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  • 1.
    Asnafi, Nader
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Material Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (MEAMT 2018)2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Fredriksson, Nils Johan
    et al.
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Water Environment Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Malte
    Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wilén, Britt-Marie
    Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Water Environment Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Long-term dynamics of the bacterial community in a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant2019In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 912-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational efficiency of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants depends to a large extent on the microbial community structure of the activated sludge. The aims of this paper are to describe the composition of the bacterial community in a Swedish full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, to describe the dynamics of the community and to elucidate possible causes for bacterial community composition changes. The bacterial community composition in the activated sludge was described using 16S rRNA gene libraries and monitored for 15 months by a terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Despite variable environmental conditions, a large fraction of the observed T-RFs were present at all times, making up at least 50% in all samples, possibly representing a relatively stable core fraction of the bacterial community. However, the proportions of the different T-RFs in this fraction as well as the T-RFs in the more variable fraction showed a significant variation over time and temperature. The difference in community composition between summer and winter coincided with observed differences in floc structure. These observations suggest a relationship between floc properties and bacterial community composition, although additional experiments are required to determine causality.

  • 3.
    Håkansson, Viktor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjölander, Natalie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Byggavfall: En studie av avfall på byggarbetsplatser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag lever vi svenskar bekvämt och väljer att inte alltid sopsortera. Detta gäller även på större byggarbetsplatser där man slänger mycket stora mängder avfall. Mycket kan återvinnas men på grund av slarv uppstår en del oanvändbart avfall. I följande rapport studerades två fall av nybyggnation av flerbostadshus i Örebro. Detta genomfördes med hjälp av platsbesök och intervjuer med personer som har god insikt i projekten. Fotografier togs på plats för att styrka det som skrivits i arbetet. Bilderna visar bristande sortering och märkning av containrarna. Här anser vi att förbättringsmöjligheter finns och att det stora hindret är motivation och tidsbrist.

    Inom detta område finns lagar och förordningar som reglerar hanteringen av byggavfallet. EU har tagit fram olika steg som avfall bör gå igenom innan det klassas som oanvändbart och hamnar på deponi. Självklart är det bästa att undvika uppkomsten av överflödigt material. För att avfall skall kunna återvinnas till så stor grad som möjligt är det viktigt att sortera det i många grupper. Det bästa alternativet är såklart att produkten återanvänds utan att genomgå bearbetning. Vissa produkter som inte är direkt byggmaterial glöms lätt bort, däribland emballage som genereras i samband med leveranser.

    Kvalitetsarbete är viktigt för att kunna identifiera alla bidragande orsaker. Om platsledningen förstår vikten av policy och mål så kan man lättare förmedla sitt ställningstagande. På de undersökta byggarbetsplatserna framgick att detta var positivt för att förbättra och driva miljöarbetet. Det är också viktigt att underentreprenörerna tar del av samma information.

    Stora förbättringar har skett i byggsektorn men det finns fortfarande arbete kvar. Till exempel behöver statistik föras till en högre grad än idag bland annat för att byggföretagen ska veta om de uppfyller kraven i EU:s nya miljömål. Det är idag svårt att hitta exakt statistik från byggbranschen.

    Prissättningen av fraktioner bestäms efter kostnaden för återvinningsprocesserna. Ibland är kostnadsskillnaden så liten att den inte motiverar byggföretagen att själva sköta sorteringen på plats. Istället går de blandade fraktionerna till eftersortering hos återvinningsföretaget. Detta är inte bra då vissa material måste sorteras direkt för att inte förstöras. Förstört material kan inte återvinnas vilket ger en negativ effekt på miljön.

  • 4.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Obesity and psychotic disorders: uncovering common mechanisms through metabolomics2012In: Disease Models and Mechanisms, ISSN 1754-8403, E-ISSN 1754-8411, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 614-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary obesity and psychotic disorders are similar with respect to the associated changes in energy balance and co-morbidities, including metabolic syndrome. Such similarities do not necessarily demonstrate causal links, but instead suggest that specific causes of and metabolic disturbances associated with obesity play a pathogenic role in the development of co-morbid disorders, potentially even before obesity develops. Metabolomics - the systematic study of metabolites, which are small molecules generated by the process of metabolism - has been important in elucidating the pathways underlying obesity-associated co-morbidities. This review covers how recent metabolomic studies have advanced biomarker discovery and the elucidation of mechanisms underlying obesity and its co-morbidities, with a specific focus on metabolic syndrome and psychotic disorders. The importance of identifying metabolic markers of disease-associated intermediate phenotypes - traits modulated but not encoded by the DNA sequence - is emphasized. Such markers would be applicable as diagnostic tools in a personalized healthcare setting and might also open up novel therapeutic avenues.

  • 5.
    Pelto-Piri, Veikko
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Psychiatric Research Centre.
    Engström, Karin
    Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Ingemar
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Psychiatric Research Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care.2013In: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 49-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients' opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity.

    METHODS: All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives.

    RESULTS: The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values.Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility.Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient's right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient's integrity and 3) protecting human rights.Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients' right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision.

  • 6.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden; School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle NY, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Systems Biology Research Center, School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2015In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, isolated from an arsenic contaminated lands. Here, we have investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Lysinibacillus genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of similar to 4.5 Mb in size encompassing similar to 80% of the chromosomal DNA. We found that the set of ordered contigs contains abundant regions of similarity with other Lysinibacillus genomes and clearly identifiable genome rearrangements. Furthermore, all genes of B1-CDA that were predicted be involved in its resistance to arsenic and/or other heavy metals were annotated. The presence of arsenic responsive genes was verified by PCR in vitro conditions. The findings of this study highlight the significance of this bacterium in removing arsenics and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of the isolate could be used to cope with arsenic toxicity.

  • 7.
    Westman, Ola
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Structor Miljöteknik AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hollert, Henner
    Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An oxygenated metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene increases hepatic beta-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryos2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 6243-6251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well-known carcinogens to humans and ecotoxicological effects have been shown in several studies. However, PAHs can also be oxidized into more water soluble-oxygenated metabolites (Oxy-PAHs). The first purpose of the present project was to (1) assess the effects of a mixture containing three parent PAHs: anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene versus a mixture of their oxygenated metabolites, namely: anthracene-9,10-dione, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, and 9,10-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene-7-(8H)-one on the hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed in ovo. The second and also main purpose of the project was to (2) assess the effects of the parent PAHs versus their oxy-PAHs analogues when injected individually, followed by (3) additional testing of the individual oxy-PAHs. The hepatic beta-oxidation was measured using a tritium release assay with [9,10-H-3]-palmitic acid (16:0) as substrate. The result from the first part (1) showed reduced hepatic beta-oxidation after exposure in ovo to a mixture of three PAHs, however, increased after exposure to the mixture of three oxy-PAHs compared to control. The result from the second part (2) and also the follow-up experiment (3) showed that 9,10-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene-7-(8H)-one was the causative oxy-PAH. The implication of this finding on the risk assessment of PAH metabolite exposure in avian wildlife remains to be determined. To the best of our knowledge, no similar studies have been reported.

  • 8.
    Westman, Ola
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Venizelos, Nikolaos
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hollert, Henner
    3RWTH Aachen University, Inst. For Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Aachen, Germany.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    An oxygenated metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene increases hepatic β-oxidation of fatty acids in chick embryosManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 8 of 8
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