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  • 1.
    Ahlman, B.
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, K.
    Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, C. E.
    Department of Surgery, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedenborg, L.
    Department of Pathology, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernerman, J.
    St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Short-term starvation alters the free amino acid content of human intestinal mucosa1994In: Clinical Science, ISSN 0143-5221, E-ISSN 1470-8736, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 653-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The effects of short-term starvation and refeeding on the free amino acid concentrations of the intestinal mucosa were characterized in male subjects (n=6), using endoscopically obtained biopsy specimens from the duodenum and from all four segments of the colon.

    2. The alterations in the amino acid concentrations in response to short-term starvation were overall uniform in both duodenal and colonic mucosa as well as in plasma. Most amino acids decreased, whereas branched-chain amino acids increased.

    3. In the colon, glutamic acid and glutamine decreased during the starvation period, whereas they remained unaltered in the duodenum. This was the major difference in response to short-term starvation between the amino acid concentrations in the intestinal mucosa of the duodenum and colon.

    4. Refeeding for 3 days normalized the amino acid concentrations except for glutamic acid, asparagine and histidine, which remained low in the colon, and threonine, which showed an overshoot in both parts of the intestine. S. The changes in mucosal amino acid concentrations seen in response to starvation and refeeding were uniform in the four segments of the colon. This suggests that sampling from the rectum/sigmoid colon will give representative values for the free amino acid concentrations of the entire large intestine.

  • 2.
    Ahlman, B.
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, K.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernerman, J.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Free amino acids in the human intestinal mucosa: Impact of surgical trauma and critical illness1995In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 54-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Klinisk nutrition har svag ställning i vårdsystemet2015In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 1, p. 15-17Article, review/survey (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Orsaker till mat- och nutritionsproblem inom äldrevården samt förslag till utveckling och förbättringsarbete2006In: Nordisk Geriatrik, no 4, p. 36-41Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Akner, Gunnar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Inst. NVS, sektionen för omvårdnad, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Krachler, Benno
    Medicinkliniken, Kalix sjukhus, Kalix, Sverige.
    Orrevall, Ylva
    Dietistkliniken, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Huddinge, Sverige.
    Rundgren, Åke
    Enheten för geriatrik Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Sahlin, Nils-Eric
    Avd. för medicinsk etik, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Gyllensvärd, Harald
    Statens beredning för medicinsk utvärdering, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Kosttillägg för undernärda äldre: en systematisk litteraturöversikt.2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 6. Ali, MA
    et al.
    Strandvik, B
    Palme-Kilander, C
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight2013In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 26 Suppl 1, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation.

    METHODS: Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg m(-2) ] or were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    RESULTS: The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention.

    CONCLUSIONS: Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine.

  • 7.
    Ali, Mohamed A.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden; Akershus Univ Coll, Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Lillestrom, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines: dietary intake, database progress and food contribution to the total daily intake2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 203-204Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ali, Mohamed Atiya
    et al.
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Akershus Univ Coll, Lilleström, Norway.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Stromberg, Roger
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)2011In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 55, p. 5455-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an 'ideal diet' (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316 +/- 170 mu mol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 mu mol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an 'ideal' diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  • 9.
    Ali, Mohamed Atiya
    et al.
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden;Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Akershus University College, Lilleström, Norway.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Roger
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines in foods: development of a food database2011In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 55, p. 5572-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods is of interest due to the association of these bioactive nutrients to health and diseases. There is a lack of relevant information on their contents in foods. Objective: To develop a food polyamine database from published data by which polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake can be estimated, and to determine the levels of polyamines in Swedish dairy products. Design: Extensive literature search and laboratory analysis of selected Swedish dairy products. Polyamine contents in foods were collected using an extensive literature search of databases. Polyamines in different types of Swedish dairy products (milk with different fat percentages, yogurt, cheeses, and sour milk) were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. Results: Fruits and cheese were the highest sources of putrescine, while vegetables and meat products were found to be rich in spermidine and spermine, respectively. The content of polyamines in cheese varied considerably between studies. In analyzed Swedish dairy products, matured cheese had the highest total polyamine contents with values of 52.3, 1.2, and 2.6 mg/kg for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively. Low fat milk had higher putrescine and spermidine, 1.2 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively, than the other types of milk. Conclusions: The database aids other researchers in their quest for information regarding polyamine intake from foods. Connecting the polyamine contents in food with the Swedish Food Database allows for estimation of polyamine contents per portion.

  • 10.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Alvarez-Leon, Elisa Eva
    Preventive Medicine Service, Canary Health Service, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.
    Serra-Majem, Lluis
    Preventive Medicine Service, Canary Health Service, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.
    Association of the European lactase persistence variant (LCT-13910 C > T Polymorphism) with obesity in the Canary Islands2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, article id e43978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: European lactose tolerance genotype (LCT -13910 C>T, rs4988234) has been positively associated to body mass indexes (BMI) in a meta-analysis of 31,720 individuals of northern and central European descent. A strong association of lactase persistence (LP) with BMI and obesity has also been traced in a Spanish Mediterranean population. The aim of this study was to analyze a potential association of LP compared to lactase non-persistence (LNP) with BMI in inhabitants of the Canary Islands of Spain using Mendelian randomization.

    Methods: A representative, randomly sampled population of adults belonging to the Canary Islands Nutrition Survey (ENCA) in Spain, aged 18-75 years (n = 551), was genotyped for the LCT - 13910 C>T polymorphism. Milk consumption was assessed by a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were directly measured. WHO classification of BMI was used.

    Results: LP individuals were significantly more obese than LNP subjects (chi(2) = 10.59; p < 0.005). LP showed in a multivariate linear regression analysis showed a positive association of LP with BMI compared to LNP, (beta = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.08-1.85, p = 0.033). In a multinomial logistic regression analysis normal range weight LP subjects showed an odds ratio for obesity of 2.41; 95% CI 1.39-418, (p = 0.002) compared to LNP.

    Conclusions: The T-13910 of the allele LCT-13910 C>T polymorphism is positively associated with BMI. LP increases significantly the risk to develop obesity in the studied population. The LCT-13910 C>T polymorphism stands proxy for the lifetime exposure pattern, milk intake, that may increase susceptibility to obesity and to obesity related pathologies.

  • 11.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Serra-Majem, Lluis
    Magnuson, Anders
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Associations between lactase persistence and the metabolic syndrome: a Mendelian randomization study in the Canary Islands2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Canary Isl, Spain; Hosp Insular Gran Canaria, Canarian Hlth Serv, Serv Prevent Med, Canary Isl, Spain.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Serra-Majem, Lluis
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Canary Isl, Spain; Hosp Insular Gran Canaria, Canarian Hlth Serv, Serv Prevent Med, Canary Isl, Spain.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Örebro University hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Örebro University hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Associations between lactase persistence and the metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study in the Canary Islands2009In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 141-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) LCT -13910 C>T, associated with genetically determined phenotypes of lactase persistence (LP) or non-persistence (LNP), was studied in relation to the metabolic syndrome (MS).

    AIim of the study: The aim was to determine if milk intake and MS are associated. We applied Mendelian randomization (MR). The SNP, LCT -13910 C>T, with the genotypes LP (TT/CT) and LNP (CC), was taken as a proxy for milk consumption.

    Methods: A representative sample of adults belonging to the Canary Islands Nutrition Survey (ENCA) in Spain aged 18-75 years (n = 551) was genotyped for the LCT -13910 C>T polymorphism. We used the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria to define MS. RESULTS: 60% of the population was LP and 40% LNP. One hundred seven LP subjects (35.0%) and 53 LNP subjects (25.6%) showed MS (chi (2) = 5.04, p = 0.025). LP subjects showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for MS than LNP subjects computed for the whole population: both the crude OR (1.56; 95% CI 1.06-2.31) and adjusted OR for sex, age, daily energy intake, physical activity and educational level (1.57; 95% CI 1.02-2.43). Adjusted OR for women with LP was 1.93; 95% CI 1.06-3.52.

    Conclusions: The T allele of the SNP might constitute a nutrigenetic factor increasing the susceptibility of LP subjects, especially women, to develop MS in the Canary Islands.

  • 13.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Torbjorn K.
    Dept Lab Med, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit Prevent Nutr, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lactase persistence and milk consumption are associated with body height in Swedish preadolescents and adolescents2011In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 55, article id 7253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Body height is a classic polygenic trait. About 80%-90% of height is inherited and 10%-20% owed to environmental factors, of which the most important ones are nutrition and diseases in preadolescents and adolescents.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore potential relations between the LCT (lactase) C > T-13910 polymorphism, milk consumption, and body height in a sample of Swedish preadolescents and adolescents.

    Design: In a cross-sectional study, using a random sample of preadolescents and adolescents (n = 597), dietary intakes were determined. Anthropometric measurements including sexual maturity (Tanner stage) and birth weight were assessed. Parental body height and socio-economic status (SES) were obtained by questionnaires. Genotyping for the LCT C > T-13910 polymorphism that renders individuals lactase persistent (LP) or lactase non-persistent (LNP) was performed by DNA sequencing. Stepwise backward multivariate linear regression was used.

    Results: Milk consumption was significantly and positively associated with body height (beta =0.45; 95% CI: 0.040, 0.87, p =0.032). Adjustments were performed for sex, parental height, birth weight, body mass index (BMI), SES, and Tanner stage. This model explains 90% of the observed variance of body height (adjusted R-2 =0.89). The presence of the -13910 T allele was positively associated with body height (beta = 2.05; 95% CI: 0.18, 3.92, p =0.032).

    Conclusions: Milk consumption is positively associated with body height in preadolescents and adolescents. We show for the first time that a nutrigenetic variant might be able to explain in part phenotypic variation of body height in preadolescents and adolescents. Due to the small sample size further studies are needed.

  • 14.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Patterson, Emma
    Unit Prevent Nutr, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden; Sch Biol Sci, Dublin Inst Technol, Dublin, Ireland.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit Prevent Nutr, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents2010In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 54, article id 5141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass.

    Objective This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass.

    Design: Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined.

    Results: LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (p<0.001). Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents). Six subjects were reported by parents to be 'lactose intolerant', none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents).

    Conclusions: We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  • 15.
    Almoosawi, Suzana
    et al.
    Brain Performance & Nutrition Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Palla, Luigi
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Walshe, Ian
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Vingeliene, Snieguole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ellis, Jason G.
    Northumbria Sleep Research Laboratory, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Long Sleep Duration and Social Jetlag Are Associated Inversely with a Healthy Dietary Pattern in Adults: Results from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Y1-42018In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration on weekdays or social jetlag and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration on weekdays was categorized into tertiles to reflect short, normal, and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration on weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed by regressing diet on sleep, whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average a 0.45 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score, compared to middle tertile (p = 0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and the healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep on weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1 h 45 min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p = 0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration on weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.

  • 16.
    Almoosawi, Suzana
    et al.
    Brain, Performance, and Nutrition Research Center, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom; Nestlé Research Center, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Vingeliene, Snieguole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Gachon, Frederic
    School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Diabetes and Circadian Rhythms, Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Voortman, Trudy
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Palla, Luigi
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Johnston, Jonathan D.
    Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.
    Van Dam, Rob Martinus
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
    Darimont, Christian
    Nestlé Research Center, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Karagounis, Leonidas G.
    Nestlé Research Center, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland; Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland; Experimental Myology and Integrative Physiology Cluster, Plymouth Marjon University, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Chronotype: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Chrono-Nutrition and Cardiometabolic Health2019In: Advances in Nutrition, ISSN 2161-8313, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 30-42Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chrono-nutrition is an emerging research field in nutritional epidemiology that encompasses 3 dimensions of eating behavior: timing, frequency, and regularity. To date, few studies have investigated how an individual's circadian typology, i.e., one's chronotype, affects the association between chrono-nutrition and cardiometabolic health. This review sets the directions for future research by providing a narrative overview of recent epidemiologic research on chronotype, its determinants, and its association with dietary intake and cardiometabolic health. Limited research was found on the association between chronotype and dietary intake in infants, children, and older adults. Moreover, most of the evidence in adolescents and adults was restricted to cross-sectional surveys with few longitudinal cohorts simultaneously collecting data on chronotype and dietary intake. There was a gap in the research concerning the association between chronotype and the 3 dimensions of chrono-nutrition. Whether chronotype modifies the association between diet and cardiometabolic health outcomes remains to be elucidated. In conclusion, further research is required to understand the interplay between chronotype, chrono-nutrition, and cardiometabolic health outcomes.

  • 17.
    Altmae, Signe
    et al.
    Div Obstet & Gynecol,Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Huddinge Hosp, Karolinska Univ, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Akad Sjukhuset, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Prevent Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laanpere, Margit
    Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Dept Biotechnol, Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Syvanen, Tiina
    Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Akad Sjukhuset, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salumets, Andres
    Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Dept Biotechnol, Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Nilsson, Torbjorn K.
    Dept Clin Chem, Orebro Univ Hosp, Orebro, Sweden.
    Variations in folate pathway genes are associated with unexplained female infertility2010In: Fertility and Sterility, ISSN 0015-0282, E-ISSN 1556-5653, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate associations between folate-metabolizing gene variations, folate status, and unexplained female infertility. Design: An association study. Setting: Hospital-based IVF unit and university-affiliated reproductive research laboratories. Patient(s): Seventy-one female patients with unexplained infertility. Intervention(s): Blood samples for polymorphism genotyping and homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate measurements. Main Outcome Measure(s): Allele and genotype frequencies of the following polymorphisms: 5,10-methylenetetra-hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T, 1298A/C, and 1793G/A, folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) 1314G/A, 1816delC, 1841G/A, and 1928C/T, transcobalamin II (TCN2) 776C/G, cystathionase (CTH) 1208G/T and solute carrier family 19, member 1 (SLC19A1) 80G/A, and concentrations of plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12, and serum folate. Result(s): MTHFR genotypes 677CT and 1793GA, as well as 1793 allele A were significantly more frequent among controls than in patients. The common MTHFR wild-type haplotype (677, 1298, 1793) CAG was less prevalent, whereas the rare haplotype CCA was more frequent in the general population than among infertility patients. The frequency of SLC19A1 80G/A genotypes differed significantly between controls and patients and the A allele was more common in the general population than in infertile women. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were influenced by CTH 1208G/T polymorphism among infertile women. Conclusion(s): Polymorphisms in folate pathway genes could be one reason for fertility complications in some women with unexplained infertility. (Fertil Steril (R) 2010;94:130-7. (C) 2010 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)

  • 18.
    Archer, N.S.
    et al.
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture and Food, Sydney, NSW, Australia; School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cochet-Broch, M.
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture and Food, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Agriculture and Food, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Garrido-Bañuelos, G.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Agriculture and Food, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, P.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Agriculture and Food, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundin, L.
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture and Food, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Frank, D.
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Agriculture and Food, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Sodium Reduction in Bouillon: Targeting a Food Staple to Reduce Hypertension in Sub-saharan Africa2022In: Frontiers in Nutrition, E-ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 9, article id 746018Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bouillon cubes are a staple ingredient used in Sub-saharan African countries providing flavor enhancement to savory foods. Bouillon has been identified as a vehicle for fortification to overcome micronutrient deficiencies in Sub-saharan Africa. However, bouillon has a high sodium content (and in addition with other foods) contributes to dietary sodium intake above recommended guidelines. High dietary sodium intake is a key risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Africa has the highest rates of hypertension and CVD globally with nearly half the adult population above 25 years affected. This review presents current state of research on sodium reduction strategies in bouillon. The key challenge is to reduce sodium levels while maintaining optimal flavor at the lowest possible production cost to ensure bouillon continues to be affordable in Sub-saharan Africa. To produce lower sodium bouillon with acceptable flavor at low cost will likely involve multiple sodium reduction strategies; direct reduction in sodium, sodium replacement and saltiness boosting flavor technologies. Efforts to reduce the sodium content of bouillon in Sub-saharan Africa is a worthwhile strategy to: (i) lower the overall sodium consumption across the population, and (ii) deliver population-wide health benefits in a region with high rates of hypertension and CVD. Copyright © 2022 Archer, Cochet-Broch, Mihnea, Garrido-Bañuelos, Lopez-Sanchez, Lundin and Frank.

  • 19.
    Arevström, Lilith
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergh, Cecilia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wu, Huaxing
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
    Waldenborg, Micael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Cardiology.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Swede.
    Blanc, Stephane
    Department of Ecology, Physiology and Ethology, Hubert Curien Pluridisciplinary Institute, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology.
    Freeze-dried bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) dietary supplement improves walking distance and lipids after myocardial infarction: an open-label randomized clinical trial2019In: Nutrition Research, ISSN 0271-5317, E-ISSN 1879-0739, Vol. 62, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilberries, Vaccinium myrtillus, have a high content of phenolic compounds including anthocyanins, which could provide cardiometabolic health benefits following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that standard medical therapy supplemented with freeze-dried bilberry after AMI would have a more beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk markers and exercise capacity than medical therapy alone. Patients were allocated in a 1:1 ratio within 24 hours of percutaneous coronary intervention in an 8-week trial either to V myrtillus powder (40 g/d, equivalent to 480 g fresh bilberries) and standard medical therapy or to a control group receiving standard medical therapy alone. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise capacity measured with the 6-minute walk test were the primary biochemical and clinical end points, respectively. Fifty subjects completed the study. No statistically significant difference in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was detected between groups. The mean 6-minute walk test distance increased significantly more in the bilberry group compared to the control group: mean difference 38 m at follow-up (95% confidence interval 14-62, P = .003). Ex vivo oxidized low-density lipoprotein was significantly lowered in the bilberry group compared to control, geometric mean ratio 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.96, P = .017), whereas total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ significantly between groups. Anthocyanin-derived metabolites in blood increased significantly in the bilberry group during the intervention and were different after 8 weeks between the bilberry group and control. Findings in the present study suggest that bilberries may have clinically relevant beneficial effects following AMI; a larger, double-blind clinical trial is warranted to confirm this.

  • 20.
    Arora, Tulika
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Velagapudi, Vidya
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Metabolomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pournaras, Dimitri J.
    Department of Bariatric Surgery, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, United Kingdom.
    Welbourn, Richard
    Department of Bariatric Surgery, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, United Kingdom.
    le Roux, Carel W.
    Diabetes Complications Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Gastrosurgical Laboratory, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center A/S, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Bäckhed, Fredrik
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicie, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section for Metabolic Receptology and Enteroendocrinology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Induces Early Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Alterations in Humans Associated with Diabetes Remission2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method to attain sustained weight loss and diabetes remission. We aimed to elucidate early changes in the plasma metabolome and lipidome after RYGB. Plasma samples from 16 insulin-resistant morbidly obese subjects, of whom 14 had diabetes, were subjected to global metabolomics and lipidomics analysis at pre-surgery and 4 and 42 days after RYGB. Metabolites and lipid species were compared between time points and between subjects who were in remission and not in remission from diabetes 2 years after surgery. We found that the variables that were most discriminatory between time points were decanoic acid and octanoic acid, which were elevated 42 days after surgery, and sphingomyelins (18:1/21:0 and 18:1/23:3), which were at their lowest level 42 days after surgery. Insulin levels were lower at 4 and 42 days after surgery compared with pre-surgery levels. At 4 days after surgery, insulin levels correlated positively with metabolites of branched chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism and negatively with triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids. Of the 14 subjects with diabetes prior to surgery, 7 were in remission 2 years after surgery. The subjects in remission displayed higher pre-surgery levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids compared with subjects not in remission. Thus, metabolic alterations are induced soon after surgery and subjects with diabetes remission differ in the metabolic profiles at pre- and early post-surgery time points compared to patients not in remission.

  • 21.
    Atiya Ali, M.
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strandvik, B.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sabel, K-G.
    Borås Children Hospital (SÄS), Borås, Sweden.
    Palme Kilander, C.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömberg, R.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamine levels in breast milk are associated with mothers' dietary intake and are higher in preterm than full-term human milk and formulas2014In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 459-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Polyamine intake from milk is considered essential for post-natal maturation of the immune system and small intestine. The present study aimed to determine polyamine content in human milk after preterm delivery and the association with mothers' dietary intake. In comparison, the polyamine levels were compared with those in term breast milk and some corresponding formulas.

    METHODS: Transitional breast milk was collected from 40 mothers delivering after 24-36 weeks of gestation, and from 12 mothers delivering after full term. Food intake was assessed in mothers delivering preterm babies using a 3-day diary. Polyamines were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    RESULTS: The dietary intake of polyamines was significantly associated with breast milk content but weaker for spermine than for spermidine and putrescine. Total polyamine level was higher in preterm than term milk and lower in the corresponding formulas. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents [mean (SEM)] in preterm milk were 165.6 (25), 615.5 (80) and 167.7 (16) nmol dL(-1) , respectively, with the levels of putrescine and spermidine being 50% and 25% higher than in term milk. The content of spermine did not differ.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of polyamines has an impact on the content in breast milk. The difference between human milk after preterm and term delivery might be considered when using donor human milk for preterm infants. The corresponding formulas had lower contents. Further studies are important for determining the relationship between tissue growth and maturation and optimal intake.

  • 22.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Cheynier, Veronique
    Sciences Pour l'œNologie, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Montpellier, France.
    Souquet, Jean-Marc
    Sciences Pour l'œNologie, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Montpellier, France.
    Bes, Magali
    Unité Expérimentale de Pech Rouge, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Gruissan, France.
    Le Bourvellec, Carine
    Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Avignon, France.
    Guyot, Sylvain
    Cidricoles et Biotransformation des Fruits et Légumes, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Le Rheu, France.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Characterization of microbial metabolism of Syrah grape products in an in vitro colon model using targeted and non-targeted analytical approaches2013In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 833-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Syrah red grapes are used in the production of tannin-rich red wines. Tannins are high molecular weight molecules, proanthocyanidins (PAs), and poorly absorbed in the upper intestine. In this study, gut microbial metabolism of Syrah grape phenolic compounds was investigated.

    METHODS: Syrah grape pericarp was subjected to an enzymatic in vitro digestion model, and red wine and grape skin PA fraction were prepared. Microbial conversion was screened using an in vitro colon model with faecal microbiota, by measurement of short-chain fatty acids by gas chromatography (GC) and microbial phenolic metabolites using GC with mass detection (GC-MS). Red wine metabolites were further profiled using two-dimensional GC mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). In addition, the effect of PA structure and dose on conversion efficiency was investigated by GC-MS.

    RESULTS: Red wine exhibited a higher degree of C1-C3 phenolic acid formation than PA fraction or grape pericarp powders. Hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (flavanols and PAs as precursors) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (anthocyanin as a precursor) were identified from the red wine metabolite profile. In the absence of native grape pericarp or red wine matrix, the isolated PAs were found to be effective in the dose-dependent inhibition of microbial conversions and short-chain fatty acid formation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiling was complementary to targeted analysis. The identified metabolites had biological relevance, because the structures of the metabolites resembled fragments of their grape phenolic precursors or were in agreement with literature data.

  • 23.
    Baban, Bayar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC).
    Tuerxun, Kedeye
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC).
    Alshamari, Muhammed
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Radiology.
    Laviano, Alessandro
    Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery.
    Särndahl, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Inflammatory Response and Infection Susceptibility Centre (iRiSC).
    Altered insulin sensitivity and immune function in patients with colorectal cancer2023In: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, E-ISSN 2405-4577, Vol. 58, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims: Insulin resistance and chronic inflammation have been reported in patients with cancer. However, many of the underlying mechanisms and associations are yet to be unveiled. We examined both the level of insulin sensitivity and markers of inflammation in patients with colorectal cancer for comparison to controls.

    Methods: Clinical exploratory study of patients with colorectal cancer (n = 20) and matched controls (n = 10). Insulin sensitivity was quantified using the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp and blood samples were taken for quantification of several key, both intra- and extracellular, inflammatory markers. We analysed the differences in these parameters between the two groups.

    Results: Patients exhibited both insulin resistance (M-value, patients median (Mdn) 4.57 interquartile range (IQR) 3.49-5.75; controls Mdn 5.79 (IQR 5.20-6.81), p = 0.049), as well as increased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b(patients Mdn 0.48 (IQR 0.33-0.58); controls Mdn 0.36 (IQR 0.29-0.42), p = 0.02) and IL-6 (patients Mdn 3.21 (IQR 2.31-4.93); controls Mdn 2.16 (IQR 1.50-2.65), p = 0.02). The latter is present despite an almost two to three fold decrease (p < 0.01) in caspase-1 activity, a facilitating enzyme of IL-1b production, within circulating immune cells.

    Conclusion: Patients with colorectal cancer displayed insulin resistance and higher levels of plasma IL-1b and IL-6, in comparison to matched healthy controls. The finding of a seemingly disconnect between inflammasome (caspase-1) activity and plasma levels of key pro-inflammatory cytokines in cancer patients may suggest that, in parallel to dysregulated immune cells, tumour-driven inflammatory pathways also are in effect.

  • 24.
    Baban, Bayar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Department of Clinical Science, Danderyds Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jonas
    Department of Clinical Science, Danderyds Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bratt, Anette
    Department of Clinical Science, Danderyds Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institution for Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Determination of insulin resistance in surgery: the choice of method is crucial2015In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In elective surgery, postoperative hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are independent risk factors for complications. Since the simpler HOMA method has been used as an alternative to the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp in studies of surgery induced insulin resistance, we compared the two methods in patients undergoing elective surgery.

    METHODS: Data from 113 non-diabetic patients undergoing elective surgery were used. Insulin sensitivity, both before and after surgery, was quantified by the clamp and HOMA. Pre- and postoperatively, the results of the clamp were compared to HOMA using regression- and correlation analysis. Degree of agreement between the methods was studied using weighted linear kappa and the Bland-Altman test.

    RESULTS: Both the clamp and HOMA recorded a mean relative reduction in insulin sensitivity of 39 ± 24% and 39 ± 61% respectively after surgery; with significant correlations (p < 0.01) for pre- and post-operative measures as well as for relative changes. However r(2) values were low: 0.04, 0.07 and 0.03 respectively. The degree of agreement for the relative change in insulin sensitivity using the Bland-Altman test gave a mean of difference 0% but "limits of agreement" (±2SD) was ±125%. This poor inter-method agreement was consolidated by a weighted linear kappa value of 0.18.

    CONCLUSION: While the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp measures the postoperative changes in insulin sensitivity, HOMA measures something different. Data using the HOMA method must therefore be interpreted cautiously and is not interchangeable with data obtained from the clamp.

  • 25.
    Banerjee, Antara
    et al.
    Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Somasundaram, Indumathi
    Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kolhapur Institute of Technology's College of Engineering, Kolhapur 416012, Maharashtra, India.
    Das, Diptimayee
    Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Jain Manoj, Samatha
    Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Banu, Husaina
    Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Mitta Suresh, Pavane
    Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Paul, Sujay
    School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Campus Queretaro, San Pablo 76130, Mexico.
    Bisgin, Atil
    Department of Medical Genetics, Medical Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana 01250, Turkey.
    Zhang, Hong
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Division of Ocology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linkoping University, SE-581 83 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Duttaroy, Asim K.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0313 Oslo, Norway.
    Pathak, Surajit
    Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute (CHRI), Chettinad Academy of Research and Education (CARE), Kelambakkam, Chennai 603103, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Functional Foods: A Promising Strategy for Restoring Gut Microbiota Diversity Impacted by SARS-CoV-2 Variants2023In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 2631Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural herbs and functional foods contain bioactive molecules capable of augmenting the immune system and mediating anti-viral functions. Functional foods, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and dietary fibers, have been shown to have positive effects on gut microbiota diversity and immune function. The use of functional foods has been linked to enhanced immunity, regeneration, improved cognitive function, maintenance of gut microbiota, and significant improvement in overall health. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and immune function, and disruptions to its balance have been linked to various health problems. SARS-CoV-2 infection has been shown to affect gut microbiota diversity, and the emergence of variants poses new challenges to combat the virus. SARS-CoV-2 recognizes and infects human cells through ACE2 receptors prevalent in lung and gut epithelial cells. Humans are prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection because their respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are rich in microbial diversity and contain high levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. This review article explores the potential use of functional foods in mitigating the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on gut microbiota diversity, and the potential use of functional foods as a strategy to combat these effects.

  • 26.
    Bang, Peter
    et al.
    Fac Hlth Sci, Div Pediat, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Dept Clin Sci, Danderyds Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Surg, Ersta Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson-Skwirut, Christine
    Dept Woman & Child Hlth, Pediat Endocrinol Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Dept Mol Endocrinol, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jonas
    Dept Clin Sci, Danderyds Hosp, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Surg, Ersta Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Free dissociable IGF-I: Association with changes in IGFBP-3 proteolysis and insulin sensitivity after surgery2016In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 408-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients receiving a carbohydrate drink (CHO) before major abdominal surgery display improved insulin sensitivity postoperatively and increased proteolysis of IGFBP-3 (IGFBP-3-PA) compared to patients undergoing similar surgery after overnight fasting. Aims: We hypothesized that serum IGFBP-3-PA increases bioavailability of circulating IGF-I and preserves insulin sensitivity in patients given CHO. Design: Matched control study. Methods: At Karolinska University Hospital, patients given CHO before major elective abdominal surgery (CHO,n = 8) were compared to patients undergoing similar surgical procedures after overnight fasting (FAST,n = 10). Results from two different techniques for determination of free-dissociable IGF-I (fdIGF-I) were compared with changes in IGFBP-3-PA and insulin sensitivity. Results: Postoperatively, CHO displayed 18% improvement in insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic clamp) and increased IGFBP-3-PA vs. FAST. As determined by IRMA, fdIGF-I increased by 48 +/- 25% in CHO while fdIGF-I decreased by 13 +/- 18% in FAST (p < 0.01 vs. CHO, when corrected for duration of surgery). However, fdIGF-I determined by ultra-filtration decreased similarly in both groups (-22 +/- 8% vs. -25 +/- 8%, p = 0.8) and IGFBP-1 increased similarly in both groups. Patients with less insulin resistance after surgery demonstrated larger increases in fdIGF-I by IRMA (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). Fifty-three % of the variability of the changes in fdIGF-I by IRMA could be explained by changes in IGFBP-3-PA and total IGF-I levels (p < 0.05), while IGFBP-1 did not contribute significantly. Conclusion: During conditions when serum IGF-I bioavailability is regulated by IGFBP-3 proteolysis, measurements of fdIGF-I by IRMA is of physiological relevance as it correlates with the associated changes in insulin sensitivity.

  • 27.
    Barazzoni, R.
    et al.
    Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Deutz, N. E. P.
    Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station TX, USA.
    Biolo, G.
    Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Bischoff, S.
    Department of Nutritional Medicine/Prevention, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Boirie, Y.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, CRNH, Université d'Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Cederholm, T.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cuerda, C.
    Nutrition Unit, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.
    Delzenne, N.
    Department, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Leon Sanz, M.
    Department of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery.
    Muscaritoli, M.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Pichard, C.
    Nutrition Unit, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Preiser, J. C.
    Department of Intensive Care, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.
    Sbraccia, R.
    Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    Singer, P.
    Department of Intensive Care, Institute for Nutrition Research, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Tappy, L.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Thorens, B.
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Van Gossum, A.
    Gastroenterology Service, Hospital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
    Vettor, R.
    Internal Medicine Unit and Center for the Study and Integrated Treatment of Obesity, Department of Medicine, Padua University, Padua, Italy.
    Calder, P. C.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom; University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Carbohydrates and insulin resistance in clinical nutrition: Recommendations from the ESPEN expert group2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 355-363Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing evidence underscores the important role of glycemic control in health and recovery from illness. Carbohydrate ingestion in the diet or administration in nutritional support is mandatory, but carbohydrate intake can adversely affect major body organs and tissues if resulting plasma glucose becomes too high, too low, or highly variable. Plasma glucose control is especially important for patients with conditions such as diabetes or metabolic stress resulting from critical illness or surgery. These patients are particularly in need of glycemic management to help lessen glycemic variability and its negative health consequences when nutritional support is administered. Here we report on recent findings and emerging trends in the field based on an ESPEN workshop held in Venice, Italy, 8-9 November 2015. Evidence was discussed on pathophysiology, clinical impact, and nutritional recommendations for carbohydrate utilization and management in nutritional support. The main conclusions were: a) excess glucose and fructose availability may exacerbate metabolic complications in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and can result in negative clinical impact; b) low-glycemic index and high-fiber diets, including specialty products for nutritional support, may provide metabolic and clinical benefits in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes; c) in acute conditions such as surgery and critical illness, insulin resistance and elevated circulating glucose levels have a negative impact on patient outcomes and should be prevented through nutritional and/or pharmacological intervention. In such acute settings, efforts should be implemented towards defining optimal plasma glucose targets, avoiding excessive plasma glucose variability, and optimizing glucose control relative to nutritional support. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

  • 28.
    Bauset, Celia
    et al.
    Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico-INCLIVA, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    Martínez-Aspas, Ana
    Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico-INCLIVA, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    Smith-Ballester, Sara
    Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico-INCLIVA, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    García-Vigara, Alicia
    Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico-INCLIVA, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    Monllor-Tormos, Aitana
    Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico-INCLIVA, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Cano, Antonio
    Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico-INCLIVA, 46010 Valencia, Spain; Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
    Nuts and Metabolic Syndrome: Reducing the Burden of Metabolic Syndrome in Menopause2022In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 14, no 8, article id 1677Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Menopause imposes a dramatic fall in estrogens, which is followed by an increase in the proportion of fat. The rising androgen/estrogen ratio along the menopause transition favors the accumulation of central fat, which contributes to insulin resistance and a series of concatenated effects, leading to a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome. The modulatory effect of diet on the metabolic syndrome phenotype has been shown for the Mediterranean diet, and nuts are key determinants of these health benefits. This review of the impact of nuts on the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome cluster examined studies-prioritizing meta-analyses and systemic reviews-to summarize the potential benefits of nut ingestion on the risk of metabolic syndrome associated with menopause. Nuts have a general composition profile that includes macronutrients, with a high proportion of unsaturated fat, bioactive compounds, and fiber. The mechanisms set in motion by nuts have shown different levels of efficacy against the disturbances associated with metabolic syndrome, but a beneficial impact on lipids and carbohydrate metabolism, and a potential, but minimal reduction in blood pressure and fat accumulation have been found.

  • 29.
    Benhammou, Samira
    et al.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Heras-González, Leticia
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Barceló, Carla
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Hamdan, May
    Department of Human Nutrition & Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
    Rivas, Ana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Campus de Lorca, Lorca, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin2016In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 107, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change.

  • 30.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kugelberg, Susanna
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hughes, Roger
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Qld, Australia.
    Stockley, Lynn
    Stockley Associates, Nr Chepstow, England.
    Margetts, Barrie M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, England.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Perez Rodrigo, Carmen
    Bilbao Dept Publ Hlth, Bilbao, Spain.
    Kennedy, Nick
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Public health nutrition workforce development missing in european nutrition policies: the JOBNUT project2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 185-185Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krawinkel, Michael
    Univ Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Kristjansdottir, Asa G.
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hlastan Ribic, Cirila
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
    Francini, Bela
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, Oporto, Portugal.
    Papadaki, Alina
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Brug, Johannes
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Maucec-Zakotnik, Jozica
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Lien, Nanna
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    te Velde, Saskia
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Izquierdo de Santiago, Raquel
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhalsan, Helsinki, Finland.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Binard, Philippe
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Petrova, Stefka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Progreens: promotion of fruit and vegetable intake in school children across Europe2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 504-504Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-20162016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök
  • 33.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0 - ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling
  • 34.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Morfeldt, Peter
    Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­62015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download full text (pdf)
    Att använda skolmåltiden som ett pedagogiskt redskap - erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-6
  • 35.
    Blaznik, Urška
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Eržen, Ivan
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hlastan Ribič, Cirila
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health.

    Design: Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied.

    Setting: Slovenia, primary schools.

    Subjects: Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries.

    Results: The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8·3 (95 % CI 7·7, 10·6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99·9th percentile for daily intake and to 4·5 (95 % CI 3·5, 4·7) % of the ARfD at the 99·9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake.

    Conclusions: The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  • 36.
    Blixt, Christina
    et al.
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ahlstedt, Christian
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Bengt
    Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Division of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kalman, Sigridur
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Corrigendum to ‘The effect of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance’ [Clin Nutr 31 (5) (2012) 676–681]2018In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 1091-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Blixt, Christina
    et al.
    Ahlstedt, Christian
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Dept of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Bengt
    Kalman, Sigridur
    Rooyackers, Olav
    The effect of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance2012In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 676-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postoperative insulin resistance and the consequent hyperglycemia affects clinical outcome. Insulin sensitivity may be modulated by preoperative nutrition, adequate pain management and minimal invasive surgery. This study aims to disclose the impact of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance.

    METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for elective open hepatectomy were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study. In the treatment group (n = 9) insulin was administered intravenously to keep blood glucose between 6 and 8 mmol/l during surgery. The control group (n = 8) received insulin if blood glucose >14 mmol/l. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp (0.8 mU/kg/min), performed on all patients both on the day before surgery and immediately postoperatively. Plasma cortisol, insulin and C-peptide were measured.

    RESULTS: There was a significant difference in mean glucose value during surgery. In the control group 8.8 mmol/l (SD 1.5) vs. 6.9 mmol/l (SD 0.4) in the treated group, p = 0.003. In the control group insulin sensitivity decreased to 21.9% ± 16.2% of the preoperative value and in the insulin treated group to 46.8 ± 15.5%, p < 0.005. Insulin levels were significantly higher in the treatment group as well as consequently lower C-peptide levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: This trial revealed a significant difference in postoperative insulin resistance in the group treated with insulin during surgery.

  • 38.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Maukonen, Johanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Rissanen, Aila
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Saarela, Maria
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakkarainen, Antti
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Jesper
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Nina
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Metabolome and fecal microbiota in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight: a Big Mac challenge2014In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 4169-4179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postprandial responses to food are complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. We studied postprandial responses to a Big Mac meal challenge in monozygotic co-twins highly discordant for body weight. This unique design allows assessment of the contribution of obesity, independent of genetic liability. Comprehensive metabolic profiling using 3 analytical platforms was applied to fasting and postprandial serum samples from 16 healthy monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight (body mass index difference >3 kg/m(2)). Nine concordant monozygotic pairs were examined as control pairs. Fecal samples were analyzed to assess diversity of the major bacterial groups by using 5 different validated bacterial group specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. No differences in fecal bacterial diversity were detected when comparing co-twins discordant for weight (ANOVA, P<0.05). We found that within-pair similarity is a dominant factor in the metabolic postprandial response, independent of acquired obesity. Branched chain amino acids were increased in heavier as compared with leaner co-twins in the fasting state, but their levels converged postprandially (paired t tests, FDR q<0.05). We also found that specific bacterial groups were associated with postprandial changes of specific metabolites. Our findings underline important roles of genetic and early life factors in the regulation of postprandial metabolite levels.

  • 39.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Nordlund, Emilia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Katina, Kati
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mykkänen, Hannu
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread2011In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 10, article id 116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism.

    METHODS: A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC × GC-TOF-MS).

    RESULTS: Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P < 0.001) after bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values < 0.05). Among them, there were changes in essential amino acids (phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine and glutamic acid), metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (alpha-ketoglutaric, pyruvic acid and citric acid) and several organic acids. Interestingly, the levels of two compounds involved in the tryptophan metabolism (picolinic acid, ribitol) significantly changed depending on the different bread intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  • 40.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, Research Building, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Pöhö, Päivi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Bozzetto, Lutgarda
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Vetrani, Claudia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Patti, Lidia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Annuzzi, Giovanni
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Rivellese, Angela Albarosa
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Isoenergetic diets differing in their n-3 fatty acid and polyphenol content reflect different plasma and HDL-fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk2014In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1873-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SCOPE: Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis is related to multiple major healthcare problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA) and polyphenol rich diets on plasma and HDL fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Ultra performance LC coupled to quadrupole TOF/MS mass spectrometry global lipidomic profiling was applied to plasma and HDL fraction from an 8 wk randomized intervention with four isoenergetic diets, differing in their natural n-3 FA and polyphenols content, in 78 subjects with a high BMI, abdominal obesity, and at least one other feature of the metabolic syndrome. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between lipidomics, dietary, and clinical variables after the dietary interventions. The most remarkable associations between variables were observed after the diet high in n-3 FA and polyphenols, as the inverse association between gallic acid intake and LDL cholesterol levels, which was indirectly associated with a HDL cluster exclusively comprised lysophospholipids.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first human randomized controlled trial showing direct and indirect associations with lipid molecular species and clinical variables of interest in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome after diets naturally rich in polyphenols.

  • 41.
    Bron, Peter A.
    et al.
    NIZO Food Research, Ede, The Netherlands; BE-Basic Foundation, The Netherlands, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Kleerebezem, Michiel
    Host Microbe Interactomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Brummer, Robert-Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Cani, Patrice D.
    Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, WELBIO – Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and BIOtechnology, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Mercenier, Annick
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    MacDonald, Thomas T.
    Barts and The London school of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Garcia-Ródenas, Clara L
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Wells, Jerry M.
    Host Microbe Interactomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 93-107Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can affect barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are used to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues and categorises the lines of evidence available in literature for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity and, consequently, their beneficial effect for the reduction of gastrointestinal disease symptoms.

  • 42.
    Brook, M. S.
    et al.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK; School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Din, Usu
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Tarum, J.
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Selby, A.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Quinlan, J.
    School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK; National Institute for Health Research, Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.
    Bass, J. J.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Gharahdaghi, N.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Boereboom, C.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Abdulla, H.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Franchi, M. V.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Narici, M. V.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Phillips, B. E.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Williams, J. W.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Wilkinson, D. J.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Atherton, P. J.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Smith, K.
    MRC-Versus Arthritis Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing Research and NIHR Nottingham BRC, Clinical, Metabolic and Molecular Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK.
    Omega-3 supplementation during unilateral resistance exercise training in older women: A within subject and double-blind placebo-controlled trial2021In: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, E-ISSN 2405-4577, Vol. 46, p. 394-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The skeletal muscle anabolic effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) appear favoured towards women; a property that could be exploited in older women who typically exhibit poor muscle growth responses to resistance exercise training (RET). Here we sought to generate novel insights into the efficacy and mechanisms of n-3 PUFA alongside short-term RET in older women.

    METHODS: We recruited 16 healthy older women (Placebo n = 8 (PLA): 67±1y, n-3 PUFA n = 8: 64±1y) to a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial (n-3 PUFA; 3680 mg/day versus PLA) of 6 weeks fully-supervised progressive unilateral RET (i.e. 6 × 8 reps, 75% 1-RM, 3/wk-1). Strength was assessed by knee extensor 1-RM and isokinetic dynamometry ∼ every 10 d. Thigh fat free mass (TFFM) was measured by DXA at 0/3/6 weeks. Bilateral vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies at 0/2/4/6 weeks with deuterium oxide (D2O) dosing were used to determine MPS responses for 0-2 and 4-6 weeks. Further, fibre cross sectional area (CSA), myonuclei number and satellite cell (SC) number were assessed, alongside muscle anabolic/catabolic signalling via immunoblotting.

    RESULTS: RET increased 1-RM equally in the trained leg of both groups (+23 ± 5% n-3 PUFA vs. +25 ± 5% PLA (both P < 0.01)) with no significant increase in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) (+10 ± 6% n-3 PUFA vs. +13 ± 5% PLA). Only the n-3 PUFA group increased TFFM (3774 ± 158 g to 3961 ± 151 g n-3 PUFA (P < 0.05) vs. 3406 ± 201 g to 3561 ± 170 PLA) and type II fibre CSA (3097 ± 339 μm2 to 4329 ± 264 μm2 n-3 PUFA (P < 0.05) vs. 2520 ± 316 μm2 to 3467 ± 303 μm2 in PL) with RET. Myonuclei number increased equally in n-3 PUFA and PLA in both type I and type II fibres, with no change in SC number. N-3 PUFA had no added benefit on muscle protein synthesis (MPS), however, during weeks 4-6 of RET, absolute synthesis rates (ASR) displayed a trend to increase with n-3 PUFA only (5.6 ± 0.3 g d-1 to 7.1 ± 0.5 g d-1 n-3 PUFA (P = 0.09) vs. 5.5 ± 0.5 g d-1 to 6.5 ± 0.5 g d-1 PLA). Further, the n-3 PUFA group displayed greater 4EBP1 activation after acute RE at 6 weeks.

    CONCLUSION: n3-PUFA enhanced RET gains in muscle mass through type II fibre hypertrophy, with data suggesting a role for MPS rather than via SC recruitment. As such, the present study adds to a literature base illustrating the apparent enhancement of muscle hypertrophy with RET in older women fed adjuvant n3-PUFA.

  • 43.
    Brug, Johannes
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm , Sweden.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    The pro children study: conceptualization, baseline results and intervention development of a European effort to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in schoolchildren2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 209-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bryl-Górecka, Paulina
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Sathanoori, Ramasri
    Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Arevström, Lilith
    Faculty of Health, Department of Cardiology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bergh, Cecilia
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Evander, Mikael
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Olde, Björn
    Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Laurell, Thomas
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Erlinge, David
    Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Bilberry Supplementation after Myocardial Infarction Decreases Microvesicles in Blood and Affects Endothelial Vesiculation2020In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 64, no 20, article id e2000108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scope: Diet rich in bilberries is considered cardioprotective, but the mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Cardiovascular disease is characterized by increased proatherogenic status and high levels of circulating microvesicles (MVs). In an open-label study patients with myocardial infarction receive an 8 week dietary supplementation with bilberry extract (BE). The effect of BE on patient MV levels and its influence on endothelial vesiculation in vitro is investigated.

    Methods and results: MVs are captured with acoustic trapping and platelet-derived MVs (PMVs), as well as endothelial-derived MVs (EMVs) are quantified with flow cytometry. The in vitro effect of BE on endothelial extracellular vesicle (EV) release is examined using endothelial cells and calcein staining. The mechanisms of BE influence on vesiculation pathways are studied by Western blot and qRT-PCR. Supplementation with BE decreased both PMVs and EMVs. Furthermore, BE reduced endothelial EV release, Akt phosphorylation, and vesiculation-related gene transcription. It also protects the cells from P2X(7)-induced EV release and increase in vesiculation-related gene expression.

    Conclusion: BE supplementation improves the MV profile in patient blood and reduces endothelial vesiculation through several molecular mechanisms related to the P2X(7)receptor. The findings provide new insight into the cardioprotective effects of bilberries.

  • 45.
    Cardenas, Diana
    et al.
    Nutrition Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
    Correia, M. Isabel T. D.
    Surgical Department, Medical School, Eterna Rede Mater Dei and Hospital Semper, Universidade Federal de Medicina, Belo Horizonte, Brasil.
    Hardy, Gil
    Ipanema Research Trust, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Gramlich, Leah
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Care and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Surgery department, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Van Ginkel-Res, Annemieke
    The European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians (EFAD), Naarden, The Netherlands.
    Remijnse, Wineke
    The European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians (EFAD), Naarden, The Netherlands.
    Barrocas, Albert
    Department of Surgery, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
    Gautier, Juan B Ochoa
    ICU, Hunterdon Medical Center, Flemington, New Jersey, USA.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
    Ungpinitpong, Winnai
    Surgery Department, Surin Hospital, Surin, Thailand.
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    Department of Medical, Technological and Translational Sciences, Ospedale di Cattinara, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    International Declaration on the Human Right to Nutritional Care: A global commitment to recognize nutrition care as a human right2023In: Nutrition in clinical practice, ISSN 0884-5336, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 946-958Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Cardenas, Diana
    et al.
    Nutrition Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
    Correia, M. Isabel T. D.
    Surgical Department, Medical School, Universidade Federal de Medicina, Belo Horizonte, Eterna Rede Mater Dei and Hospital Semper, Brazil.
    Hardy, Gil
    Ipanema Research Trust, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Gramlich, Leah
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Care and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Van Ginkel-Res, Annemieke
    The European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians (EFAD), the Netherlands.
    Remijnse, Wineke
    The European Federation of the Associations of Dietitians (EFAD), the Netherlands.
    Barrocas, Albert
    Department of Surgery, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Ochoa Gautier, Juan B.
    Hunterdon Medical Center, New Jersey, USA.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. School of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
    Ungpinitpong, Winnai
    Surgery Department, Surin Hospital, Thailand.
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    Department of Medical, Technological and Translational Sciences, University of Trieste, Ospedale di Cattinara, Trieste, Italy.
    The international declaration on the human right to nutritional care: A global commitment to recognize nutritional care as a human right2023In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 909-918Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to nutritional care is frequently limited or denied to patients with disease-related malnutrition (DRM), to those with the inability to adequately feed themselves or to maintain their optimal healthy nutritional status which goes against the fundamental human right to food and health care. That is why the International Working Group for Patient's Right to nutritional care is committed to promote a human rights based approach (HRBA) in the field of clinical nutrition. Our group proposed to unite efforts by launching a global call to action against disease-related malnutrition through The International Declaration on the Human Right to Nutritional Care signed in the city of Vienna during the 44th ESPEN congress on September 5th 2022. The Vienna Declaration is a non-legally binding document that sets a shared vision and five principles for implementation of actions that would promote the access to nutritional care. Implementation programs of the Vienna Declaration should be promoted, based on international normative frameworks as The United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Rome Declaration of the Second International Conference on Nutrition and the Working Plan of the Decade of Action on Nutrition 2016-2025. In this paper, we present the general background of the Vienna Declaration, we set out an international normative framework for implementation programs, and shed a light on the progress made by some clinical nutrition societies. Through the Vienna Declaration, the global clinical nutrition network is highly motivated to appeal to public authorities, international governmental and non-governmental organizations and other scientific healthcare societies on the importance of optimal nutritional care for all patients.

  • 47.
    Carr, Amelia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik P
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Shannon, Oliver M.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Storbritannien.
    Mattsson, Stig
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Melin, Anna
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition2019In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the energy, macronutrient, and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (Day 1) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (Day 2). A total of 31 (18 males and 13 females) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and urine specific gravity was measured on Days 1 and 2. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency. Energy intake for males was 65 +/- 9 kcal/kg on Day 1 versus 58 +/- 9 kcal/kg on Day 2 (p = .002) and for females was 57 +/- 10 on Day 1 versus 55 +/- 5 kcal/kg on Day 2 (p = .445). Carbohydrate intake recommendations of 10-12 g.kg(-l) .day(-1) were not met by 89% of males and 92% of females. All males and females had a protein intake above the recommended 1.2-2.0 g/kg on both days and a postexercise protein intake above the recommended 0.3 g/kg. Of the females, 31% were classified as being at risk of long-term energy deficiency. In the morning of Day 1, 50% of males and 46% of females were dehydrated; on Day 2, this was the case for 56% of males and 38% of females. In conclusion, these data suggest that elite cross-country skiers ingested more protein and less carbohydrate than recommended and one third of the females were considered at risk of long-term energy deficiency. Furthermore, many of the athletes were dehydrated prior to training and competition.

  • 48.
    Castro Alves, Victor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lipidomics in nutrition research2022In: Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, ISSN 1363-1950, E-ISSN 1473-6519, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 311-318Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent findings from lipidomics studies as related to nutrition and health research.

    RECENT FINDINGS: Several lipidomics studies have investigated malnutrition, including both under- and overnutrition. Focus has been both on the early-life nutrition as well as on the impact of overfeeding later in life. Multiple studies have investigated the impact of different macronutrients in lipidome on human health, demonstrating that overfeeding with saturated fat is metabolically more harmful than overfeeding with polyunsaturated fat or carbohydrate-rich food. Diet rich in saturated fat increases the lipotoxic lipids, such as ceramides and saturated fatty-acyl-containing triacylglycerols, increasing also the low-density lipoprotein aggregation rate. In contrast, diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as n-3 fatty acids, decreases the triacylglycerol levels, although some individuals are poor responders to n-3 supplementation.

    SUMMARY: The results highlight the benefits of lipidomics in clinical nutrition research, also providing an opportunity for personalized nutrition. An area of increasing interest is the interplay of diet, gut microbiome, and metabolome, and how they together impact individuals' responses to nutritional challenges.

  • 49.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    et al.
    U. for Hlth. Serv. Res./Intl. Coop., Istituto per l'Infanzia, Trieste, Italy .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany .
    Guzman, Luis Ruiz
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, Barcelona, Spain .
    Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: current situation2005In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and candidate countries.

    RESULTS: EU countries do not fully comply with the policies and recommendations of the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding that they endorsed during the 55th World Health Assembly in 2002. Some countries do not even comply with the targets of the Innocenti Declaration (1990). Pre-service training on breast-feeding practice is inadequate and in-service training achieves only low to medium coverage. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is well developed only in three countries; in 19 countries, less than 15% of births occur in baby-friendly hospitals. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, endorsed in 1981 by all countries, is not fully applied and submitted to independent monitoring. The legislation for working mothers meets on average the International Labour Organization standards, but covers only women with full formal employment. Voluntary mother-to-mother support groups and trained peer counsellors are present in 27 and 13 countries, respectively. Breast-feeding rates span over a wide range; comparisons are difficult due to use of non-standard methods. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months is low everywhere, even in countries with high initiation rates.

    CONCLUSIONS: EU countries need to revise their policies and practices to meet the principles inscribed in the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in order to better protect, promote and support breast-feeding.

  • 50.
    Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena
    et al.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain; Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Labayen, Idoia
    Basque Country University, Vitoria, Spain.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Zaragoza University, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Patterson, Emma
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Vicente-Rodriguez, German
    Zaragoza University, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
    Madrid Technical University, Madrid, Spain.
    Marcos, Ascension
    Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain.
    Polito, Angela
    National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Rome, Italy.
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
    Beghin, Laurent
    Health and Medical Research National Institute-University Hospital, Lille, France.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France; Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Wästlund, Acki
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Molnar, Denes
    Pécs University, Pécs, Hungary.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Private Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Crete University, Crete, Greece.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Castillo, Manuel J.
    Granada University, Granada, Spain.
    Gutin, Bernard
    Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    More Physically Active and Leaner Adolescents Have Higher Energy Intake2014In: The Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To test whether youths who engage in vigorous physical activity are more likely to have lean bodies while ingesting relatively large amounts of energy. For this purpose, we studied the associations of both physical activity and adiposity with energy intake in adolescents.

    Study design The study subjects were adolescents who participated in 1 of 2 cross-sectional studies, the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study (n = 1450; mean age, 14.6 years) or the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS; n = 321; mean age, 15.6 years). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry, and energy intake was measured by 24-hour recall. In the HELENA study, body composition was assessed by 2 or more of the following methods: skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, plus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or air-displacement plethysmography in a subsample. In the EYHS, body composition was assessed by skinfold thickness.

    Results Fat mass was inversely associated with energy intake in both studies and using 4 different measurement methods (P <=.006). Overall, fat-free mass was positively associated with energy intake in both studies, yet the results were not consistent across measurement methods in the HELENA study. Vigorous physical activity in the HELENA study (P<.05) and moderate physical activity in the EYHS (P<.01) were positively associated with energy intake. Overall, results remained unchanged after adjustment for potential confounding factors, after mutual adjustment among the main exposures (physical activity and fat mass), and after the elimination of obese subjects, who might tend to under-report energy intake, from the analyses.

    Conclusion Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that more physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake than less active adolescents with larger amounts of fat mass.

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