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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Rickard
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Skårberg, Kurt
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Addiction Center.
    Brus, Ole
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellin, Lars
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Auricular acupuncture for substance use: a randomized controlled trial of effects on anxiety, sleep, drug use and use of addiction treatment services2016Ingår i: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikel-id 24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A common alternative treatment for substance abuse is auricular acupuncture. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and long-term effect of auricular acupuncture on anxiety, sleep, drug use and addiction treatment utilization in adults with substance abuse.

    Method: Of the patients included, 280 adults with substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity, 80 were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture according to the NADA protocol, 80 to auricular acupuncture according to a local protocol (LP), and 120 to relaxation (controls). The primary outcomes anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI) and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) were measured at baseline and at follow-ups 5 weeks and 3 months after the baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes were drug use and addiction service utilization. Complete datasets regarding BAI/ISI were obtained from 37/34 subjects in the NADA group, 28/28 in the LP group and 36/35 controls. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Analysis of Variance, Kruskal Wallis, Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, Eta square (η(2)), and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests.

    Results: Participants in NADA, LP and control group improved significantly on the ISI and BAI. There was no significant difference in change over time between the three groups in any of the primary (effect size: BAI, η(2) = 0.03, ISI, η(2) = 0.05) or secondary outcomes. Neither of the two acupuncture treatments resulted in differences in sleep, anxiety or drug use from the control group at 5 weeks or 3 months.

    Conclusion: No evidence was found that acupuncture as delivered in this study is more effective than relaxation for problems with anxiety, sleep or substance use or in reducing the need for further addiction treatment in patients with substance use problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The substantial attrition at follow-up is a main limitation of the study.

    Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT02604706 (retrospectively registered).

  • 2.
    Ahonen, Lia
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Loeber, Rolf
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Dating violence in teenage girls: parental emotion regulation and racial differences2016Ingår i: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 240-250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Teen dating violence (TDV) is a common phenomenon of great public concern. TDV may lead to severe long-term consequences for victims and offenders, and even more so for females than for males.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to investigate possible underlying factors for involvement in TDV either as a perpetrator or a victim. Social learning theory is commonly used to explain internalisation of parents' behaviour on children's behavioural expressions, but less so on parents' emotion regulation as a direct link to later TDV.

    Method: We used longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N=2450) to investigate if and how parents' positive and negative emotion regulation is related to TDV, controlling for early aggression and race.

    Results: Results show a moderately strong association between parents' negative emotion regulation and their daughters' involvement in serious dating violence. We also found that many more African American girls were involved in TDV compared to Caucasian girls, both as a perpetrator and victim.

    Conclusions and practical implications: We discuss directions for future research focusing on emotion regulation and dating violence. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 3.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hartvig, Per
    Dept Drug Design & Pharmacol, Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Dept Pharmacol, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Dept Psychol, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Serotonin Synthesis Rate and the Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 G-703T Polymorphism in Social Anxiety Disorder2014Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 75, nr 9, s. 357S-357SArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Alaie, Iman
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Philipsson, Anna
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Lars
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Region Örebro län. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Feldman, Inna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sampaio, Filipa
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Child Health and Parenting (CHAP), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Möller, Margareta
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Arinell, Hans
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Päären, Aivar
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Gunilla
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bohman, Hannes
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Pediatric Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study (ULADS)2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikel-id e024939Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To present the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. The initial aim of this epidemiological investigation was to study the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of adolescent depression, and has subsequently expanded to include a broad range of social, economic and health-related long-term outcomes and cost-of-illness analyses.

    Participants: The source population was first-year students (aged 16-17) in upper-secondary schools in Uppsala during 1991-1992, of which 2300 (93%) were screened for depression. Adolescents with positive screening and sex/age-matched peers were invited to a comprehensive assessment. A total of 631 adolescents (78% females) completed this assessment, and 409 subsequently completed a 15year follow-up assessment. At both occasions, extensive information was collected on mental disorders, personality and psychosocial situation. Detailed social, economic and health-related data from 1993 onwards have recently been obtained from the Swedish national registries for 576 of the original participants and an age-matched reference population (N=200 000).

    Findings to date: The adolescent lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode was estimated to be 11.4%. Recurrence in young adulthood was reported by the majority, with a particularly poor prognosis for those with a persistent depressive disorder or multiple somatic symptoms. Adolescent depression was also associated with an increased risk of other adversities in adulthood, including additional mental health conditions, low educational attainment and problems related to intimate relationships.

    Future plans: Longitudinal studies of adolescent depression are rare and must be responsibly managed and utilised. We therefore intend to follow the cohort continuously by means of registries. Currently, the participants are approaching mid-adulthood. At this stage, we are focusing on the overall long-term burden of adolescent depression. For this purpose, the research group has incorporated expertise in health economics. We would also welcome extended collaboration with researchers managing similar datasets.

  • 5.
    Andersen, Lisa M. J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Manouilenko, Irina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nylander, Lena
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Edgar, Johan
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ritvo, Riva Ariella
    Yale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
    Ritvo, Edward
    The Neuropsychiatric Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, USA.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Swedish version of the Ritvo autism and asperger diagnostic scale: revised (RAADS-R). A validation study of a rating scale for adults2011Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 41, nr 12, s. 1635-1645Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75 adults with ASD and 197 comparison cases. Also, a subset completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Three out of four subscales had high internal consistency. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity was 93%. The ASD subjects had significantly higher mean scores on all subscales. ASD females had higher scores than ASD males on the sensory motor subscale, a dimension not included in the AQ. RAADS-R showed promising test re-test reliability.

  • 6.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Utveckling av psykopati från barndom till vuxen ålder2016Ingår i: Psykopati / [ed] Mette K. F. Kreis, Helge Andreas Hoff, Henrik Belfrage & Stephen D. Hart, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, s. 49-71Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Bergström, Jan
    Buhrman, Monica
    Carlbring, Per
    Holländare, Fredrik
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Nilsson-Ihrfelt, Elisabeth
    Paxling, Björn
    Ström, Lars
    Waara, Johan
    Development of a new approach to guided self-help via the Internet: The Swedish experience2008Ingår i: Journal of technology in human services, ISSN 1522-8835, E-ISSN 1522-8991, Vol. 26, nr 2-4, s. 161-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the development and empirical status of guided Internet-delivered self-help. The treatment approach combines the benefits of bibliotherapy with book-length text materials and the support given online via web pages and e-mail. Interactive features such as online registrations, tests, and online discussion forums are also included. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) guided the research and clinical implementations of this approach, as it lends itself more easily to the self-help format compared with other presently available psychotherapy approaches. We include an overview of the research, current issues and research in service delivery, lessons learned through a program of research, and directions for future investigations

  • 8.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tillfors, M
    Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Department of Social and Psychological Studies: Psychology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Sources of stress and worry in the development of stress-related mental health problems: A longitudinal investigation from early- to mid-adolescence2019Ingår i: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 155-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stress and stress-related mental health complaints are common and increasing among adolescents, especially girls. Identifying typical sources of stress as well as central intervention targets is an important effort in the development of effective prevention and treatment protocols. This study investigated worry as potential mediator in the development of mental health problems in response to common stressors in adolescence. We also examined to what sources adolescents ascribe their stress over the years from the 7th through the 9th grade.

    DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

    METHODS: Self-reported subjective stressor load, worry, anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed in a sample of Swedish 7th graders (N = 1137; 46% girls, mean age 13.2) with follow-up assessments one and two years later.

    RESULTS: School was the most common source of stress across all time-points, with girls reporting considerable more stress than boys. Worry mediated the relationship between overall stressor load and depressive symptoms and anxiety over time and was not moderated by gender.

    CONCLUSIONS: Worry may be an important target in stress prevention and efforts to prevent stress-related problems would benefit from focusing on early adolescence as especially school stress is already relatively common in grade 7.

  • 9.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    van Wijk, Nikil Ph. L.
    Aquarius Analyses & Training (AA&T), Curaçao.
    Byrne, Don
    The Medical School, College of Medicine Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Psychology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Development of a Shortened Version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S): construct validity and sex invariance in a large sample of Swedish adolescents2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, E-ISSN 2245-8875, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 4-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stressor experience is an important topic of research concerning adolescent health and ill-health. For this, valid and reliable measures of adolescent stress are needed. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire 2 was developed to tap into stressor domains specific for adolescence. Psychometric evaluations in Australian and European samples have indicated adequate psychometric properties. However, the ASQ-2 is quite extensive, which may render its use in large cohort studies, where several aspects of adolescent health are investigated, inconvenient and problematic.

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a short version of the ASQ-2 (ASQ-S) in terms of construct validity and factorial invariance across gender.

    Method: The ASQ-2 was translated into Swedish and items were retained from nine of the ten scales based on factor loadings. One scale (stress of emerging adult responsibilities) was removed entirely due to low internal consistency and variance explained. The remaining 27 items were piloted and then included in an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study involving the participation of all students in the 7th and 8th grade in public schools from three Swedish municipalities (N = 2768, 47.5 % girls, mean age 13.64 years). For this study data from the first and second wave was used.

    Results: A nine factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed a good fit to the data and invariance across sexes was supported. The nine scales correlated positively with depressive symptoms, anxiety and worry and negatively with self-esteem. Girls reported higher stress levels than boys in eight of the nine scales. Stressors related to peer pressure predicted reported levels of anxiety and worry one year later, whereas stressors related to romantic relationships predicted depressive symptoms.

    Conclusions: Overall this study suggests that the ASQ-S could be a valid measure of adolescent stressor experience and psychometrically equivalent to the full ASQ-2.

  • 10.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. University Health Care Research Center (UFC) Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jerlinder, K.
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle , Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete. University Health Care Research Center (UFC) Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Participation in physical activities: a multilevel challenge for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the biggest current public health problems. Few adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) achieve the recommendation of daily physical activity (PA). The reasons for not being physically active depend on several complex factors, yet not comprehensively described from the adolescents’point of view. The absence of their perspective means that intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activity may not encompass the experiences of the adolescents themselves. Therefore the purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the perceptions, experiences and reflections of adolescents with ASDs’participation in PA.

    Participants and methods: Twenty-four adolescents, diagnosed with ASD without a co-occurring intellectual disability, aged 12-16 years, participated in the study.Data was collected using qualitative interviews and inductively analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Adolescents with ASD were a heterogeneous group in regard to their current PA habits and preferences. Their willingness to participate in PA was conditioned regarding; what, where, when and with whom. They described challenges in the activity and the social context during PA, especially during the mandatory physical education. Perceived demands, freedom of choice, physical ability and sense of control affected their PA participation.

    Conclusion: Findings indicate that the adolescents’willingness to participate was associated with interacting and individual-related conditions, which can be misinterpreted as unwillingness to participate in PA. Thus aspects of autonomy and knowledge about individual conditions and needs have to be recognized when intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activities are planned for this population.

  • 11.
    Baker, J. H.
    et al.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
    Maes, H. H.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Department of Human Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, P.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kendler, K. S.
    Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Department of Human Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
    Sex differences and developmental stability in genetic and environmental influences on psychoactive substance consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood2011Ingår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 41, nr 9, s. 1907-1916Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of substance use. However, little is known about the stability of these factors across development. We aimed to answer three crucial questions about this etiology that have never been addressed in a single study: (1) Is there a general vulnerability to substance consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood? (2) If so, do the genetic and environmental influences on this vulnerability change across development? (3) Do these developmental processes differ in males and females?

    Method: Subjects included 1480 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development who have been followed since 1994. Prospective, self-reported regular smoking, alcohol intoxication and illicit drug use were assessed at ages 13-14, 16-17 and 19-20 years. Structural modeling was performed with the program Mx.

    Results: An underlying common factor accounted for the association between smoking, alcohol and illicit drug consumption for the three age groups. Common genetic and shared environmental effects showed substantial continuity. In general, as participants aged, the influence of the shared environment decreased, and genetic effects became more substance specific in their effect.

    Conclusions: The current report answers three important questions in the etiology of substance use. The genetic and environmental risk for substance consumption is partly mediated through a common factor and is partly substance specific. Developmentally, evidence was strongest for stability of common genetic effects, with less evidence for genetic innovation. These processes seem to be the same in males and females.

  • 12.
    Baker, Jessica H.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Brosof, Leigh C.
    Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maes, Hermine H.
    Department of Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
    Kendler, Kenneth S.
    Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
    Associations Between Alcohol Involvement and Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Twins: A Bivariate Twin Study2018Ingår i: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 42, nr 11, s. 2214-2223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol involvement has familial associations with bulimic symptoms (i.e., binge eating, inappropriate compensatory behaviors), with several studies indicating a genetic overlap between the two. It is unclear whether overlapping familial risk with alcohol involvement extends to other eating disorder symptoms. Understanding the genetic overlap between alcohol involvement and other eating disorder symptoms may aid in more targeted interventions for comorbid alcohol use-eating disorder symptoms. Thus, we investigated associations between alcohol involvement and 2 core eating disorder symptoms: drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction in adolescent female and male twins.

    METHODS: We assessed 3 levels of alcohol involvement: alcohol use in the last month, having ever been intoxicated, and alcohol intoxication frequency via self-report. The Eating Disorder Inventory-II assessed drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Sex-specific biometrical twin modeling examined the genetic overlap between alcohol involvement and eating disorder symptoms.

    RESULTS: Phenotypic associations between alcohol involvement, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction were significantly greater in girls compared with boys. A majority of the associations between alcohol involvement, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in girls, but not boys, met our threshold for twin modeling (phenotypic r > 0.20). Moderate genetic correlations were observed between the 3 aspects of alcohol involvement and drive for thinness. Moderate genetic correlations were observed between alcohol use and intoxication frequency and body dissatisfaction.

    CONCLUSIONS: Together with the literature on alcohol involvement and bulimic symptoms, these findings suggest a generalized association between alcohol involvement and eating disorder symptoms in girls, whereas this association may be symptom specific in boys. Genetic correlations indicate that the amount and direction of this genetic overlap differs across specific symptoms. When intervening on comorbid alcohol involvement and eating disorder symptoms, it may be important to target-specific eating disorder symptoms.

  • 13.
    Baker, Jessica H.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States.
    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maes, Hermine
    Department of Genetics, VA Commonwealth University, Richmond, United States.
    Kendler, Kenneth S.
    Department of Psychiatry, VA Commonwealth University, Richmond, United States.
    Shared Familial Risk Between Bulimic Symptoms and Alcohol Involvement During Adolescence2017Ingår i: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, ISSN 0021-843X, E-ISSN 1939-1846, Vol. 126, nr 5, s. 506-518Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Twin studies show the established relation between bulimic symptoms and problematic alcohol involvement in adult females is partly due to shared familial factors, specifically shared genetic effects. However, it is unclear if similar shared etiological factors exist during adolescence or in males. We examined the familial overlap (i.e., genetic and common environmental correlations) between bulimic symptoms and various levels of alcohol involvement in 16- to 17-year-old female and male same-sex twin pairs using sex-specific biometrical twin modeling. Bulimic symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. Alcohol involvement included alcohol use in the last month, having ever been intoxicated, and alcohol intoxication frequency. Results revealed 3 distinct patterns. First, in general, phenotypic correlations indicated statistically similar associations between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in girls and boys. Second, common environmental overlap was significant for the bivariate associations including having ever been intoxicated. Third, moderate genetic correlations were observed between all bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in girls and moderate common environmental correlations were observed in boys for the more risky/deviant levels of involvement. Similar to adults, there is familial overlap between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in adolescent girls and boys. These results could inform symptom-and sex-specific, developmentally targeted prevention and intervention programs for the comorbidity between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement.

  • 14.
    Beckman, K.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; St Goran Hosp, Stockholm City Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, E.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, P.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almqvist, C
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Runeson, B.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; St Goran Hosp, Stockholm City Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlin, M.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; St Goran Hosp, Stockholm City Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mental illness and suicide after self-harm among young adults: long-term follow-up of self-harm patients, admitted to hospital care, in a national cohort2016Ingår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 46, nr 16, s. 3397-3405Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-harm among young adults is a common and increasing phenomenon in many parts of the world. The long-term prognosis after self-harm at young age is inadequately known. We aimed to estimate the risk of mental illness and suicide in adult life after self-harm in young adulthood and to identify prognostic factors for adverse outcome.

    Method: We conducted a national population-based matched case-cohort study. Patients aged 18-24 years (n = 13 731) hospitalized after self-harm between 1990 and 2003 and unexposed individuals of the same age (n = 137 310 ) were followed until December 2009. Outcomes were suicide, psychiatric hospitalization and psychotropic medication in short-term (1-5 years) and long-term (>5 years) follow-up.

    Results: Self-harm implied an increased relative risk of suicide during follow-up [hazard ratio (HR) 16.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-20.9). At long-term follow-up, 20.3% had psychiatric hospitalizations and 51.1% psychotropic medications, most commonly antidepressants and anxiolytics. There was a six-fold risk of psychiatric hospitalization (HR 6.3, 95% CI 5.8-6.8) and almost three-fold risk of psychotropic medication (HR 2.8, 95% CI 2.7-3.0) in long-term follow-up. Mental disorder at baseline, especially a psychotic disorder, and a family history of suicide were associated with adverse outcome among self-harm patients.

    Conclusion: We found highly increased risks of future mental illness and suicide among young adults after self-harm. A history of a mental disorder was an important indicator of long-term adverse outcome. Clinicians should consider the substantially increased risk of suicide among self-harm patients with psychotic disorders.

  • 15.
    Beckman, Karin
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm City Council, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Waern, Margda
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Runeson, Bo
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm City Council, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlin, Marie
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm City Council, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Method of self-harm in adolescents and young adults and risk of subsequent suicide2018Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 948-956Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Self-harm is common in youth and an important risk factor for suicide. Certain self-harm methods might indicate a higher risk of suicide. The main aim of this study was to determine whether some methods of self-harm in adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-24 years) are associated with a particularly high risk of suicide. A secondary aim was to ascertain how different self-harm methods might affect the probability of psychiatric follow-up.

    METHOD: Five Swedish registers were linked in a national population-based cohort study. All nonfatal self-harm events recorded in specialist health care, excluding psychiatry and primary care services, among 10-24 year olds between 2000 and 2009 were included. Methods were classified as poisoning, cutting/piercing, violent method (gassing, hanging, strangulation/suffocation, drowning, jumping and firearms), other and multiple methods. Hazard Ratios (HR) for suicide were calculated in Cox regression models for each method with poisoning as the reference. Odds Ratios (OR) for psychiatric inpatient care were determined in logistic regression models. Analyses were adjusted for important covariates and stratified by age group and treatment setting (inpatient/outpatient).

    RESULTS: Among adolescents with initial medical hospitalisation, use of a violent method was associated with a near eightfold increase in HR for suicide compared to self-poisoning in the adjusted analysis [HR 7.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-19.0]. Among hospitalised young adult women, adjusted HRs were elevated fourfold for both cutting [4.0 (1.9-8.8)] and violent methods [3.9 (1.5-10.6)]. Method of self-harm did not affect suicide risk in young adult men. Adolescents using violent methods had an increased probability of psychiatric inpatient care following initial treatment for self-harm.

    CONCLUSIONS: Violent self-harm requiring medical hospitalisation may signal particularly high risk of future suicide in adolescents (both sexes) and in young adult women. For the latter group this is the case for cutting requiring hospitalisation as well.

  • 16.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An autistic dimension: a proposed subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder2007Ingår i: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 101-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the possibility that autism spectrum disorder (ASD: Asperger syndrome, autism and atypical autism) in its milder forms may be clinically important among a substantial proportion of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and discusses OCD subtypes based on this proposition. The hypothesis derives from extensive clinical experience of OCD and ASD, and literature searches on MEDLINE. Neuropsychological deficits are more common in OCD than in panic disorder and depression. Moreover, obsessive-compulsive and schizotypal personality disorders are over-represented in OCD. These may constitute mis-perceived clinical manifestations of ASD. Furthermore, repetitive behaviours and hoarding are common in Asperger syndrome. It is suggested that the comorbidity results in a more severe and treatment resistant form of OCD. OCD with comorbid ASD should be recognized as a valid OCD subtype, analogous to OCD with comorbid tics. An odd personality, with paranoid, schizotypal, avoidant or obsessive-compulsive traits, may indicate these autistic dimensions in OCD patients.

  • 17.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Karolins­ka institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ett överlappande och föränderligt landskap: [An overlapping and changing landscape]2014Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, nr 39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18. Bejerot, Susanne
    Ingen tjänar på att det går inflation i autismspektrumbegreppet: [No one benefits from inflation of the autism spectrum concept]2010Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, nr 47, s. 2978-2930Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    institutionen för neurovetenskap, psykiatri, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kapsulotomi vid tvångssyndrom, en överflödig behandlingsform? Läkemedel och beteendeterapi ger god effekt: [Is capsulotomy in obsessive-compulsive syndromes an unnecessary therapeutic method? Good results with drug therapy and behavior therapy]1998Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 95, nr 45, s. 5003-5005Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20. Bejerot, Susanne
    Kvalitetsregister – hot mot vårdkvalitet, arbetsmiljö och klinisk forskning?: [Quality registry--a threat against quality of health care, occupational environment and clinical research?]2009Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, nr 14, s. 986-986Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21. Bejerot, Susanne
    Medicinsk kommentar: Psykokirurgi idag – en kritisk betraktelse. Svåra biverkningar av kapsulotomi visar sig efter 50 års användning: [Psychosurgery today--a critical reflection. Severe adverse effects of capsulotomy seen after 50 years of use]2003Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, nr 32-33, s. 2502-2504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapsulotomi – »det sista halmstrået« för behandling av terapirefraktärt, invalidiserande tvångssyndrom – har i Sverige under lång tid rapporterats ha försumbara risker.

    Efter export av metoden till USA är resultaten mindre framgångsrika. Biverkningar av frontallobstyp kan möjligen progrediera många år efter ingreppet.

    Kritik har nyligen riktats mot bristen på långtidsuppföljningar och studier med oberoende bedömare.

    Trots att kapsulotomi utförts under lång tid är det vetenskapliga kunskapsläget otillräckligt. Bland annat är frågan om terapiresistens och biverkningar knapphändigt belysta.

    Ett referat av en uppföljning av personer som genomgått kapsulotomi publiceras i detta nummer. Denna vetenskapligt invändningsfria studie visar betydligt mindre gynnsamma resultat än vad tidigare studier gjort.

  • 22. Bejerot, Susanne
    Psychosurgery for obsessive-compulsive disorder: concerns remain2003Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 107, nr 4, s. 241-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 23. Bejerot, Susanne
    Ska toppstyrd registerforskarindustri ersätta patientnära forskning? : [Is top directed registry research industry to substitute near-patient research?]2009Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, nr 30-31, s. 1918-1918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The relationship between poor motor skills and neurodevelopmental disorders2011Ingår i: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 53, nr 9, s. 779-779Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 25. Bejerot, Susanne
    Tvångssyndromet. Nya aspekter på psykiatrins kameleont: [The obsessive-compulsive syndrome: new aspects of a psychiatric chameleon]1992Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 89, nr 36, s. 2842-2844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26. Bejerot, Susanne
    Upprättelse! Diagnos kan bli vändpunkt för vuxna med ADHD/autismspektrumstörning: [Rehabilitation! Diagnosis can be a turning point for adults with ADHD/autism spectrum disorders]2004Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 101, nr 42, s. 3222-3223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27. Bejerot, Susanne
    Utestängd patientgrupp. Nytänkande krävs för vuxna med ADHD/Tourette/autismspektrumtillstånd: [Excluded patient group. A new approach is necessary for adults with ADHD/Tourette syndrome/autism spectrum disorders]2006Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, nr 19, s. 1508-1508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 28.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience. Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bodlund, O.
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Response to high doses of citalopram in treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder1998Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 98, nr 5, s. 423-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a severe case of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that responded to very high doses of citalopram (160 mg/day) after a poor response to clomipramine 250 mg/day for several years, alone or in combination with buspirone 30 mg/day or flupenthixol 4 mg/day. The patient had previously been submitted for capsulotomy which was declined, probably due to the magical content of her obsessions, which resembled delusions.

  • 29.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Norra Stockholms psykiatri, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bruno, Kai
    BUP Brommaplan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gerland, Gunilla
    Lindquist, Lars
    Infektionskliniken, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Nordin, Viviann
    Sachsska barn- och ungdomssjukhuset, Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pelling, Henrik
    BUP-kliniken, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Misstänk PANDAS hos barn med akuta neuropsykiatriska symptom. Infektion bakom sjukdomen [Suspect PANDAS in children with acute neuropsychiatric symptoms. Infection behind the disease]: långvarig antibiotikabehandling bör övervägas  [long-term antibiotic therapy should be considered]2013Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, nr 41, s. 1803-1803, artikel-id CDCDArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Region Örebro län. Dept Clin Neurosci, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Dept Psychiat, TioHundra AB, Norrtälje, Sweden.
    Anckarsäter, Henrik
    Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berglund, Gunilla
    Dept Psychol, Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hofvander, Björn
    Dept Clin Sci, Lund Univ, Malmö, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Region Örebro län.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Dept Psychol, Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Råstam, Maria
    Dept Clin Sci, Lund Univ, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ståhlberg, Ola
    Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Sahlgrenska Acad, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Frisen, Louise
    Dept Clin Neurosci, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Brief Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (BOCS): a self-report scale for OCD and obsessive-compulsive related disorders2014Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 68, nr 8, s. 549-559Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children's version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date.

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population.

    Method: The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category "Obsessive-compulsive related disorders", accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive-compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS.

    Results: Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled "Symmetry", "Forbidden thoughts", "Contamination", "Magical thoughts" and "Dysmorphic thoughts". The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62-70% Cronbach's alpha = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75-84%, Cronbach's alpha = 0.94).

    Conclusions: The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry.

  • 31.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekselius, L.
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Knorring, L.
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disorders1998Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 97, nr 6, s. 398-402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to examine the frequency of personality disorders in 36 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and to investigate whether patients with a coexisting personality disorder could be characterized by certain personality traits assessed by means of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In total, 27 (75%) of the OCD patients fulfilled the DSM-III-R criteria for a personality disorder, and 13 patients (36%) had an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Subjects with a comorbid personality disorder had significantly higher scores on most of the KSP scales, including all anxiety scales, as well as scales measuring indirect aggression, irritability, guilt and detachment, whereas subjects without personality disorders did not differ significantly from healthy controls with regard to personality traits.

  • 32.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Jonna M.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id e87961Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  • 33.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jonna M.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bonde, Sabina
    Northern Stockholm Psychiatry, St Göran Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlström, Kjell
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The extreme male brain revisited: gender coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder2012Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 201, s. 116-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The 'extreme male brain' theory suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an extreme variant of male intelligence. However, somewhat paradoxically, many individuals with ASD display androgynous physical features regardless of gender.

    Aims: To assess physical measures, supposedly related to androgen influence, in adults with and without ASD.

    Method: Serum hormone levels, anthropometry, the ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) and psychiatric symptomatology were measured in 50 adults with high-functioning ASD and age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls. Photographs of face and body, as well as voice recordings, were obtained and assessed with respect to gender coherence, blindly and independently, by eight assessors.

    Results: Women with ASD had higher total and bioactive testosterone levels, less feminine facial features and a larger head circumference than female controls. Men in the ASD group were assessed as having less masculine body characteristics and voice quality, and displayed higher (i.e. less masculine) 2D:4D ratios, but similar testosterone levels to controls. Androgynous facial features correlated strongly and positively with autistic traits measured with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in the total sample. In males and females with ASD dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not decrease with age, in contrast to the control group.

    Conclusions: Women with ASD had elevated testosterone levels and several masculinised characteristics compared with controls, whereas men with ASD displayed several feminised characteristics. Our findings suggest that ASD, rather than being characterised by masculinisation in both genders, may constitute a gender defiant disorder.

  • 34.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jonna M.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social anxiety in adult autism spectrum disorder2014Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 220, nr 1-2, s. 705-707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A link has been suggested between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the severity of social anxiety measured by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report and prevalence of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, with SAD and a non-ASD comparison group. Individuals with ASD showed significantly higher scores of social anxiety and social avoidance relative to the comparison group, but significantly lower scores relative to the SAD sample.

  • 35.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Norra Stockholms psykiatri, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gardner, Ann
    Järvapsykiatrin, institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Diagnostik och terapi utmanar än, trots snabb tillväxt av kunskap [Diagnosis and therapy are still challenging, despite the rapid growth of knowledge]2014Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, nr 39, s. 1638-1641, artikel-id CYRHArtikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psychiatric diagnoses are not reflections of the aetiology of the disorder, but rather lists of symptoms with considerable overlaps, which hamper research and may cause confusion. The diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder are often comorbid along with a number of other symptomatic syndromes. Individual immune responsivity is possibly involved in pathophysiological mechanisms. Multiple environmental factors may contribute to the clinical phenotypes. Recent research supports to some extent the involvement of dietary and nutritional factors in ADHD. In spite of impressive progress in the molecular biological understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders, treatment options are still limited and more research is warranted.

  • 36.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Hesselmark, E.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), developmental regression and autism2017Ingår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 41, nr Suppl., s. S123-S123Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a term used to describe a clinical picture which includes sudden onset of psychiatric symptoms and a possible autoimmune genesis. The sudden decline in neuropsychiatric functioning as well as the multiple combinations of symptoms may lead to a clinical phenotype similar to that in infantile autism (IA) with regressive features. We are conducting a study with the aim to evaluate a diagnostic test for PANS currently marketed by Moleculera Labs. All patients in Sweden who had taken the test (n = 154) were invited to the study.

    Objectives: The aim of the study is to characterize a subgroup of patients with IA within the PANS diagnosis study.

    Methods: Participants (n = 53) were examined for psychiatric and somatic symptoms and evaluated for PANS caseness by an experienced psychiatrist. Because the criteria for entering the study was having taken the diagnostic test for PANS, the participants in the study comprise a group with mixed symptoms.

    Results: Twelve participants had IA. Eleven of these reported a developmental regression with loss of abilities. Two of the IA patients also fulfill criteria for PANS. Eight of the IA patients had been treated with antibiotics for psychiatric symptoms and 4 reported a positive effect of this treatment. Nine of the patients had elevated test results suggesting possible PANS according to Moleculera Labs.

    Conclusions: Very early onset on PANS may be phenotypically similar to IA with regressive features. Further analysis of the immunological attributes of patients with autism with regressive features is warranted.

  • 37.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hesselmark, Eva
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Cunningham Panel is an unreliable biological measure2019Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Northern Stockholm Psychiatry, St Göran Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Childhood clumsiness and peer victimization: a case-control study of psychiatric patients2013Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 13, artikel-id 68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poor motor and social skills as well as peer victimization are commonly reported in both ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. Positive relationships between poor motor and poor social skills, and between poor social skills and peer victimization, are well documented, but the relationship between poor motor skills and peer victimization has not been studied in psychiatric populations.

    Method: 277 patients (133 males, 144 females), mean age 31 years, investigated for ADHD or autism spectrum disorder in adulthood and with normal intelligence, were interviewed about childhood peer victimization and examined for gross motor skills. The parents completed a comprehensive questionnaire on childhood problems, the Five to Fifteen. The Five to Fifteen is a validated questionnaire with 181 statements that covers various symptoms in childhood across eight different domains, one of them targeting motor skills. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between motor skills and the risk and duration of peer victimization, adjusted for sex and diagnosis.

    Results: Victims were described as more clumsy in childhood than their non-victimized counterparts. A significant independent association was found between reportedly poor childhood gross motor skills and peer victimization (adjusted odds ratio: 2.97 [95% confidence interval: 1.46-6.07], n = 235, p = 0.003). In adulthood, the victimized group performed worse on vertical jumps, a gross motor task, and were lonelier. Other factors that were expected to be associated with peer victimization were not found in this highly selected group.

    Conclusion: Poor gross motor skills constitute a strong and independent risk factor for peer victimization in childhood, regardless of sex, childhood psychiatric care and diagnosis.

  • 39. Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Hög förekomst av autism hos svensk-somaliska barn [Increased occurrence of autism among Somali children]: Kan D-vitaminbrist spela in? [Does vitamin D deficiency play a role?]2008Ingår i: Tidsskrift for Den norske lægeforening, ISSN 0029-2001, E-ISSN 0807-7096, Vol. 128, nr 17, s. 1986-1987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Family Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Family Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Low prevalence of smoking among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder1999Ingår i: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 268-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tobacco smoking is common among psychiatric patients, especially among those with schizophrenia, where the prevalence is extremely high, 74% to 88%, compared with 45% to 70% in patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Patients with anxiety disorders are less well investigated in this respect, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Eighty-three psychiatric outpatients with OCD and 110 members of the Swedish OCD Association responded to questions concerning their smoking habits. Among OCD patients, 14% were current smokers (compared with 25% in the general population of Sweden), 72% had never smoked, and 11 previous smokers had stopped, mostly without any difficulties. Since a decreased smoking rate among OCD subjects was confirmed, the smoking prevalences in schizophrenia and OCD, respectively, seem to represent either end of a continuum, and OCD may also differ significantly from other anxiety disorders in this respect. Possible implications of this finding for the purported frontal lobe dysregulation in OCD are discussed.

  • 41.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of clinical neuroscience, Uppsala University hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gardner, Ann
    Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Endocrine disruptors, the increase of autism spectrum disorder and its comorbidity with gender identity disorder: a hypothetical association2011Ingår i: International Journal of Andrology, ISSN 0105-6263, E-ISSN 1365-2605, Vol. 34, nr 5 Pt 2, artikel-id e350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Center for Psychiatry Research, Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Klang, Albin
    School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hesselmark, Eva
    Center for Psychiatry Research, Department of clinical neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Cunningham Panel: concerns remain2019Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry, ISSN 2158-3188, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section Psychiatry St. Göran, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mörtberg, E.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section Psychiatry St. Göran, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Do autistic traits play a role in the bullying of obsessive-compulsive disorder and social phobia sufferers?2009Ingår i: Psychopathology, ISSN 0254-4962, E-ISSN 1423-033X, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 170-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share several similarities: both are categorized as anxiety disorders, avoidant personality disorder and depression are common in both, they have a similar age of onset and course, and both disorders respond to treatments with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, OCD and social phobia differ in respect to their relation to autism spectrum disorders (ASD; i.e. Asperger's syndrome, autism, pervasive disorder not otherwise specified). Findings that suggest a link between OCD and ASD have no parallel in social phobia. Moreover, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders are prevalent in OCD and in ASD, but not in social phobia. Individuals with ASD are known to be frequent targets of bullying. We hypothesised that individuals with autistic traits would have been frequent targets for bullies during their childhood, as opposed to people without such traits.

    Methods: Adult patients with social phobia (n = 63) or OCD (n = 65) were assessed regarding autistic traits, and interviewed about being bullied at school. A reference group (n = 551) responded to questions about being bullied.

    Results: There was a significant difference in the prevalence of being bullied between OCD (50%), social phobia patients (20%) and the reference group (27%). Autistic traits were more common in OCD than in social phobia. A history of being bullied was related to autistic traits among patients.

    Conclusions: Falling victim to bullying is not a random event. Autistic traits, i.e. low social skills, may be a predictor of being bullied in school. The high rate of bullying victims in persons who later develop OCD is suggested to be related to the overlap between OCD and ASD.

  • 44.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Humble, Mats B.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. University Health Care Research Centre, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Subcortical brain volume differences in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults2017Ingår i: Lancet psychiatry, ISSN 2215-0374, E-ISSN 2215-0366, Vol. 4, nr 6, s. 437-437Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Viviann
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Autismspektrumsyndrom ersätter Aspergers syndrome och autism [Autism spectrum syndrome replaces Asperger syndrome and autism].2014Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, nr 39, s. 1660-1663, artikel-id CUH6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Autism spectrum disorder describes a behaviourally defined impairment in social interaction and communication, along with the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. Although the etiology is mostly unknown, it is evident that biological factors affect the brain and result in the autistic clinical presentation. Assessment for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder should be comprehensive in order to cover all sorts of problems related to the disorder. Knowledge and experience from working with neurological and psychiatric disorders are a prerequisite for quality in the examination. Up to now, there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, but support and adaptations in education are nevertheless important for obtaining sufficient life quality for the patients and the family.

  • 46.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nylander, L
    Lindström, E
    Autistic traits in obsessive-compulsive disorder2001Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 169-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to other non-psychotic psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are more prone to have personality disorder from cluster A (the odd and eccentric cluster). The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between these and other personality traits in OCD subjects and their relation to high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were included. Personality traits were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), and personality disorders with DSM-adapted questionnaires. In addition, autistic traits were assessed in 29 videotaped subjects, by 3 independent raters. Twenty percent of the subjects with OCD were identified as also having autistic traits. These subjects scored higher on KSP scales measuring muscular tension, psychasthenia, and inhibition of aggression and lower on socialization as compared with OCD subjects without autistic traits. Additionally, subjects with autistic traits fulfilled criteria for anxious personality disorders and paranoid personality disorders significantly more often than subjects without autistic traits. We propose that OCD is often related to HFA and Asperger disorder. Self-report questionnaires may be useful in establishing the diagnosis. However, those with the most obvious autistic features seem to be less able to identify these traits in themselves.

  • 47.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, St. Göran’s Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nylander, Lena
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Low prevalence of smoking in patients with autism spectrum disorders2003Ingår i: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 119, nr 1-2, s. 177-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric patients are significantly more often smokers than the general population, the only known exception being obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and catatonic schizophrenia. We have investigated nicotine use in subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Ninety-five subjects (25 females and 70 males) consecutively diagnosed with any ASD and of normal intelligence were included in the study. Only 12.6% were smokers, compared with 19% in the general population and 47% in a control group of 161 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or a schizophreniform disorder. The results suggest that smoking is rare among subjects with ASD, while the opposite was shown for schizophrenia. If replicated, this finding could suggest biological differences between non-catatonic schizophrenia and ASD, and support the theory of a biological link between ASD and a subtype of OCD, and between ASD and catatonic schizophrenia.

  • 48.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rydén, Eleonore M.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Arlinde, Christina M
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Two-year outcome of treatment with central stimulant medication in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a prospective study2010Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-6689, E-ISSN 1555-2101, Vol. 71, nr 12, s. 1590-1597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Given that adults with ADHD continue to use stimulants for extended periods of time, studies on the long-term effectiveness and adverse events are warranted. The aims of this study were to investigate factors associated with persistence in treatment in an exploratory manner and to document side effects and reasons for discontinuation.

    Method: The current study describes the systematic follow-up of 133 psychiatric patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed ADHD treated with central stimulants at a specialized outpatient unit between January 1, 2001, and August 31, 2006. A standardized questionnaire, derived from the Targeted Attention-deficit Disorder Symptoms Rating Scale, was used in order to measure improvement of the following target symptoms: hyperactivity, impulsivity, irritability, distractibility, structure/organization problems, inattention, and restlessness.

    Results: Eighty percent of the patients were successfully treated with stimulants at the 6- to 9-month follow-up. Fifty percent remained in treatment after 2 years or more. Forty-five percent were treated for comorbid anxiety and/or depression during the study period. Only 15% dropped out because of lack of efficacy. The amount of clinical response over the first 6 to 9 months (but not at 6 weeks) predicted adherence to treatment at 2 years. The patients' heart rate increased from a least squares mean ± SE of 70 ± 2.2 to 80 ± 2.1 bpm (P = .00003) while blood pressure remained unchanged at the ≥ 2-year follow-up. Severe side effects or drug abuse were not detected in this cohort.

    Conclusions: The long-term treatment outcome shows that stimulants are effective in adult ADHD and side effects tend to be mild.

  • 49.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schlette, P.
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ekselius, L.
    Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, R.
    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    von Knorring, L.
    Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Personality disorders and relationship to personality dimensions measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder1998Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 243-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of personality disorders was investigated in 36 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder by means of the SCID Screen questionnaire. In addition, the personality dimensions were explored by means of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In total, 75% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for a personality disorder according to the SCID Screen questionnaire, mostly (55%) within cluster C. Several significant correlations were found between the separate personality disorders (PD) and subscales of the TCI, the most pronounced being between avoidant and obsessive-compulsive PD and novelty-seeking and self-directedness. Strong correlations were also found between self-directedness and paranoid and borderline PD. In multiple regressions where the presence of PD in clusters A, B and C, respectively, were used as dependent variables and where the separate subscales of the TCI were used as independent variables, the multiple R reached 0.68, 0.76 and 0.80 in clusters A, B and C, respectively. Thus 46-64% of the variance in the personality disorder clusters could be explained by the TCI subscales.

  • 50.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Knorring, L.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekselius, L.
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Personality traits and smoking in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder2000Ingår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 395-401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to other psychiatric populations, subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) smoke less than the general population. The present study aims at further investigating the relationship between smoking in OCD subjects and personality traits. Sixty-four subjects with OCD were interviewed concerning their smoking habits. Personality traits were evaluated using the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and specific obsessive-compulsive personality traits were elicited through self-report questionnaires. Non-smokers were more easily fatigued, more inclined to worry, more remorseful, less self-confident, less impulsive and became uneasy more frequently when urged to speed up, than smokers with OCD. Additionally, non-smokers fulfilled significantly more obsessive-compulsive personality disorder criteria as compared to the smokers (P < 0.001). We propose a clinical subtype of OCD related to non-smoking, psychasthenia, anxiety, and pronounced obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits.

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