped. This contributes to an inefficient use of the expenses found at a con- struction site. By extending the current working time with a few hours per day, it will hopefully contribute to a more efficiency use of the costs found at a construction site and also that the number of construction days decreases.

    In the current situation construction workers in PEAB se an extended working time negatively. According to PEAB this is because they do not understand their position in a business way within the company. PEAB argue that construction workers "permanent employment" is not a particularly secure employment. They argue that the only way to get a secure job is to PEAB in partnership with their employees can go get new jobs and deliver results together with their workers. The question then is how PEAB will be able to distinguish themselves from all other construction companies and gain a competitive advantage. According to Fredrik Ahl, Project Manager at PEAB, the solution is an ex- tended working time.

    This report aims to examine how a change in the current working time will affect the cost of a construction site. We also examined the reactions that occur among workers and officials when working hours are changing. 

  • 3.
    Adayson, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ashor, Denkha
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysering av förbättringsförslag till byggproduktion - En studie baserad på Lean2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, production in the construction industry has evolved into a costlier construction. It has become poorer productivity and increased construction defect attributed to scientific development. They can include notes that 40% of employees time at work goes to value-added work. Construction industry is inefficient in comparison to other manufacturing industries which has 65-75% in value-added work. It is also clear that the costs in the construction sector can be reduced by 30-35%. The authorities in the various reports conveyed its current troubles and that the renovation industry needs.

    The study was done with the help of interviews and a questionnaire analysis on several construction sites to investigate if the problem persists. We chose to focus on four different construction companies working on similar sized projects. By this is obtained a greater overview of the practical work steps.

    The aim is to offer suggestions for improvement using Lean to building production.

    The work delineated on studying waste, orderliness, and continuous improvement.

    The work began with a thorough literature search and through scientific articles. This was done in order to get an overall picture of Lean and also to analyze the problem in the construction industry.

    Lean is about making work more efficiently by managing resources properly. It aims to eliminate unnecessary waste and making continuous improvements. It is an approach that has been used in manufacturing and have been designed by Toyota Automotive Group. Given its present situation in the construction industry want to study, explore opportunities Lean can bring in terms of efficiency and reduction of costs of production.

    It can be ascertained is that workplaces are still gaps in the understanding of what waste is. They are not sufficiently informed and prioritize sometimes the wrong kind of waste. During the interviews it became apparent major gaps in knowledge on the issue. Wrong priorities result that it becomes a messy workplace, which in turn makes it less environmentally friendly and can thus cause injuries.

    Through that process and maintain order in the workplace, it provides the opportunity for a larger workspace that is more flexible, higher quality of performance, employee ergonomics are better and there is less risk of injury.

  • 4.
    Aghaie Azghandi, Mohammed Ali
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ahmad, Omar
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Byggföretagens hantering av fuktsäkerhetsprojektering – med fokus på projektörer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture damage usually occurs due to incorrect planning, design and execution throughout the construction process. These inaccuracies result in large cost of action that can be minimized or even eliminated if the moisture safety work is done properly. The design phase is an important stage and a properly implemented moisture safety design can be of great importance for the moisture safety work during the construction process. The planners’ role at this stage is to carry out a moisture safety work based on the requirements of the developer. The purpose of this exam is to find out the choice of method made by the planners’ in the implementation of moisture safety design and to review the need of competence development among the planners’ about moisture.    The two methods that have been used to achieve the purpose of this exam are interviews and literature studies. The target group in this exam is the construction companies in Sweden. The way of how the companies handle of moisture safety design is being reviewed in the design stage.  Of all involved actors in the design phase, the focus is on the planners'. Three out of five planners' are dissatisfied with their own moisture competence, which is in line with the opinion of the experts' of moisture about the planners' competence.   During the interviews, several experts' of moisture have pointed out the need for increased moisture competence among the planners'. The lack competence means that the planners' cannot consider or detect possible moisture risks during the moisture safety design. The method that is used by 80% of the planners' during moisture safety design is the ByggaF method. The planners' knowledge of ByggaF is still low according to the experts' of moisture and for this reason the planners' cannot apply entirely the ByggaF method. The tools that planners' need to have with them is knowledge and experience. In order to discover what is wrong, you need to have both the knowledge and experience about what is right.  Based on the response from both the building committee and the participants, a review of the documentation regarding the moisture safety work is not always requested by the building committee.  The conclusion is that projectors must acquire competence in both moisture and the ByggaF method.   

  • 5.
    Albaldawi, Hisham
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kobbah, Diana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dimensionering av Traverskranbana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crane Loads acts on runways which varies with time and cannot be treated as static loads, this allows that the static estimation is not secure enough, therefore the crane runways should be designed in such terms that it can handle static as well as dynamic crane loads.

    The work was chosen after feasibility studies which were made on the internet to get basic knowledge on the subject. The information was sought in Swedish, English and German in order to find relevant and reliable sources which deal with overhead crane runway according to Eurocode. Thanks to advice from Björn Åsted from the Steel Construction Institute (SBI), a book in German was found. In order to compare the results, a Swedish software CraneGirder EC3 was used during the project. The report contains a calculation method for a rolled section girder, calculations were based on Eurocode equations and regulations which were the design basis for the project. The report refer to how a crane runway must be designed with a high utilization level, a number of controls were made to ensure that the beam and its details, such as rail and welding are surely designed to fatigue and deformation. The design was based on load calculations for the overhead crane. Traditional calculations showed how different crane loads can be combined in load groups to achieve the highest impact on the beam, calculations showed that HEB 280 and dimensioning dominated only by load group 1 and 5. With the help of calculation software the results were largely consistent with the program but with some differences. For the delimitation that was assumed in the project the fatigue seemed to have an effect especially on some small details like weld.

  • 6.
    Alderholm, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Torstensson, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Funktionsbaserad undersökning av BENTLEYS POWERCIVIL FOR SWEDEN och Novapoint 19 DCM2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis was accomplished in cooperation with WSP Civils in Örebro in the

    spring of 2014. WSP Civil is in the consulting business of construction orientated

    in roads and terrain. Tools of engineering are crucial to be able to produce a

    good result. Therefore between the years of 2012 and 2013, WSP did an investigation

    regarding to which program would suit their demands. The projects task

    was to compare the existing tool Novapoint with a potential future program

    Bentleys PowerCivil for Sweden.

    The process was accomplished by creating a fictional road in both programs. Different

    functions were compared in a matrix table to be able to get a result in an

    illustrative way.

    The result in this rapport is in favor of PowerCivil for Sweden. It is mainly because

    of their templates but also because of their possibility to apply standards

    to the programs functions.

  • 7.
    Algotsson, Josef
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lundgren, Eric
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    ELVÄGAR - Energidistribueringssystem och energiutvinningssystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and the EU has a lot of climate goals, to achieve these goals the use of fossil fuels must be reduced. One solution can be electric powered vehicles, when travelling long distances there is a problem to replenish fuel. The challenge is to meet the increased demand for energy - both in terms of production and distribution - in an environmentally sound manner. A literature study as well as an interview is carried out to investigate whether roads can be made smarter to promote a greener, electric vehicle traffic and the possibility of energy harvesting systems and energy distribution in the road area. The technology for energy harvesting systems and energy distribution is available, but it can always be further developed for cheaper manufacturing and more efficient products. Energy distribution systems studied are induction and conduction. The energy harvesting systems in this report are solar energy, piezoelectricity and wind power. Pilot projects in both areas exists and more projects are under development.

  • 8.
    AL-Hindi, Rafah
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yousef, Yousef
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    BIM Byggnadsinformationsmodellering BIM-användning hos de olika aktörerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clarus Arkitekter as design companies often receive orders from contractors and clients asking for a BIM model. In most cases, the BIM model is not fully used, but 3D drawings or 2D drawings are available. Then asks the question "Does the client / contractor have the correct understanding of what BIM is?" Different players have different guidelines and requirements that the projector should follow, which can be perceived as defective by the projector just to know what is demanded from each client. The question the thesis will answer is "How should the consultant do the best to offer the right service and what goals the consultant will do.

    The purpose of this master thesis is to find out how BIM usage could facilitate the work as well as the communication between the various actors who is involved in a construction project. To investigate how the level of competence lies with the Client, Entrepreneur and Projectors / Architects and answerthe question "what is behind the skill difference that exists?".

    The work began with literature studies for the collection and compilation of information. Questions will be set up to later use them during interviews with different people from different companies. The interviews will take place with individuals from consultancy, contractor and client company.

    The interest in using BIM is high in the industry, but unfortunately there is a great deal of skills shortage. Customers and entrepreneurs plan to start using BIM more, which will happen in the coming years, but now, they do not want to take new risks and prefer to use traditional methods that are more secure. To be able to apply BIM more in the construction industry, more knowledge is needed.

  • 9.
    Al-Hussein, Heba
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    PLATSBASERAD HANTERING AV SÄKERHETSRISKER PÅ EN BYGGARBETSPLATS PÅ SKANSKA2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Should there be a risk working at construction sites?

    This is an issue that is daily discussed by many construction companies. The Construction industry is a major industry that reflects and provides the society with what it needs in order to function, such as residences, hospitals, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, ports etcetera. In order to provide the society all these different types of constructions, there is a risk for those who work at the construction site. Accidents and occupational diseases are about twice as common among construction workers compared to the average worker according to Swedish Work Environment Authority [1].

    Skanska is one of the leading construction companies in Sweden, and is working hard with occupational health and safety issues. There is a vision of zero construction site accidents. "Mitt Gröna Kvarter" is an infill and rebuild project that has focused extra on safety. This extra focus on safety was the reason why this particular project was chosen to study health and safety, and to see how this can be improved more. How the safety should be handled and solved varies depending on the activity to be done and the risk that occurs at that specific location. Skanska has with SBUF support published two reports on how a building drawing can be used to increase the safety on construction sites, by collecting information using a reference group working in different projects.

    This academic work shows a new way to categorize safety risks on construction sites. The report shows how safety risks can be documented on the building drawings and regulations. The categorization method and the risk documentation in drawing and regulations can lower the safety risks in the constructions sites.

    A construction time plan contains all the activities that must be done before a building is completed, and all the safety risks can be linked to the timetable even if this is an ineffective method. In this academic work, studying the project "Mitt Gröna Kvarter", approximately 50% of all the security risks can be linked to a specific location. Therefore both an activity and location specific account of risks is an optimal solution.

  • 10.
    Ali Ibrahim, Yusuf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    KOMMUNIKATION OCH INFORMATIONSFLÖDE En studie av förbättringsmöjligheter vid Strängbetongs fabrik i Kungsör: COMMUNICATION AND FLOW OF INFORMATION A study of the improvement opportunities at Strängbetong plant in Kungsör2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effective communication and unobstructed flow of information is essential for an organization's productivity and efficiency. Previous research on communication and information flow shows that the efficiency and productivity of an organization is correlated with how well the communication and information flow works in the organization. The aim of the work presented in this report is to map and analyze the communication and information flow in Strängbetongs plant in Kungsör. Among the methods used during this work are interviews with staff from different departments and open talks with the production staff in the factory. In addition to interviews and conversations with the staff, how gathered information is used for production monitoring and productivity improvement has also been analyzed.

    How communication and information flow can be improved are presented in the conclusion. The result shows how inadequate communication between different partners whose work hangs together give rise to reduced productivity, increased waiting times and leads to rework and discard.

  • 11.
    Ali, Musa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cakmak, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    TEST AV NYA GIVARE FÖR FUKTMÄTNING I BETONG- Mätutrustning kring relativ fuktutveckling i betong2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The drying of concrete continues to be a topic that doesn’t seem to have any good solutions, in particular the wayinfollowitupduringproductionandonsite.Concreteproducers,today,investalot of effort with concrete produced with a low water-cement ratio. This enables themtokeepthedrying times down and at the same time produce concrete with goodstrength.Thedryingtimeofconcreteis of importance as to when materials can be applied to concretewhichrelatestorelativehumidity,RH, within the concrete. The problem lays in the producers nothavingenoughknowledgeofgoodequipmentforfollowingthe relative humidity in the concrete. This has made the producers strengthen theirknowledgeinthearea by conducting their own tests with different measurement equipment that followstheRH.Thisreport is another example of that. The purpose of the report was corrected and adapted due to the time pressure that arose during the work. From having actually been looking for fully wireless and embedded sensors, it was made to perform tests with sensors without the need for wirelessness. Potential equipment was evaluated, tested and compared to present methods and equipments for following the RH in the concrete. The equipment that was used for the practical test were sensors, HYT 271 and HYT 221, developed by IST AG who specialises in the area. The results were then supposed to be compared to a present, RBK-sensor and method, to ensure the sensors reliability. The practical tests were executed in Kungsör and the measurement equipment were limited to electronic devices.Becauseofits’easyhandlingself-compactingconcretewasused.Thetestswiththe HYT 221 were not documented in this report due to the timeframe for the report. The sensor stopped working after approximately an hour and was temporarily stated not working, though it was later confirmed as working. After three (3) days when the sensor was removed and remounted, it was fully functional again. ​Thus, comparisons between the HYT sensor and the RBK-sensor could therefore not be completed accordingly to the purpose of the report. The conclusion is that the sensor is fully useable but didn’t satisfy the sought purpose which initself made the comparable RBK-tests irrelevant. In addition, the sensor needed to be removed and reactivated. The reason for that is believed to be the strenuous environment in the fresh concrete. Based on that conclusion the equipment is stated useless for the execution and inconvenient to use, therefore the product doesn´t acclimate for such execution. 

  • 12.
    Allbrand, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Merry Land, Bahnan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    EN UTVÄDERING AV FÖRSKOLORS INNEKLIMAT2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are several municipalities in need of added facilities for preschool education. The responsible for the decisions in the municipalities use different ways to handle this problem. Some municipalities choose to use temporary facilities, such as barracks, others decide to build new permanent buildings. The manufacturers of the temporary barracks claim that there are no differences between temporary and permanent buildings in terms of thermal comfort and air quality. This report aims to clarify whether there is a difference in thermal comfort and air quality between temporary preschool facilities compared with new permanent preschools buildings. The three methods used when collecting information to this report were literature review, measurements and quantitative questionnaire. The report was limited to examine only thermal comfort and air quality. Noise and light or other aspect that affects thermal comfort and air quality were not taken into account in this investigation. The measurement of indoor air quality was limited to measuring carbon dioxide content and relative humidity. The thermal comfort was limited to measure of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative humidity and air velocity during a dag in the spring. The questionnaires were limited to be distributed only to pedagogues who work in the preschools where the measurements had been carried out. The results of the surveys clearly show that the experience of the thermal comfort and the air quality are poorer at the temporary preschool compared to permanent preschool. In the PMV and PPD indexes, the results of the carbon measurement and the measurement of relative humidity were approximately the same between the preschools. The report may indicate that the experience of the thermal comfort and air quality are more satisfying in the permanent compared with the temporary preschool. To validate our results further studies of measurements and empirical material are needed.

  • 13.
    Almestrand, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Passivhus i Örebro län: Undersökning av marknaden för fastighetsägare2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to study the knowledge that property owners have of passive houses and if there is a market for this concept in Örebro County.

    Environmental and climate problems in the world are growing and a result of this is the constant circulating debate of passive houses. Low-energy houses are a necessary solution to reducing energy consumption, then the housing sector accounts for about 40 % of Sweden´s total energy use. Passive houses are a development of the low-energy house built without conventional heating systems and have a low energy use. Asplunds Bygg in Örebro is now building the very first passive houses in Örebro this spring 2009.

    The project began with contacting property owners to book interviews. The interviews were carried out over a four week period at the respective property owner's office. An independent in-depth were made parallel to the interviews by studying passivhus in literature, articles and on the Internet. The results of the interviews were compiled, compared and analyzed based on the purpose of the work.

    Property owners are receptive to the concept and believe that the energy issue is important, but that knowledge into passive houses of some is poor.  Finally found that from the results of the interviews it seems that there is a future market for passive houses in Örebro County. 

    Keywords: passive houses, low-energy houses, energy use, ventilation system, heat recovery, thick insulation.  

  • 14.
    Amir, Halmat
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro universitet.
    Björk, Chritian
    Örebro universitet.
    EGENKONTROLLER OCH FUKT, EN DEL I KVALITETSARBETET2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure a high quality of the final product it’s important that quality work is considered during the production. Quality work affects the company in a positive way by making our customers happy, improving and retaining our good reputation and leads to a good economy. NCC suspects that there’s insufficient quality work during production in the construction in-dustry across the country and based on that they want us to examine how they’re handling this. In this thesis we’ve done the interviews on five of NCC's ongoing projects in Örebro County in order to provide a picture about how the process of quality controls and moisture at the construction sites works. We’ll identify how employees work with their quality controls and moisture during the production, if there are any deficiencies in the work and in such case what’s causing it.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Holck, Adrian
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Köldbryggeanalys - jämförelse av väggar med lätt-träreglar respektive solida träreglar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's focus on energy efficiency in new buildings puts high demands on the design and choice of materials to achieve low energy use. Thermal bridges influence the efficiency of the insulation in the building envelope. This report examines how the choice between traditional structural wood and light wood studs affects the heat flow through the thermal bridge that arises in that area. The program HEAT has been used for heat flow calculations. HEAT meets the standard for detailed heat flow calculations: EN ISO 10211:2007. Some common design solutions have been selected and modeled in HEAT, both homogeneous wood studs and light studs, respectively, in the same technical solution. The result is how much heat that flows out of the various construction solutions. The report shows a reduction of the thermal bridge in selection of lightweight studs. The difference is less when a conventional design solution for solid wood studs is compared to an alternative design solution that is common in the use of light-wood studs, than if the solid wood stud is just exchanged against a light wood stud.

     

  • 16.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jämförande studie avseende svenska byggregler och den europeiska standarden eurokoder: Inriktning husbyggnad och betongkonstruktion2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den Europeiska standarden är indelad i flertalet Eurokoder och dessa är de kommande beräkningsreglerna som år 2011 blir obligatoriska för alla bärande konstruktioner inom den Europeiska unionen. De kommer att ersätta tidigare nationella regler och det är framförallt Boverkets konstruktionsregler (BKR) med tillhörande handböcker som berörs av Eurokoderna.

    Flertalet faktorer påverkar när en övergång från svenska byggregler till Eurokoderna skall bli möjlig men det viktigaste har med dess tillgänglighet att göra. Det är inte längre en fråga om Eurokoderna skall börja tillämpas, utan istället när.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att det skall ge en allmän och överskådlig bild av hur de svenska byggreglerna skiljer sig från sin europiska motsvarighet, varvid likheter och olikheter skall lyftas fram.

    Jämförelsen har baserats på ett antal beräkningar som har utförts på ett framtaget referensobjekt, där endast de delar som berör beräkningar kring referensobjektet kommer att granskas och jämföras. För att få underlag till dessa beräkningar har litteraturstudium av respektive regler tillämpats. Detta material har allt eftersom sammanställts i denna rapport.

    Med utgångspunkt från det framtagna referensobjektet kan man till stor del fastlägga att skillnaden mellan svenska byggregler och europeisk standard inte är av större karaktär. En av de mest framgående skillnaderna är dock att den europeiska standarden är betydligt mer beskrivande om hur och vad som skall beräknas, vägen till resultatet, medan de svenska byggreglerna endast beskriver det slutgiltiga resultatet. Detta leder till att den europeiska standarden är betydligt lättare att följa och därav även lättare att tillämpa.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Visuell styrning & planering i byggproduktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing challenges when many new residences have to be built in a short time. There are high demands on the construction companies that they have an efficient and effective organization, both for construction planning and production.

    Lean philosophy is widely spread in the production industry and shows considerable efficiency gains. Tools from the philosophy have been applied in both construction planning and production. Two of these tools are visual control and visual planning. Both tools can contribute to reducing wastage in the forms lean philosophy puts it.

    The purpose of the study is to show how they use the tools in the production and how the work can be linked to the theoretical framework. The study also shows how the view of the tools differs between foremen and construction workers.

    The thesis consists of a literature study of visual management and planning taken from the lean philosophy. The tools have since been observed in Skanska's production in the Örebro district. This work has been supplemented with interviews of foremen and a questionnaire to the construction workers. Overall, it provides a good picture of both how the tools are used and how its use is perceived by the different professions.

    It turns out that the tools are very powerful and provide good opportunities to reduce the wastage rate in the production. The effects are already good but there is potential for greater profits with the tools.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Hannes
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagring och hantering av personlig information2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes an analysis of the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) and the major changes this Regulation implies. The report describes a discussion about this regulation and how a company should reason when adapting GDPR in the development of a system that manages personal information. In addition, the adaptation made in Nethouse's case management system "Serviceportalen" and the parts developed for the extension of this system, "Medarbetarportalen", are described.

     

  • 19. Andersson, K.
    et al.
    Stridh, S.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Mät bara när mätdata kan förklaras2006In: VVS-forum, ISSN 0346-4644, no 1, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Arvidsson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Energiförbrukning för putsade, odränerade träregelväggar i fuktigt respektive torrt tillstånd2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, moisture damages have been noticed in rendered, undrained stud walls. The design is built on the principle one-stage tightening which means that there is no air gap in the construction. The damages have occurred when water has permeated through the rendering in leaking connections and fittings for windows, doors, canopies, balconies, terraces and awnings. Behind the plaster carrier, which consists of either polystyrene or rigid mineral wool, plasterboard has often been used as a wind protection barrier. In many cases the wind protection barrier and the underlying wooden studs have been exposed to mould and in some cases even rot. It has been shown that damp in the structure is difficult to dry out.

    The aim of the thesis has been to examine how the energy consumption is affected when this type of construction is damp, partly because energy is required to dry up damp, partly because the insulation ability for a material decreases when it is affected by moisture.

    Previous research and relevant literature has been used in this thesis, to provide: A comprehensive picture of the problem, an explanation for the calculations used and an understanding of the conclusions drawn.

    The energy consumption has been calculated for 1 m2 wall area on two types of wall designs. The calculations have been performed in both dry and damp condition. To calculate the energy consumption in damp condition, three different types of calculation models have been used in three different ways. Since no measurements have been made, the calculations are to some extent based on assumed values.

    The amount of damp that have entered the structure has, according to the calculation models used, been shown to produce small differences in energy consumption compared to the dry structure. The main problem for these types of walls seems instead to be the growth of microorganisms. Nevertheless, the microorganisms seem not to have affected the indoor environment in any significant manner.

  • 21.
    Arvidsson, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Tord
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stridh, Göran
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Energiförluster i partiellt fuktiga enstegstätade ytterväggskonstruktioner: tema: fasader och fönster2009In: Bygg & teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 8, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Asaad Sharif Elemara, Hadil
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    GRUNDLÄGGNINGSMETODER-VAL AV GRUNDLÄGGNINGSMETOD FÖR SMÅHUS I ÖREBRO LÄN2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Foundations support entire houses and are required to be adequately well-built to carry a building’s

    mass for many years without facing problems due to environmental impacts such as moisture and

    frost. This work covers three basic types of foundations; concrete slab, crawl space and block

    foundation. The aim of this work is to investigate the construction methods of the foundations

    mentioned above, which are used within the construction of single-family homes in the city of

    Örebro, Sweden. Additionally, the basis of selection of these foundations by various construction

    companies in respect to risk of moisture-related problems is examined.

    Information about the foundations is collected from scholarly literature as well as qualitative

    interviews with seven construction companies’ experts. Ultimately, this study found that concrete

    slab with underlying insulation is more commonly used within the construction of single-family

    homes in Örebro than the other alternatives. Operators find that this foundation has many

    advantages in comparison with the other foundation techniques.

  • 23.
    Barbaranelli, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bengtsson, Pär
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    KOLFIBERFÖRSTÄRKNING – En jämförelse mellan kolfiberförstärkning och traditionella förstärkningsmetoder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A building part could need a reinforcement. It could be a system of joists that are soon going to be loaded with heavier loads when business is changing from residence to an office. The alternate solution to reinforce that kind of construction would be with steel beams and columns or increase the height of the floor with more concrete. What few constructors and contractors know are the solution with carbon fiber reinforcement could be a better alternative.

    The purpose of the thesis is to study if carbon fiber reinforcement could compete with traditional reinforcement methods. From a calculating and a work-related perspective the project will underline the pro and cons with all of the reinforcement methods. To demonstrate how carbon fiber increase the bending moment capacity have lab and calculation of a real bridge project been executed. In both cases have a carbon fiber solution been compared with traditional reinforcement methods.

    The result of the thesis shows that carbon fiber reinforcement could replace traditional methods in many cases. The pros with the carbon fiber reinforcement is the light weight and high tensile strength that makes it possible, on an efficient way, increase the bending moment capacity in a building part. The thesis lab result shows that a carbon fiber reinforcement does have the same percentage increase in strength as a flat steel reinforcement.

  • 24.
    Barsom, Daniella
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Osama, Rand
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    EFFEKTIVISERING AV DELMOMENT I PROCESSKARTLÄGGNING2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis involves a process mapping to the rebuilding of the gymnasium of Vivallaskolan that burned down at the end of October 2010. Analyses and observations in the activity flow are based on the process mapping. There it shows what subsection that has gone well and less well. Suggested solutions have been made to the problems that gone less well. These solutions show clearly how they can be improved and are based on the following methods: the PDCA-cycle (page 21), BIM (page 21) and Ishikawa diagrams (page 21).

    This process mapping and suggested solutions are based on observations at the construction site together with reading literature and electronic sources. During visits and conversations with the construction manager and carpenters it have been recognized that Lean, which is a method for efficiency of different activity flows, are already partially used in the production of this construction project. These suggested solutions have been made to improve and develop the production phase qualitatively.

    During the survey and analysis of the process mapping, those who are involved in this construction project can clearly see and follow these suggested solutions. These are made to avoid upcoming problems which have been described in this thesis. These solutions can be used to upcoming construction projects already at the designing and calculation phase.

  • 25.
    Barton, Jakob
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rödjemyr, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    En undersökning av prefabricerade och platsbyggda utfackningsväggar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    NCC – Nordic Construction Company – in Örebro has recently decided to use prefabricated

    infill-walls as a method of choice. This report aims to explore, compile and compare the

    method of prefabricating infill-walls with the method of building infill-walls on site. The

    comparison has been made through considering aspects such as work environment, time

    consummation, manufacturing and production costs.

    The report has been conducted upon request from NCC in order to provide an indication of

    which method of production that present the best alternative for future projects. Interviews

    and information from relevant and ongoing projects in the Örebro area constitutes the basis of

    this report. All references to costs and time are based upon actual time schemes and invoices

    collected from said projects. The work environment has been compared to the risk analysis

    made by responsible staff members on site, all in accordance with the Swedish Work

    Environment Authority’s (Arbetsmiljöverket) directives. According to this report the

    difference in financial terms between site build and infill-walls is not that big. By using

    prefabricated infill-walls the report shows that you can save a lot of time. The report has been

  • 26.
    Baryauno, Samuel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Koc, Markus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    VR under försäljningsskedet av nyproduktion - Med kunden i fokus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This examination is about how the customer looks at VR (Virtual Reality) as a field of use during a sales stage of newly produced apartments. The report deals with VR as a visual technology and future solutions. Today, customers reads both two-dimensional and three-dimensional drawings before a purchase of an apartment, which is what most brokerage companies have to offer at the moment. PresentationthroughVRenvironmentshasbeguntoenterthepicture,thequestionis whether it benefits the customer and whether it becomes an obvious solution in future presentations. Examination is done to see if the visualization tool gives a better picture of newly produced apartments and whether it prevents misunderstandings for the customer and if it shortens the sales time. To achieve the purpose, VR tests and question surveys were accomplished by customers. The participants have been divided into three different groups where each group has received different tasks. One group has read drawings, the other has entered a VR environment and the third has done both. Thereafter, the groups have been allowed to enter the apartment to be able to answer the question surveys. The tests and the surveys show that customers perceive VR as a better solution during presentation of the apartment in comparison with drawings. The result also shows that VR reduces the misunderstandings that make iteasierforthecustomertodecide,whichleadstoa shorter sales time.

  • 27.
    Bdaoui, Martina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Aro, Vartouhi
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Effektivare trafik inom smarta städer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cities are about meeting people's needs and living environment, this can be accomplished by developing different parts of the city. Sweden attaches great importance to the roads, infrastructure and the environment in ordertoachievethestabletrafficsafety.This has led to Sweden being better than many other countries as they are far ahead of the development. The UN has nowsetglobalgoalsforsustainabledevelopmenttobeachievedin 2030. These goals will give the countries a sustainable development and a future. The aim ofthisstudyistodevelopideasforasustainableguidelinefortheurbanenvironment that will lead to less traffic and a better environment. The ideas that were developed were to be able to reduce traffic in the center and its environmental impact. Idea 1 meant that a bus, which should be self-driving in the future, with about ten places that pick up people from different areas and transport everyone to the same destination.Thebusesareorderedfroman app in the mobile. This is a vision to reduce the number of self-driving drivers in vehicle traffic and to reduce greenhousegasemissions.Idea2,ontheotherhand,isabouttheparking in the center. The idea is to move all parking spaces a bit out of town and then to take an environmentally friendly vehicle, which here is self-driving, with other passengers entering the center. This vision wants to achieve a traffic-free center. To seeiftheideaswerefeasible and possible according to the respondents, questionnaires aimed at the target group, which drive vehicles into Örebro center, were produced. An interview with the unit manager for urban and traffic planning at Örebro municipality is also taking place tofindoutitsviewson the smart city and what solutions are possible for example to be able to solvethesustainable travel by public transport. This compiles literature for the collection of data from the traffic within smart cities. This study has been delimited to urban and traffic planning, where traffic includes, among other things, vehicle and public transport in the urban environment and passenger cars that travel through the center of Örebro. Örebro is the city to which the study is limited. After compiling the questionnaires and the interview, the resultshowsthatthedifferentideas that have been developed have given differentresultswhenitcomestothedifferentmethods. As a whole, it will be difficult to set a more concrete result because alargeproportionofthe respondents of the questionnaires and the unit manager have had different views on the solutions developed, which means that a conclusion cannot be drawn from the aggregate results. Inordertoobtainamoreconcreteresultofthesolutionsthathavebeendeveloped,the error sources should betakenintoaccountandfollowedupbytheerrorsthathavebeenmade. This could then provide a more in-depth analysis for the result and if the work is developed and improved, this paper can benefit society, which wouldcontributetomoreefficienttraffic in smart cities.

  • 28.
    Beiruti, Michel
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    OPTIMERING VID VAL AV BJÄLKLAGSTYP2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Berggården, Lizette
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Flexibilitet i bostäder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Swedish society today is happening fast. With this comes that the surrounding enviroment of residental area is facing constant changes. The recidences change with the same speed as the social development. As a result floorplans of recidences have to be easy to change. To achieve easy transformable floorplans planners should pay attention to the possibility of transforming during the design stage.

    In this work flexible floorplans of residences have been studied. Flexible floorplans mean that changes can be made easily to the floorplan and at a low cost. The focus of this work have been to look at residential floorplans from two different periods. The first period is the time of the "million programme" (residential building programme during year 1965-1975 in Sweden) and the second period is the present time (year 2005-2015). The work describes why flexible floorplans are needed, which opportunities the flexibility gives, if flexibility is time-related or unchanged over time and if an open floorplan or closed floorplan affects the flexibility.

    Legislation regarding residential design has been studied to understand which rules have controlled the floorplannings during the different times. One essential difference between legislation and rules from the time periods is that in the first period, the law set the standard requirements and nowadays it sets functional requirements. The human way of life in the housing has been studied from the 1960´s until today to understand the requirements of housing development.

    The work is based on a qualitative method where facts mainly have been collected from published books that have been read critically. An analysis of floorplans from the "millione programme" and the present has been performed. The method has been successful due to having clear criteria set before the analysis to indicate if the floorplan had good flexibility or not.

    The analysis of the floorplans was made for each time period to examine if flexibility is time-related or unchanged over time. In the analysis open and closed floorplans were compared to see if the type of plan affects the flexibility. Closed floorplans represent the "million programme" period and open floorplans represent the present.

  • 30.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Latifi, Egzon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    OLYCKSLASTER I ETT PREFABRICERAT FLERBOSTADSHUS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is based on a comparison between the two different procedures on accidental actions in the Swedish norm EKS 11 and SS-EN 1991-1-7. If a construction only has a stairwell as the only emergency exit it requires that accidental actions determines. These accidental actions are categorized mainly to known and unknown accidental actions. Known accidental actions are for example collision by a vehicle or a gas leak from a gas pipe in the building. Unknown accidental actions are those loads that cannot be completely determined. Instead an analyze how to decrease the damage by accidental actions are used. The main approach is to value members as key elements, in effect making them strong enough to withstand a prescribed hazard loading. An alternative if the construction does not have any gas pipes is to use the pressure of 34 kN/m2 to represent the static equivalent from a notional gas explosion. The values in the work are based from a project constructed by the Swedish company Structor. Previously difficulties have occurred while comprehending the Eurocode’s calculation procedures therefore the new Swedish norm EKS have clarified a lot about accidental actions. The calculation procedures results in two different answers between the Eurocode and the Swedish norm EKS. The aim with this dissertation is too clarify the differences between them and perceive the reasons behind it. To be able to have a wider understanding of the subject accidental actions a screening has occurred of the Eurocode, the Swedish norm EKS and literature. The Swedish company Structor has also shared a lot of knowledge on the subject. The dissertation has been limited to accidental actions on stairwells as the only emergency exit and a comparison between the Swedish norm EKS 11 and SS-EN1-7. The outcome of the two different calculations shows two different results of the known and unknown accidental actions. The equations for calculating accidental action in the different standards considerate different things which leads to different results. The conclusion is that there always are different conditions in every project. Therefor a risk assessment should be done before the construction begins to determine which standard is the most suitable for the project.

  • 31.
    Bodin, Tomas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dimensionering av två olika typer av träbroar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport dimensioneras två olika träbroar efter Eurokoderna. En med underspänning och en utan. Syftet var att jämföra konstruktionstyperna. Hjälpmedel för att åstadkomma detta var beräkningsprogrammet Rstab och Mathcad. Resultatet visade att vibrationer spelar en stor roll vid dimensioneringen. Plattan utan underspänning behövde vara två och en halv gånger så hög som den med underspänning för att klara vibrationskraven. Vilket medförde att den fick en låg utnyttjandegrad rörande hållfasthet. För bron med underspänning blev både hållfastheten och vibrationerna i stort sett lika avgörande vid dimensionering.

  • 32.
    Cehlin, Jesper
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    FÖRBÄTTRINGSARBETE PÅ BYGGARBETSPLATSER2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wasting is a major problem on construction sites. A concept where the minimization of waste

    is central is called lean manufacturing. This essay aims to investigate how improvement work

    is used on construction sites. The current systems for improvement were analyzed and

    suggestions for improvement were given.

    Interviews were used to examine how improvement work on construction sites was used.

    Self-control and working preparations were used as quality systems on the construction sites.

    It turned out that they have no system for quality improvement. Because no system was used

    a system had to be developed from scratch.

    The PDCA-cycle is a method of improvement which forms the backbone of Lean. This

    method was the basis for the design of the improvement process. The company has

    procedures for the safety work that this improvement work adapted. The result was Quality

    Round which has a similar design as the company's safety and environmental rounds. The

    Quality round is used as health and environmental rounds once a week at the construction site

    where problem areas are identified and then specified in an FMEA-like template. The Quality

    round provides the opportunity to work with the entire PDCA-cycle on construction sites.

    To notice the problems and solving them is one thing, to ensure that the solutions are

    distributed and used is however more difficult. Standardization is a problem at construction

    sites because unlike in the industry business where the production is stationary the facilities

    are constantly moved depending on the projects location. Each project is unique and there is a

    constant exchange of staff and management. Working preparations used in the company

    could serve as method for standardization. The best method is selected and then described in

    detail with the amount of material, equipment, number of workers, etc. In order to add value

    so that even experienced staff will use these, they could also serve as checklists and

    calculation tools.

  • 33. Chaltiel, Stephanie
    et al.
    Bravo, Maite
    Goessens, Sebastien
    Latteur, Pierre
    Mansouri, Masoumeh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ahmad, Ismael
    Dry and Liquid clay mix drone spraying for Bioshotcrete2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Bioshotcrete” is a new technology being developed by a team of robotic experts, architects, engineers, and drones’ specialists, aiming at using drones in the construction industry to spray natural materials over a temporary light formwork until a self-standing shell is completed. This technique consists in projecting paste-like matter composed of clay mixes following precise and customized deposition sequences over a temporary formwork, incorporating computational techniques in the design and fabrication stages, therefore proposing a more sustainable version of shotcrete. In particular, this paper features experiments using drones for spraying wet and dry ranges of clay mixes over a reusable inflatable formwork with the purpose to build monolithic earthen shells. The featured case studies propose specific protocols to control different deposition sequences, describing the proper formulation of clay mixes, the design and production of customized spraying devices, and fitting options in the drone allowing to vary pressure and other drone spraying parameters. The development of Bioshotcrete using robotic fabrication strategies could help expand and transform existing construction methods and processes to be applied at large scale, therefore incorporating innovative digital fabrication protocols towards a more sustainable building construction realm.

  • 34.
    Clefjord Ljungberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Brunzell, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analys av inköpsbeteende av underleverantörer2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Dahlman, Lars
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rosengren, Tommy
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Visuell styrning – Kvalitet och gemenskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is a manufacturing industry that differs from other manufacturingindustries. Hard demands on the end product, temporary factories and varying demand makethe construction industry a unique industry. To balance all stakeholders while at the same timesupplying the people with roof over their heads and a good infrastructure, the industry facesmany and difficult challenges.Like all manufacturing industries, the construction industry is also aiming for higher quality.Higher quality of the product as well as the process. It turns out that increased quality reducestotal cost, provides better work environment and is better for the climate. In order to obtainhigher quality in the business, different types of quality tools are used. This report investigateshow visual management, such as quality tools, contributes to increased quality andcommunity.Visual management involves human visual learning ability and not only utilizing the auditory.The phenomenon is around us all the time, for example traffic signs, menus in restaurants,billboards, etc. However, in-depth review and optimization of the tool for the intendedpurpose has been shown to have a good impact on the work environment, process and endproduct.The project work is based on a literature study, interviews, questionnaires and observations.The purpose of the work is to provide a picture of the perceived effect of the quality tool andto investigate if there are improvement areas.Based on the results, visual control is used to a lesser extent in smaller projects, but the tool isappreciated by both officials and craftsman. However, it is noted that the effects of the toolare the result of the commitment behind the use. Half of the officials want more education andsupport in visual management, but they also point out that the use must be project-orientedand that they also find a custom way of working.

  • 36.
    Dinh, Cindy
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Petersson, Michael
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analys av ÄTA-arbete i privat byggsektor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Analysis of ÄTA-work in the private constructionsectorAuthors: Cindy Dinh & Michael PeterssonAdvisor: Anders LindénCourse: Degree Project for BSc in Building ConstructionPurpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze ÄTA-work innew production in the private construction sector, aswell as to study how these jobs are generated andmanaged. The goal is also to get a clearer picture ofthe problems and challenges that may arise in thisprocess.Methodology:Theory: The theoretical part presents background facts thathave a relevant link to ÄTA-work.Results and analysis: The compilation of collected data in the form oginterview answers and review of ÄTA-work lists arepresented in the chapter.Conclusions: The conclusions that can be drawn from the study arethat a clear and complete FFU, the importance of goodcommunication and good relationships are importantfactors in achieving successful and effective ÄTAworkmanagement.

  • 37.
    Dixit, Vinayak V.
    et al.
    Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
    Harb, Rami C.
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    Harrison, Glenn W.
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Marco, Donald M.
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    Mard, M. Seph
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Radwan, A. Essam
    University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    Rutström, Elisabet
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Schneider, Mark P.
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Review of Congestion Pricing Experiences2010Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Djioui, Zakaria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mizori, Ravand
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hur får man sökande att skicka in kompletta bygglovshandlingar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When you want to build something new, reconstruct a building or demolish a building, a building permit is needed from the municipality. Örebro municipality has seen that a majority of building permit cases needs to be supplemented before they can be approved. This results in an extended building permit process. The purpose of this report is to examine the underlying factors that leads to people seeking building permits do not submit complete. A survey has been carried out to investigate what people applying for building permits in Örebro municipality experienced was good and bad with their case regarding the building permit process. An inspection was also carried out on the municipality's website for building permits to find reasons why people applying for building permits do not submit complete documents. This report is limited to individuals who have supplemented their building permit application before receiving a granted building permit between summer 2018 and spring 2019 in Örebro municipality. The building permits that were investigated are of simpler cases. Results show that the control plan is often inadequate compared to other documents. Those who have applied for a building permit mean that it is difficult to understand the information in the control plan found on the Örebro municipality's website and that the information is not sufficiently clear. It also turns out that half of the respondents in the survey have been positively set towards a short information film on the Örebro municipality's website. The information film would explain what type of documents that should be submitted and how the documents should look. The control plan proved to be problematic for people who applied for a building permit. They felt that there was an uncertainty regarding the control plan whether it should be sent in with the apply for building permits. They also felt an uncertainty regarding what type of control points should be included in the control plan for each application and what the controls you check against means. An action that can solve this problem is to clearly inform on Örebro municipality's website that a control plan must be submitted with an application and what consequence a non-complete application results in. The consequence is an extended building permit process pending a complete building permit application. Örebro can also clearly explain on their website what each control point in the control plan means. What the Örebro municipality also can think about is to reduce the amount of text that is on the building permit webpages. This is because people who apply for a building permit should see a brief and concise explanation of what documents should be submitted in order to facilitate them. Örebro municipality should also have examples of control plans in the example documents that are available on the website, in order for applicants to easily see which documents that should be submitted.

  • 39.
    Dmytryshyn, Andrii
    et al.
    Dept. Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Stefan
    Dept. Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kågström, Bo
    Dept. Computing Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Canonical structure transitions of system pencils2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the changes under small perturbations of the canonical structure information for a system pencil (A B C D) − s (E 0 0 0), det(E) ≠ 0, associated with a (generalized) linear time-invariant state-space system. The equivalence class of the pencil is taken with respect to feedback-injection equivalence transformation. The results allow to track possible changes under small perturbations of important linear system characteristics.

  • 40.
    Dunberg, Adam
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nygren, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arbetsmiljöplanen- Kommunikationen mellan arbetsledning och underentreprenör2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The authors' backgrounds in construction have contributed toexperience of insufficient communication between management and subcontractors. This is a contributing reason to examinehow the communication of the health and safety documentationshould function in theory and compareit to howitworks in practice.

    Purpose

    Report´s questions

    How is the health and safety documentation communicated from NCC to the subcontractors in the daily work?

    How is the health and safety documentation applied on the construction site?

    The main purpose of the report is to find solutions to potential flaws based on the report´s questions.

    Method

    A literature study was performed initially, which has been ongoing as the work progresses. Thereafter, a study through interviews has been done with the managers from three different NCC construction sites. To get a fair idea how the health and safety documentation is communicated, interviews with the subcontractors has been done. A survey has been submitted to subcontractors on all construction sites visited during the interviews.

    Results

    The study through interviews showsdifferent point of viewson how the health and safety documentation applies and communicates.The difference is based on the respondent’s profession or rank on the construction site. The management sees a challenge in getting theworkers to embrace the content of the health and safety documentation. The workers on the other hand tend to think the managers show a lack of commitment on the subject. The survey shows a low percentage of workers who actually read through the health andsafety documentationthoroughly.

  • 41.
    Durakovic, Kenan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cicek, Kevin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Uttorkning av betong - Säkerhetsmarginalers inverkan på tidsförluster2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a study on dehydration of concrete with specific focus on how big time losses dehydration contributes due to safety margins as well as other influencing factors. The study was conducted in spring 2018 in collaboration with Linotol AB.The purpose of this study has been to see how the safety margin is developed and what factors control its value. The safety margin has then been placed in forecasted moisture charts to estimate the effect it has on the drying time. This has been done through collaboration with authorized moisture controllers for a reliable result.In various moisture measurements carried out, different concrete classes were studied where calculations were made regarding the safety margin used and how much additional time needed for dehydration. Then, the forecasted moisture diagrams were used where the respective moisture measurement was placed for a clear result.The report first builds on a theory study on concrete as a material and then on moisture with a focus on moisture measurements to provide an understanding of the subject and then form the basis for discussion and analysis.Finally, the results will be reported through tables and diagrams for three plates, respectively, on which moisture measurements were carried out and on forecasted diagrams. The tables show the values of the moisture measurements which are then applied to the charts to see its impact.

  • 42.
    Dyrebrant, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Broberg, Pontus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Förbättringsmöjligheter av samarbetet mellan projektör & entreprenör i ett BIM-projekt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project is about improving the possibilities of communication between the entrepreneur and the projector. Today's construction industry is in a major change to BIM, and it is therefore particularly important that the communication works between the parties as cooperation goes as smoothly and seamlessly as possible for best results. An enhanced cooperation to create a better relationship between the companies and can keep down costs and time to the project.

    To arrive at the best result of the study interviews with both the contractor and the designer of the project Stenkumla – Dunsjö were made. The major entrepreneur of the project is Skanska and the projector isWSP. Most of the interviews that have been done have been with entrepreneur to find out what they are missing. The result of the interviews have then been discussed with the projector to see if they knew about the comments that the entrepreneurs had and if they had a solution for it already.

    After the interviews it turned out that most of the entrepreneurs felt that a piece of the puzzle that was missing were education, they felt that they had not received sufficient education on how to use the model in the best way. Since BIM is a new approach in which the model is a central part it was considered important. It came up more comments from the entrepreneur where the comments only were about lack of communication where many were about the lack of education.

    The result can lead companies to open more dialogues and puts more time to listen to what can be improved.

  • 43.
    Ehrlin, Niklas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Vad är partnering?: Varför vara kritisk till partnering?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Partnering as a cooperation form can be used in every type of building project. Partnering can be used from an early stage in a project and all the way to the finishing line. There are even some examples where partnering successfully have proceed way longer than to the completing of the project. On these kind of occasions the cooperation has concluded maintenance of the final product. But what does partnering really mean? It is well known that partnering consists of actors working together but what does this actually mean considering the working form? And how are you supposed to make partnering successful? Furthermore, partnering have gotten an undeserved bad label as something out of date and useless. Some companies even chooses not to use the word partnering just because the negative associations from the word.

    This essay will make the concept of partnering more clear and will work as a guide for how to make partnering successful. The work is based on studies of literature written in the subject as well as qualitative interviews.

  • 44.
    Ekefäll, Oscar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Oktay, Philip
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Användningen av BIM under förvaltningsskedet - Utvecklingen av digitala ritningar/verktyg & hur det används idag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is about in what range BIM or other digital solutions are being used today during management phase and also map out curtain problem areas. Management phase has fallen back in the technical development if you compare them with other parts of the building process. There is still a lot of 2D-drawings being used during management phase.Interviews has been made with both managers and consultants. With these interviews and study of literature a mapping of the BIM-usage has been made. Witch has shown that the 3D-model that was made earlier in the building process was seldom used during management phase. In fact none of the companies that was interviewed was using the 3D-model. This is a huge problem because much of the information that was once made is lost. The reason for this is either that the managers doesn’t have competence enough to use the model or that the question isn’t prioritized because the managers can’t see any economic value in the model.If the management phase want to develop in the field of technology there has to be specific programs for managers available. There’s also a lot of older people working in the field of management and the computer skills are very different between the coworkers. This is bad from a BIM-perspective because the technical competence is lacking. Which can be explained because the management phase isn’t prioritized at the Universities.

  • 45.
    Eklund, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Persson, Oskar
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fukt - Fuktanalys av flerbostadshus med KL-trä2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building industry is moving towards building more with wood and in the case of highbuildings cross-laminated timber (CLT). Wood is a good material to build with, but notentirely without problems. We have chosen to dig deeper in how moisture affects andchanges CLT when in contact with each other.From the literature studies we found information and examinations that have been done onthe subject to find critical points and a long term result. After that we conducted a series ofinterviews with moisture experts to use their deep knowledge about the subject. Finallypractical tests was performed with three test samples of CLT to investigate short termimpact.Wood has a number of problems and one of those are moisture. Moisture affects woodthrough decay, blue stain and mold. These biofoulings weakens the woods structure andappearance but also affects people's health. CLT is not a new material though the use of ithas recently become more popular.The literature studies has given understanding how CLT behaves when being impacted bymoisture and when biofouling like microorganisms start to appear. The result from thesefound that CLT has a risk of being affected by mold after a short period during exposurefrom moisture. Though the studies found that there is not a big risk for decay during the timethe tests were conducted.The interviews gave this report an understanding which critical parts that exists, whatquestions to answer and how to work with them. From the interviews we found that the mostcritical parts were joins and by heaps and that you should always use weather shelter duringconstruction, especially with bigger projects.Practical tests confirms much of what has emerged from our literature studies andinterviews. Stagnant water causes growth to begin much faster and the most critical parts areat the joints. Mold appears after just 3 weeks of constant exposure and the test pieces thatwere allowed to dry show movements in the wood.The conclusion is that there is a lot of problem regarding moisture and handling of CLT. It isnecessary to spend time how moisture problems should be handled in the designing of thebuilding to avoid stops at the construction site. It is also important that anyone involved inhandling the CLT is aware of the critical parts the needs extra attention.The best way to avoid moisture problems are by using weather protection. Note thatsomething important to consider when using weather protection is whether it will rain on theday the body is delivered. This is because the weather protection needs to be order to lift inthe parts, this may cause unwanted moisture in the structure.However, in order to make the construction cheaper, one can ignore the of weatherprotection. Preferably that the frame is delivered “Just in time” as it reduces the risk ofmoisture problems. An additional good strategy is to build one floor at a time on dayswithout the risk of rain. Then cover the floor temporarily until the begins to be built.

  • 46.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Nils
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Prefabricerade betongbroar över järnväg - En jämförelse mellan traditionell platsgjuten konstruktion och prefab på plats2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When new concrete bridges over railway is to be established there are many aspects that complicates the construction, such as that traffic not can be stopped completely except for short periods during the construction process. The train stop is planned many years in advance, which means that construction must be planned and performed along the planned stops.

    It is difficult to get to an industrial bridge construction process with higher efficiency and more repetition. The traditional cast on site method is the most common in Sweden although there are methods that could replace it.

    The main purpose of the report is to find out if precast concrete elements on site is a possible method to facilitate the construction of new concrete bridges over the railway.

    This report is based on a case study of an existing bridge project to see the benefits and improvements the method with precast on site can provide in various aspects. Also interviews and surveys was conducted to collect opinions about prefabrication and industrial bridge construction.

    The results in this report show that the method of prefab on site is more advantageous than the traditional cast on site method in several respects. It is a method that makes it possible to reach repetition and serial production of bridges. The interviews revealed that contractors are interested in prefabricated solutions, but among other requirements for the design and conservative view of prefabrication from clients prevents the possibility of applying the method.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mehmedovic, Nijaz
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Produktivitetsstudie Brobyggnad2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of productivity in the construction industry has long been at a steady state compared to the manufacturing industry. Studies have shown that, amongst other things, waste on construction sites can reach up to one third of the total production cost. This has been observed from different aspects, and change is forthcoming.

    This thesis aims to provide a foundation for an increased productivity at production sites of building bridges. It is primarily based on a field study at Skanska, at a bridge construction site near Grängesberg. Via continuous interviews with the whole production crew, construction workers and management, information on interference and possibilities of improvement at the work site has been documented. Moreover, Lean has been studied and attention has been brought to simple methods and approaches that can contribute to an increase of productivity. The purpose of this thesis was to inform Skanska and its team of recurring disruptions and improvement prospects, and to suggest simple methods so that future projects can be run more profitably.

    During the field study approximately ten disruptions have been documented, which directly interfered with the production. Most of these were due to different forms of communication failures. Late deliveries and reinforcement problems were the most common disorders. Furthermore, we have found room for improvement within the visual management, where resources and technology are available, but are not utilized to its fullest potential. In conclusion we analyzed and gave suggestions of simple methods for improvement using Lean as support, were tools like Five Why’s and SMART goals were used.

  • 48.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Olsson, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Enhetstider2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    OBK Sverige AB is a contractor company from Örebro that was established 2011. Today they have about 65 employees. They have not been able to save as much time as they where hoping for at one of their projects called Brf Vingen. We are going to view different stages of this project and compare to another of their projects called Kv. Sjukhuset. The unit times for the different stages will be compared to the old and the new list of unit times. The purpose with this essay is to answer these following questions. • How does some of the unit times from the old list come out compared to reality? • What can be the reason that the unit times in some cases can´t be kept? • How is the new list going to come out compared to reality? The unit times for the stages will be compared to Nybyggnadslistan 1999 an not to Ombyggnadslistan 1999 because the projects which are going to be viewed are constructions and not reconstructions. These lists have been published by Byggnads, which is trade union, with Sveriges Byggindustrier. Literature studies and interviews have been used to get the information about what unit times are. Interviews have also been used to get the unit times and amounts we needed for the viewed stages.  Unit times are being used to calculate how much time it takes to build one unit of a stage. Painting, foundry work and plastering is some examples of different stages and the units can be square meter, meter, piece etc. The unit time is different for different kinds of stages. This unit time is multiplied with the total amount of the stages.  The stages which has been selected to be viewed from both of the projects are the concrete frame, the roofing and the plastering of the interior walls. The wood panel at Brf Vingen has also been selected to be viewed. The result in this essay is that the time that has been saved, using the new list, for the concrete frame at Brf Vingen has increased and at Kv. Sjukhuset it has decreased. For the roofing it has decreased, for the plastering of the interior walls it has increased and for the wood panel it has de creased.  Depending on various factors in the viewed projects the unit times in the old list comes out differently well compared to reality. The reason that the unit times in some cases can´t be kept is for example that the roof slope is too steep, small and narrow spaces and also the construction design. The new list comes out better for the viewed stages compared to reality.

  • 49.
    Evertsen, David
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Musinovic, Ervin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    BRANDSKYDD AV STÅLKONSTRUKTIONER - En kostnadsjämförelse mellan metoder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    5 billion Swedish crowns annually, 10 000 rescue efforts and 90 % of cases fire was leadingto the death of people in housing complexes has had fire as the reason. The subject has gotmore attention recently thanks to Greenfell Tower in London that during the summer of 2017showed that fire protection should take more space during the construction time with fireprotection as a predominant part.This graduation thesis will build on the insight that fire protection is a significant matterduring the projection. The report presents the expenses of the protection of steel in firesituations. The thesis gives a deep understanding within the area of fire and also gives a betterunderstanding what different material costs, seen from direct expenses in the form of materialand the working progress and also the expenses aside from these. The thesis goes throughdifferent calculations of these expenses but also explains how different materials are affectedand their ability in a fire situation. The calculations will besides going through materialexpenses even include the calculation process of steel pillars and collaboration pillars. Thethesis will only process the part of fire protection that is called passive fire protection, that ismaterial that protects but do not counteract the fire. Materials that will be examined isinsulation, plaster, fire protection painting and what fire protection characteristics concretehas.With the help of literature studies, basic calculation methods, interviews with experiencedconsultants and engineers has this thesis strived to give a good basic understanding andcomprehensive view of the fire protection area.The result och the thesis shows how pillars with high critical temperature achieves R90 withonly one layer of plaster. Different providers of fire protection materials which are used in theconstruction is manufactured in different ways for example sizing programs, tables ochcalculations that originated with 450°C. The result even shows how prices are affecteddepending on the different materials that are used and the thickness of these materials. Alsocalculations are made for a better clarification of the statements.

  • 50.
    Fahlstedt, Oskar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Karl
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Arbetsmiljö med utländsk arbetskraft2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the construction sector is one of the industries that is the most affected by work relatedinjuries in Sweden, this thesis is investigating the work environment with focus on safetyroutines at the construction sites. But because of the work environment and safety routinescovers as broad spectra this thesis focuses on how well the people working in the productionsection of the industry, think it works with posted labor and safety routines at the constructionsites.Some questions have been asked in the thesis to help formulate the problem with posted laborand safety routines. They are formulated in a way to help examine how well the safety isworking with the posted labor and what differences leadership feels there are betweenSwedish and posted labor regarding safety routines. The thesis have also investigated how theleadership feels about the situation with posted workers and safety in the job with the workingenvironment.As a foundation for the thesis a literature study has been performed combined with interviewsof construction managers who have experience about leading posted labor in their projects.The result of the study shows that the construction managers view the problem with theposted labor quite different. What they viewed as a problem could fluctuate but everyonebasically had three common denominators; communication, culture differences anduncertainties in the procurements of the contractors.There must be higher demands and greater clarity in the demands of what level of English theposted labor should be able to speak to guarantee safe work environment was one of theconclusions in the thesis. The so called CFR-scale could be used by contractors to determineif posted workers language skills are good enough. Also treated was how the culture legacy ofthe posted workers primarily from Eastern Europe can collide with the flat Swedishorganization culture and how that is a safety risk at the construction sites.

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