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  • 1.
    Ahlman, B.
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, K.
    Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, C. E.
    Department of Surgery, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedenborg, L.
    Department of Pathology, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernerman, J.
    St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Short-term starvation alters the free amino acid content of human intestinal mucosa1994In: Clinical Science, ISSN 0143-5221, E-ISSN 1470-8736, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 653-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The effects of short-term starvation and refeeding on the free amino acid concentrations of the intestinal mucosa were characterized in male subjects (n=6), using endoscopically obtained biopsy specimens from the duodenum and from all four segments of the colon.

    2. The alterations in the amino acid concentrations in response to short-term starvation were overall uniform in both duodenal and colonic mucosa as well as in plasma. Most amino acids decreased, whereas branched-chain amino acids increased.

    3. In the colon, glutamic acid and glutamine decreased during the starvation period, whereas they remained unaltered in the duodenum. This was the major difference in response to short-term starvation between the amino acid concentrations in the intestinal mucosa of the duodenum and colon.

    4. Refeeding for 3 days normalized the amino acid concentrations except for glutamic acid, asparagine and histidine, which remained low in the colon, and threonine, which showed an overshoot in both parts of the intestine. S. The changes in mucosal amino acid concentrations seen in response to starvation and refeeding were uniform in the four segments of the colon. This suggests that sampling from the rectum/sigmoid colon will give representative values for the free amino acid concentrations of the entire large intestine.

  • 2.
    Ahlman, B.
    et al.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, K.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernerman, J.
    Department of Surgery, Karolinska Hospital and Metabolic Research Laboratory, St Göran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Free amino acids in the human intestinal mucosa: Impact of surgical trauma and critical illness1995In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 54-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Klinisk nutrition har svag ställning i vårdsystemet2015In: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, no 1, p. 15-17Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Akner, Gunnar
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Orsaker till mat- och nutritionsproblem inom äldrevården samt förslag till utveckling och förbättringsarbete2006In: Nordisk Geriatrik, no 4, p. 36-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Akner, Gunnar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Inst. NVS, sektionen för omvårdnad, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Krachler, Benno
    Medicinkliniken, Kalix sjukhus, Kalix, Sverige.
    Orrevall, Ylva
    Dietistkliniken, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Huddinge, Sverige.
    Rundgren, Åke
    Enheten för geriatrik Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Sahlin, Nils-Eric
    Avd. för medicinsk etik, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sverige.
    Gyllensvärd, Harald
    Statens beredning för medicinsk utvärdering, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Kosttillägg för undernärda äldre: en systematisk litteraturöversikt.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ali, Mohamed A.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden; Akershus Univ Coll, Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Lillestrom, Norway.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines: dietary intake, database progress and food contribution to the total daily intake2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 203-204Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Ali, Mohamed Atiya
    et al.
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Akershus Univ Coll, Lilleström, Norway.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Stromberg, Roger
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)2011In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 55, p. 5455-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an 'ideal diet' (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316 +/- 170 mu mol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 mu mol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an 'ideal' diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  • 8.
    Ali, Mohamed Atiya
    et al.
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden;Fac Hlth Nutr & Management, Akershus University College, Lilleström, Norway.
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Publ Hlth Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Roger
    Novum, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamines in foods: development of a food database2011In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 55, p. 5572-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods is of interest due to the association of these bioactive nutrients to health and diseases. There is a lack of relevant information on their contents in foods. Objective: To develop a food polyamine database from published data by which polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake can be estimated, and to determine the levels of polyamines in Swedish dairy products. Design: Extensive literature search and laboratory analysis of selected Swedish dairy products. Polyamine contents in foods were collected using an extensive literature search of databases. Polyamines in different types of Swedish dairy products (milk with different fat percentages, yogurt, cheeses, and sour milk) were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. Results: Fruits and cheese were the highest sources of putrescine, while vegetables and meat products were found to be rich in spermidine and spermine, respectively. The content of polyamines in cheese varied considerably between studies. In analyzed Swedish dairy products, matured cheese had the highest total polyamine contents with values of 52.3, 1.2, and 2.6 mg/kg for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively. Low fat milk had higher putrescine and spermidine, 1.2 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively, than the other types of milk. Conclusions: The database aids other researchers in their quest for information regarding polyamine intake from foods. Connecting the polyamine contents in food with the Swedish Food Database allows for estimation of polyamine contents per portion.

  • 9.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Alvarez-Leon, Elisa Eva
    Preventive Medicine Service, Canary Health Service, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.
    Serra-Majem, Lluis
    Preventive Medicine Service, Canary Health Service, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.
    Association of the European lactase persistence variant (LCT-13910 C > T Polymorphism) with obesity in the Canary Islands2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, article id e43978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: European lactose tolerance genotype (LCT -13910 C>T, rs4988234) has been positively associated to body mass indexes (BMI) in a meta-analysis of 31,720 individuals of northern and central European descent. A strong association of lactase persistence (LP) with BMI and obesity has also been traced in a Spanish Mediterranean population. The aim of this study was to analyze a potential association of LP compared to lactase non-persistence (LNP) with BMI in inhabitants of the Canary Islands of Spain using Mendelian randomization.

    Methods: A representative, randomly sampled population of adults belonging to the Canary Islands Nutrition Survey (ENCA) in Spain, aged 18-75 years (n = 551), was genotyped for the LCT - 13910 C>T polymorphism. Milk consumption was assessed by a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were directly measured. WHO classification of BMI was used.

    Results: LP individuals were significantly more obese than LNP subjects (chi(2) = 10.59; p < 0.005). LP showed in a multivariate linear regression analysis showed a positive association of LP with BMI compared to LNP, (beta = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.08-1.85, p = 0.033). In a multinomial logistic regression analysis normal range weight LP subjects showed an odds ratio for obesity of 2.41; 95% CI 1.39-418, (p = 0.002) compared to LNP.

    Conclusions: The T-13910 of the allele LCT-13910 C>T polymorphism is positively associated with BMI. LP increases significantly the risk to develop obesity in the studied population. The LCT-13910 C>T polymorphism stands proxy for the lifetime exposure pattern, milk intake, that may increase susceptibility to obesity and to obesity related pathologies.

  • 10.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Serra-Majem, Lluis
    Magnuson, Anders
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Associations between lactase persistence and the metabolic syndrome: a Mendelian randomization study in the Canary Islands2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Canary Isl, Spain; Hosp Insular Gran Canaria, Canarian Hlth Serv, Serv Prevent Med, Canary Isl, Spain.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Serra-Majem, Lluis
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Canary Isl, Spain; Hosp Insular Gran Canaria, Canarian Hlth Serv, Serv Prevent Med, Canary Isl, Spain.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Örebro University hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Örebro University hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Associations between lactase persistence and the metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study in the Canary Islands2009In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 141-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) LCT -13910 C>T, associated with genetically determined phenotypes of lactase persistence (LP) or non-persistence (LNP), was studied in relation to the metabolic syndrome (MS).

    AIim of the study: The aim was to determine if milk intake and MS are associated. We applied Mendelian randomization (MR). The SNP, LCT -13910 C>T, with the genotypes LP (TT/CT) and LNP (CC), was taken as a proxy for milk consumption.

    Methods: A representative sample of adults belonging to the Canary Islands Nutrition Survey (ENCA) in Spain aged 18-75 years (n = 551) was genotyped for the LCT -13910 C>T polymorphism. We used the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria to define MS. RESULTS: 60% of the population was LP and 40% LNP. One hundred seven LP subjects (35.0%) and 53 LNP subjects (25.6%) showed MS (chi (2) = 5.04, p = 0.025). LP subjects showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for MS than LNP subjects computed for the whole population: both the crude OR (1.56; 95% CI 1.06-2.31) and adjusted OR for sex, age, daily energy intake, physical activity and educational level (1.57; 95% CI 1.02-2.43). Adjusted OR for women with LP was 1.93; 95% CI 1.06-3.52.

    Conclusions: The T allele of the SNP might constitute a nutrigenetic factor increasing the susceptibility of LP subjects, especially women, to develop MS in the Canary Islands.

  • 12.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Torbjorn K.
    Dept Lab Med, Örebro Univ Hosp, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit Prevent Nutr, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lactase persistence and milk consumption are associated with body height in Swedish preadolescents and adolescents2011In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 55, article id 7253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Body height is a classic polygenic trait. About 80%-90% of height is inherited and 10%-20% owed to environmental factors, of which the most important ones are nutrition and diseases in preadolescents and adolescents.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore potential relations between the LCT (lactase) C > T-13910 polymorphism, milk consumption, and body height in a sample of Swedish preadolescents and adolescents.

    Design: In a cross-sectional study, using a random sample of preadolescents and adolescents (n = 597), dietary intakes were determined. Anthropometric measurements including sexual maturity (Tanner stage) and birth weight were assessed. Parental body height and socio-economic status (SES) were obtained by questionnaires. Genotyping for the LCT C > T-13910 polymorphism that renders individuals lactase persistent (LP) or lactase non-persistent (LNP) was performed by DNA sequencing. Stepwise backward multivariate linear regression was used.

    Results: Milk consumption was significantly and positively associated with body height (beta =0.45; 95% CI: 0.040, 0.87, p =0.032). Adjustments were performed for sex, parental height, birth weight, body mass index (BMI), SES, and Tanner stage. This model explains 90% of the observed variance of body height (adjusted R-2 =0.89). The presence of the -13910 T allele was positively associated with body height (beta = 2.05; 95% CI: 0.18, 3.92, p =0.032).

    Conclusions: Milk consumption is positively associated with body height in preadolescents and adolescents. We show for the first time that a nutrigenetic variant might be able to explain in part phenotypic variation of body height in preadolescents and adolescents. Due to the small sample size further studies are needed.

  • 13.
    Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Patterson, Emma
    Unit Prevent Nutr, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden; Sch Biol Sci, Dublin Inst Technol, Dublin, Ireland.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K.
    Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit Prevent Nutr, Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents2010In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 54, article id 5141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass.

    Objective This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass.

    Design: Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined.

    Results: LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (p<0.001). Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents). Six subjects were reported by parents to be 'lactose intolerant', none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents).

    Conclusions: We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  • 14.
    Almoosawi, Suzana
    et al.
    Brain Performance & Nutrition Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Palla, Luigi
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Walshe, Ian
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Vingeliene, Snieguole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ellis, Jason G.
    Northumbria Sleep Research Laboratory, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Long Sleep Duration and Social Jetlag Are Associated Inversely with a Healthy Dietary Pattern in Adults: Results from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Y1-42018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration on weekdays or social jetlag and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration on weekdays was categorized into tertiles to reflect short, normal, and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration on weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed by regressing diet on sleep, whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average a 0.45 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score, compared to middle tertile (p = 0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and the healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep on weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1 h 45 min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p = 0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration on weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.

  • 15.
    Almoosawi, Suzana
    et al.
    Brain, Performance, and Nutrition Research Center, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom; Nestlé Research Center, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Vingeliene, Snieguole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Gachon, Frederic
    School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Diabetes and Circadian Rhythms, Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Voortman, Trudy
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Palla, Luigi
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Johnston, Jonathan D.
    Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.
    Van Dam, Rob Martinus
    Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore.
    Darimont, Christian
    Nestlé Research Center, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Karagounis, Leonidas G.
    Nestlé Research Center, Institute of Nutritional Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland; Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland; Experimental Myology and Integrative Physiology Cluster, Plymouth Marjon University, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Chronotype: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Chrono-Nutrition and Cardiometabolic Health2019In: Advances in Nutrition, ISSN 2161-8313, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 30-42Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chrono-nutrition is an emerging research field in nutritional epidemiology that encompasses 3 dimensions of eating behavior: timing, frequency, and regularity. To date, few studies have investigated how an individual's circadian typology, i.e., one's chronotype, affects the association between chrono-nutrition and cardiometabolic health. This review sets the directions for future research by providing a narrative overview of recent epidemiologic research on chronotype, its determinants, and its association with dietary intake and cardiometabolic health. Limited research was found on the association between chronotype and dietary intake in infants, children, and older adults. Moreover, most of the evidence in adolescents and adults was restricted to cross-sectional surveys with few longitudinal cohorts simultaneously collecting data on chronotype and dietary intake. There was a gap in the research concerning the association between chronotype and the 3 dimensions of chrono-nutrition. Whether chronotype modifies the association between diet and cardiometabolic health outcomes remains to be elucidated. In conclusion, further research is required to understand the interplay between chronotype, chrono-nutrition, and cardiometabolic health outcomes.

  • 16.
    Altmae, Signe
    et al.
    Div Obstet & Gynecol,Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Huddinge Hosp, Karolinska Univ, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Akad Sjukhuset, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Unit Prevent Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laanpere, Margit
    Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Dept Biotechnol, Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Syvanen, Tiina
    Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Akad Sjukhuset, Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Dept Biosci & Nutr, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salumets, Andres
    Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Dept Biotechnol, Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Nilsson, Torbjorn K.
    Dept Clin Chem, Orebro Univ Hosp, Orebro, Sweden.
    Variations in folate pathway genes are associated with unexplained female infertility2010In: Fertility and Sterility, ISSN 0015-0282, E-ISSN 1556-5653, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate associations between folate-metabolizing gene variations, folate status, and unexplained female infertility. Design: An association study. Setting: Hospital-based IVF unit and university-affiliated reproductive research laboratories. Patient(s): Seventy-one female patients with unexplained infertility. Intervention(s): Blood samples for polymorphism genotyping and homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate measurements. Main Outcome Measure(s): Allele and genotype frequencies of the following polymorphisms: 5,10-methylenetetra-hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C/T, 1298A/C, and 1793G/A, folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) 1314G/A, 1816delC, 1841G/A, and 1928C/T, transcobalamin II (TCN2) 776C/G, cystathionase (CTH) 1208G/T and solute carrier family 19, member 1 (SLC19A1) 80G/A, and concentrations of plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12, and serum folate. Result(s): MTHFR genotypes 677CT and 1793GA, as well as 1793 allele A were significantly more frequent among controls than in patients. The common MTHFR wild-type haplotype (677, 1298, 1793) CAG was less prevalent, whereas the rare haplotype CCA was more frequent in the general population than among infertility patients. The frequency of SLC19A1 80G/A genotypes differed significantly between controls and patients and the A allele was more common in the general population than in infertile women. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were influenced by CTH 1208G/T polymorphism among infertile women. Conclusion(s): Polymorphisms in folate pathway genes could be one reason for fertility complications in some women with unexplained infertility. (Fertil Steril (R) 2010;94:130-7. (C) 2010 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)

  • 17.
    Arevström, Lilith
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergh, Cecilia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wu, Huaxing
    Department of Food Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.
    Waldenborg, Micael
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Cardiology.
    Magnuson, Anders
    Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Swede.
    Blanc, Stephane
    Department of Ecology, Physiology and Ethology, Hubert Curien Pluridisciplinary Institute, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology.
    Freeze-dried bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) dietary supplement improves walking distance and lipids after myocardial infarction: an open-label randomized clinical trial2019In: Nutrition Research, ISSN 0271-5317, E-ISSN 1879-0739, Vol. 62, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilberries, Vaccinium myrtillus, have a high content of phenolic compounds including anthocyanins, which could provide cardiometabolic health benefits following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that standard medical therapy supplemented with freeze-dried bilberry after AMI would have a more beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk markers and exercise capacity than medical therapy alone. Patients were allocated in a 1:1 ratio within 24 hours of percutaneous coronary intervention in an 8-week trial either to V myrtillus powder (40 g/d, equivalent to 480 g fresh bilberries) and standard medical therapy or to a control group receiving standard medical therapy alone. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise capacity measured with the 6-minute walk test were the primary biochemical and clinical end points, respectively. Fifty subjects completed the study. No statistically significant difference in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was detected between groups. The mean 6-minute walk test distance increased significantly more in the bilberry group compared to the control group: mean difference 38 m at follow-up (95% confidence interval 14-62, P = .003). Ex vivo oxidized low-density lipoprotein was significantly lowered in the bilberry group compared to control, geometric mean ratio 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.96, P = .017), whereas total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ significantly between groups. Anthocyanin-derived metabolites in blood increased significantly in the bilberry group during the intervention and were different after 8 weeks between the bilberry group and control. Findings in the present study suggest that bilberries may have clinically relevant beneficial effects following AMI; a larger, double-blind clinical trial is warranted to confirm this.

  • 18.
    Arora, Tulika
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Velagapudi, Vidya
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Metabolomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pournaras, Dimitri J.
    Department of Bariatric Surgery, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, United Kingdom.
    Welbourn, Richard
    Department of Bariatric Surgery, Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton, United Kingdom.
    le Roux, Carel W.
    Diabetes Complications Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Gastrosurgical Laboratory, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center A/S, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Bäckhed, Fredrik
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicie, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section for Metabolic Receptology and Enteroendocrinology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Induces Early Plasma Metabolomic and Lipidomic Alterations in Humans Associated with Diabetes Remission2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective method to attain sustained weight loss and diabetes remission. We aimed to elucidate early changes in the plasma metabolome and lipidome after RYGB. Plasma samples from 16 insulin-resistant morbidly obese subjects, of whom 14 had diabetes, were subjected to global metabolomics and lipidomics analysis at pre-surgery and 4 and 42 days after RYGB. Metabolites and lipid species were compared between time points and between subjects who were in remission and not in remission from diabetes 2 years after surgery. We found that the variables that were most discriminatory between time points were decanoic acid and octanoic acid, which were elevated 42 days after surgery, and sphingomyelins (18:1/21:0 and 18:1/23:3), which were at their lowest level 42 days after surgery. Insulin levels were lower at 4 and 42 days after surgery compared with pre-surgery levels. At 4 days after surgery, insulin levels correlated positively with metabolites of branched chain and aromatic amino acid metabolism and negatively with triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids. Of the 14 subjects with diabetes prior to surgery, 7 were in remission 2 years after surgery. The subjects in remission displayed higher pre-surgery levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and triglycerides with long-chain fatty acids compared with subjects not in remission. Thus, metabolic alterations are induced soon after surgery and subjects with diabetes remission differ in the metabolic profiles at pre- and early post-surgery time points compared to patients not in remission.

  • 19.
    Atiya Ali, M.
    et al.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strandvik, B.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sabel, K-G.
    Borås Children Hospital (SÄS), Borås, Sweden.
    Palme Kilander, C.
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strömberg, R.
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Polyamine levels in breast milk are associated with mothers' dietary intake and are higher in preterm than full-term human milk and formulas2014In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 459-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Polyamine intake from milk is considered essential for post-natal maturation of the immune system and small intestine. The present study aimed to determine polyamine content in human milk after preterm delivery and the association with mothers' dietary intake. In comparison, the polyamine levels were compared with those in term breast milk and some corresponding formulas.

    METHODS: Transitional breast milk was collected from 40 mothers delivering after 24-36 weeks of gestation, and from 12 mothers delivering after full term. Food intake was assessed in mothers delivering preterm babies using a 3-day diary. Polyamines were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    RESULTS: The dietary intake of polyamines was significantly associated with breast milk content but weaker for spermine than for spermidine and putrescine. Total polyamine level was higher in preterm than term milk and lower in the corresponding formulas. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents [mean (SEM)] in preterm milk were 165.6 (25), 615.5 (80) and 167.7 (16) nmol dL(-1) , respectively, with the levels of putrescine and spermidine being 50% and 25% higher than in term milk. The content of spermine did not differ.

    CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of polyamines has an impact on the content in breast milk. The difference between human milk after preterm and term delivery might be considered when using donor human milk for preterm infants. The corresponding formulas had lower contents. Further studies are important for determining the relationship between tissue growth and maturation and optimal intake.

  • 20.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Cheynier, Veronique
    Sciences Pour l'œNologie, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Montpellier, France.
    Souquet, Jean-Marc
    Sciences Pour l'œNologie, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Montpellier, France.
    Bes, Magali
    Unité Expérimentale de Pech Rouge, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Gruissan, France.
    Le Bourvellec, Carine
    Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Avignon, France.
    Guyot, Sylvain
    Cidricoles et Biotransformation des Fruits et Légumes, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Le Rheu, France.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Characterization of microbial metabolism of Syrah grape products in an in vitro colon model using targeted and non-targeted analytical approaches2013In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 833-846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Syrah red grapes are used in the production of tannin-rich red wines. Tannins are high molecular weight molecules, proanthocyanidins (PAs), and poorly absorbed in the upper intestine. In this study, gut microbial metabolism of Syrah grape phenolic compounds was investigated.

    METHODS: Syrah grape pericarp was subjected to an enzymatic in vitro digestion model, and red wine and grape skin PA fraction were prepared. Microbial conversion was screened using an in vitro colon model with faecal microbiota, by measurement of short-chain fatty acids by gas chromatography (GC) and microbial phenolic metabolites using GC with mass detection (GC-MS). Red wine metabolites were further profiled using two-dimensional GC mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). In addition, the effect of PA structure and dose on conversion efficiency was investigated by GC-MS.

    RESULTS: Red wine exhibited a higher degree of C1-C3 phenolic acid formation than PA fraction or grape pericarp powders. Hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (flavanols and PAs as precursors) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (anthocyanin as a precursor) were identified from the red wine metabolite profile. In the absence of native grape pericarp or red wine matrix, the isolated PAs were found to be effective in the dose-dependent inhibition of microbial conversions and short-chain fatty acid formation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiling was complementary to targeted analysis. The identified metabolites had biological relevance, because the structures of the metabolites resembled fragments of their grape phenolic precursors or were in agreement with literature data.

  • 21.
    Baban, Bayar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Department of Clinical Science, Danderyds Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jonas
    Department of Clinical Science, Danderyds Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bratt, Anette
    Department of Clinical Science, Danderyds Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept of Surgery, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital. Dept of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Institution for Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Determination of insulin resistance in surgery: the choice of method is crucial2015In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In elective surgery, postoperative hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are independent risk factors for complications. Since the simpler HOMA method has been used as an alternative to the hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp in studies of surgery induced insulin resistance, we compared the two methods in patients undergoing elective surgery.

    METHODS: Data from 113 non-diabetic patients undergoing elective surgery were used. Insulin sensitivity, both before and after surgery, was quantified by the clamp and HOMA. Pre- and postoperatively, the results of the clamp were compared to HOMA using regression- and correlation analysis. Degree of agreement between the methods was studied using weighted linear kappa and the Bland-Altman test.

    RESULTS: Both the clamp and HOMA recorded a mean relative reduction in insulin sensitivity of 39 ± 24% and 39 ± 61% respectively after surgery; with significant correlations (p < 0.01) for pre- and post-operative measures as well as for relative changes. However r(2) values were low: 0.04, 0.07 and 0.03 respectively. The degree of agreement for the relative change in insulin sensitivity using the Bland-Altman test gave a mean of difference 0% but "limits of agreement" (±2SD) was ±125%. This poor inter-method agreement was consolidated by a weighted linear kappa value of 0.18.

    CONCLUSION: While the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp measures the postoperative changes in insulin sensitivity, HOMA measures something different. Data using the HOMA method must therefore be interpreted cautiously and is not interchangeable with data obtained from the clamp.

  • 22.
    Bang, Peter
    et al.
    Fac Hlth Sci, Div Pediat, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden.
    Thorell, Anders
    Dept Clin Sci, Danderyds Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Surg, Ersta Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson-Skwirut, Christine
    Dept Woman & Child Hlth, Pediat Endocrinol Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Dept Mol Endocrinol, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygren, Jonas
    Dept Clin Sci, Danderyds Hosp, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept Surg, Ersta Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Free dissociable IGF-I: Association with changes in IGFBP-3 proteolysis and insulin sensitivity after surgery2016In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 408-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients receiving a carbohydrate drink (CHO) before major abdominal surgery display improved insulin sensitivity postoperatively and increased proteolysis of IGFBP-3 (IGFBP-3-PA) compared to patients undergoing similar surgery after overnight fasting. Aims: We hypothesized that serum IGFBP-3-PA increases bioavailability of circulating IGF-I and preserves insulin sensitivity in patients given CHO. Design: Matched control study. Methods: At Karolinska University Hospital, patients given CHO before major elective abdominal surgery (CHO,n = 8) were compared to patients undergoing similar surgical procedures after overnight fasting (FAST,n = 10). Results from two different techniques for determination of free-dissociable IGF-I (fdIGF-I) were compared with changes in IGFBP-3-PA and insulin sensitivity. Results: Postoperatively, CHO displayed 18% improvement in insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic clamp) and increased IGFBP-3-PA vs. FAST. As determined by IRMA, fdIGF-I increased by 48 +/- 25% in CHO while fdIGF-I decreased by 13 +/- 18% in FAST (p < 0.01 vs. CHO, when corrected for duration of surgery). However, fdIGF-I determined by ultra-filtration decreased similarly in both groups (-22 +/- 8% vs. -25 +/- 8%, p = 0.8) and IGFBP-1 increased similarly in both groups. Patients with less insulin resistance after surgery demonstrated larger increases in fdIGF-I by IRMA (r = 0.58, p < 0.05). Fifty-three % of the variability of the changes in fdIGF-I by IRMA could be explained by changes in IGFBP-3-PA and total IGF-I levels (p < 0.05), while IGFBP-1 did not contribute significantly. Conclusion: During conditions when serum IGF-I bioavailability is regulated by IGFBP-3 proteolysis, measurements of fdIGF-I by IRMA is of physiological relevance as it correlates with the associated changes in insulin sensitivity.

  • 23.
    Barazzoni, R.
    et al.
    Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Deutz, N. E. P.
    Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station TX, USA.
    Biolo, G.
    Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Bischoff, S.
    Department of Nutritional Medicine/Prevention, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Boirie, Y.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, CRNH, Université d'Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Cederholm, T.
    Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cuerda, C.
    Nutrition Unit, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.
    Delzenne, N.
    Department, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Leon Sanz, M.
    Department of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery.
    Muscaritoli, M.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Pichard, C.
    Nutrition Unit, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Preiser, J. C.
    Department of Intensive Care, Erasme University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium.
    Sbraccia, R.
    Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    Singer, P.
    Department of Intensive Care, Institute for Nutrition Research, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Tappy, L.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Thorens, B.
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Van Gossum, A.
    Gastroenterology Service, Hospital Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
    Vettor, R.
    Internal Medicine Unit and Center for the Study and Integrated Treatment of Obesity, Department of Medicine, Padua University, Padua, Italy.
    Calder, P. C.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom; University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Carbohydrates and insulin resistance in clinical nutrition: Recommendations from the ESPEN expert group2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 355-363Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing evidence underscores the important role of glycemic control in health and recovery from illness. Carbohydrate ingestion in the diet or administration in nutritional support is mandatory, but carbohydrate intake can adversely affect major body organs and tissues if resulting plasma glucose becomes too high, too low, or highly variable. Plasma glucose control is especially important for patients with conditions such as diabetes or metabolic stress resulting from critical illness or surgery. These patients are particularly in need of glycemic management to help lessen glycemic variability and its negative health consequences when nutritional support is administered. Here we report on recent findings and emerging trends in the field based on an ESPEN workshop held in Venice, Italy, 8-9 November 2015. Evidence was discussed on pathophysiology, clinical impact, and nutritional recommendations for carbohydrate utilization and management in nutritional support. The main conclusions were: a) excess glucose and fructose availability may exacerbate metabolic complications in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and can result in negative clinical impact; b) low-glycemic index and high-fiber diets, including specialty products for nutritional support, may provide metabolic and clinical benefits in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes; c) in acute conditions such as surgery and critical illness, insulin resistance and elevated circulating glucose levels have a negative impact on patient outcomes and should be prevented through nutritional and/or pharmacological intervention. In such acute settings, efforts should be implemented towards defining optimal plasma glucose targets, avoiding excessive plasma glucose variability, and optimizing glucose control relative to nutritional support. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

  • 24.
    Benhammou, Samira
    et al.
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Heras-González, Leticia
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Barceló, Carla
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Hamdan, May
    Department of Human Nutrition & Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
    Rivas, Ana
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science, University of Murcia, Campus de Lorca, Lorca, Spain.
    Olea-Serrano, Fatima
    Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Research Group Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin2016In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 107, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change.

  • 25.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kugelberg, Susanna
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hughes, Roger
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Qld, Australia.
    Stockley, Lynn
    Stockley Associates, Nr Chepstow, England.
    Margetts, Barrie M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, England.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Perez Rodrigo, Carmen
    Bilbao Dept Publ Hlth, Bilbao, Spain.
    Kennedy, Nick
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Public health nutrition workforce development missing in european nutrition policies: the JOBNUT project2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 185-185Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Bjarnholt, Christel
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krawinkel, Michael
    Univ Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
    Kristjansdottir, Asa G.
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Hlastan Ribic, Cirila
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal.
    Francini, Bela
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias Nutr & Alimentacao, Oporto, Portugal.
    Papadaki, Alina
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece.
    Karlsson, Christina
    ICA AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Brug, Johannes
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Maucec-Zakotnik, Jozica
    Ctr Community Hlth, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ehrenblad, Bettina
    Karolinska Inst, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Duleva, Vesselka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Lien, Nanna
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    te Velde, Saskia
    EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Izquierdo de Santiago, Raquel
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Roos, Eva
    Folkhalsan, Helsinki, Finland.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Binard, Philippe
    Freshfel Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
    Petrova, Stefka
    Natl Ctr Publ Hlth Protect, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Progreens: promotion of fruit and vegetable intake in school children across Europe2009In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 55, p. 504-504Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Framgångsrika recept för hållbara måltider i offentliga kök: Erfarenheter baserade på utvärderingen av projektet Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 2014-20162016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hållbara måltider i Örebro län 1.0: Ett bra exempel på lärande för hållbar utveckling2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Morfeldt, Peter
    Att använda skolmåltiden som pedagogiskt redskap: Erfarenheter från en forskningscirkel med lärare i åk 5-­62015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Blaznik, Urška
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Eržen, Ivan
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hlastan Ribič, Cirila
    National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenija; Department of the Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 557-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health.

    Design: Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied.

    Setting: Slovenia, primary schools.

    Subjects: Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries.

    Results: The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8·3 (95 % CI 7·7, 10·6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99·9th percentile for daily intake and to 4·5 (95 % CI 3·5, 4·7) % of the ARfD at the 99·9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake.

    Conclusions: The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  • 31.
    Blixt, Christina
    et al.
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ahlstedt, Christian
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Bengt
    Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Division of Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kalman, Sigridur
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rooyackers, Olav
    Dept of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Dept of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Corrigendum to ‘The effect of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance’ [Clin Nutr 31 (5) (2012) 676–681]2018In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 1091-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Blixt, Christina
    et al.
    Ahlstedt, Christian
    Ljungqvist, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Dept of Surgery, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Bengt
    Kalman, Sigridur
    Rooyackers, Olav
    The effect of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance2012In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 676-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postoperative insulin resistance and the consequent hyperglycemia affects clinical outcome. Insulin sensitivity may be modulated by preoperative nutrition, adequate pain management and minimal invasive surgery. This study aims to disclose the impact of perioperative glucose control on postoperative insulin resistance.

    METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled for elective open hepatectomy were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study. In the treatment group (n = 9) insulin was administered intravenously to keep blood glucose between 6 and 8 mmol/l during surgery. The control group (n = 8) received insulin if blood glucose >14 mmol/l. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp (0.8 mU/kg/min), performed on all patients both on the day before surgery and immediately postoperatively. Plasma cortisol, insulin and C-peptide were measured.

    RESULTS: There was a significant difference in mean glucose value during surgery. In the control group 8.8 mmol/l (SD 1.5) vs. 6.9 mmol/l (SD 0.4) in the treated group, p = 0.003. In the control group insulin sensitivity decreased to 21.9% ± 16.2% of the preoperative value and in the insulin treated group to 46.8 ± 15.5%, p < 0.005. Insulin levels were significantly higher in the treatment group as well as consequently lower C-peptide levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: This trial revealed a significant difference in postoperative insulin resistance in the group treated with insulin during surgery.

  • 33.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Maukonen, Johanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Rissanen, Aila
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Saarela, Maria
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Department of Public Health, Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakkarainen, Antti
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Jesper
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundbom, Nina
    Department of Radiology, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.
    Obesity Research Unit, Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Metabolome and fecal microbiota in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight: a Big Mac challenge2014In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 4169-4179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postprandial responses to food are complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. We studied postprandial responses to a Big Mac meal challenge in monozygotic co-twins highly discordant for body weight. This unique design allows assessment of the contribution of obesity, independent of genetic liability. Comprehensive metabolic profiling using 3 analytical platforms was applied to fasting and postprandial serum samples from 16 healthy monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight (body mass index difference >3 kg/m(2)). Nine concordant monozygotic pairs were examined as control pairs. Fecal samples were analyzed to assess diversity of the major bacterial groups by using 5 different validated bacterial group specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. No differences in fecal bacterial diversity were detected when comparing co-twins discordant for weight (ANOVA, P<0.05). We found that within-pair similarity is a dominant factor in the metabolic postprandial response, independent of acquired obesity. Branched chain amino acids were increased in heavier as compared with leaner co-twins in the fasting state, but their levels converged postprandially (paired t tests, FDR q<0.05). We also found that specific bacterial groups were associated with postprandial changes of specific metabolites. Our findings underline important roles of genetic and early life factors in the regulation of postprandial metabolite levels.

  • 34.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Nordlund, Emilia
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mattila, Ismo
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Katina, Kati
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Mykkänen, Hannu
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Poutanen, Kaisa
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Nutrition, Food and Health Research Centre, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread2011In: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 10, article id 116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism.

    METHODS: A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC × GC-TOF-MS).

    RESULTS: Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P < 0.001) after bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values < 0.05). Among them, there were changes in essential amino acids (phenylalanine, methionine, tyrosine and glutamic acid), metabolites involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (alpha-ketoglutaric, pyruvic acid and citric acid) and several organic acids. Interestingly, the levels of two compounds involved in the tryptophan metabolism (picolinic acid, ribitol) significantly changed depending on the different bread intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  • 35.
    Bondia-Pons, Isabel
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Department of Food Science and Physiology, Research Building, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
    Pöhö, Päivi
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Bozzetto, Lutgarda
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Vetrani, Claudia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Patti, Lidia
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Aura, Anna-Marja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Annuzzi, Giovanni
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Rivellese, Angela Albarosa
    Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Isoenergetic diets differing in their n-3 fatty acid and polyphenol content reflect different plasma and HDL-fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk2014In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1873-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SCOPE: Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis is related to multiple major healthcare problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA) and polyphenol rich diets on plasma and HDL fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Ultra performance LC coupled to quadrupole TOF/MS mass spectrometry global lipidomic profiling was applied to plasma and HDL fraction from an 8 wk randomized intervention with four isoenergetic diets, differing in their natural n-3 FA and polyphenols content, in 78 subjects with a high BMI, abdominal obesity, and at least one other feature of the metabolic syndrome. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between lipidomics, dietary, and clinical variables after the dietary interventions. The most remarkable associations between variables were observed after the diet high in n-3 FA and polyphenols, as the inverse association between gallic acid intake and LDL cholesterol levels, which was indirectly associated with a HDL cluster exclusively comprised lysophospholipids.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first human randomized controlled trial showing direct and indirect associations with lipid molecular species and clinical variables of interest in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome after diets naturally rich in polyphenols.

  • 36.
    Bron, Peter A.
    et al.
    NIZO Food Research, Ede, The Netherlands; BE-Basic Foundation, The Netherlands, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Kleerebezem, Michiel
    Host Microbe Interactomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Brummer, Robert-Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital.
    Cani, Patrice D.
    Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, WELBIO – Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and BIOtechnology, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Mercenier, Annick
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    MacDonald, Thomas T.
    Barts and The London school of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Garcia-Ródenas, Clara L
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Wells, Jerry M.
    Host Microbe Interactomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Can probiotics modulate human disease by impacting intestinal barrier function?2017In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 93-107Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can affect barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are used to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. This review catalogues and categorises the lines of evidence available in literature for the role of probiotics in epithelial integrity and, consequently, their beneficial effect for the reduction of gastrointestinal disease symptoms.

  • 37.
    Brug, Johannes
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm , Sweden.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway .
    The pro children study: conceptualization, baseline results and intervention development of a European effort to promote fruit and vegetable consumption in schoolchildren2005In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 209-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Carr, Amelia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik P
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Shannon, Oliver M.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Storbritannien.
    Mattsson, Stig
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Melin, Anna
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition2019In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the energy, macronutrient, and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (Day 1) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (Day 2). A total of 31 (18 males and 13 females) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and urine specific gravity was measured on Days 1 and 2. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency. Energy intake for males was 65 +/- 9 kcal/kg on Day 1 versus 58 +/- 9 kcal/kg on Day 2 (p = .002) and for females was 57 +/- 10 on Day 1 versus 55 +/- 5 kcal/kg on Day 2 (p = .445). Carbohydrate intake recommendations of 10-12 g.kg(-l) .day(-1) were not met by 89% of males and 92% of females. All males and females had a protein intake above the recommended 1.2-2.0 g/kg on both days and a postexercise protein intake above the recommended 0.3 g/kg. Of the females, 31% were classified as being at risk of long-term energy deficiency. In the morning of Day 1, 50% of males and 46% of females were dehydrated; on Day 2, this was the case for 56% of males and 38% of females. In conclusion, these data suggest that elite cross-country skiers ingested more protein and less carbohydrate than recommended and one third of the females were considered at risk of long-term energy deficiency. Furthermore, many of the athletes were dehydrated prior to training and competition.

  • 39.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    et al.
    U. for Hlth. Serv. Res./Intl. Coop., Istituto per l'Infanzia, Trieste, Italy .
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich, Germany .
    Guzman, Luis Ruiz
    Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, Barcelona, Spain .
    Protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe: current situation2005In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the current situation regarding protection, promotion and support of breast-feeding in Europe, as a first step towards the development of a blueprint for action.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was completed by 29 key informants and 128 other informants in the EU, including member states, accession and candidate countries.

    RESULTS: EU countries do not fully comply with the policies and recommendations of the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding that they endorsed during the 55th World Health Assembly in 2002. Some countries do not even comply with the targets of the Innocenti Declaration (1990). Pre-service training on breast-feeding practice is inadequate and in-service training achieves only low to medium coverage. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative is well developed only in three countries; in 19 countries, less than 15% of births occur in baby-friendly hospitals. The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, endorsed in 1981 by all countries, is not fully applied and submitted to independent monitoring. The legislation for working mothers meets on average the International Labour Organization standards, but covers only women with full formal employment. Voluntary mother-to-mother support groups and trained peer counsellors are present in 27 and 13 countries, respectively. Breast-feeding rates span over a wide range; comparisons are difficult due to use of non-standard methods. The rate of exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months is low everywhere, even in countries with high initiation rates.

    CONCLUSIONS: EU countries need to revise their policies and practices to meet the principles inscribed in the Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in order to better protect, promote and support breast-feeding.

  • 40.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Is food hygiene a part of culinary arts and meal science?2016In: 1st Granqvist Culinary Arts and Meal Science Symposium: Programme and Abstracts / [ed] Tobias Nygren, Agneta Yngve och Åsa Öström, Örebro: Örebro University , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 28-28Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, I
    et al.
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    te Velde, S
    EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Brug, J
    EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Due, P
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wind, M
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Sandvik, C
    Faculty of Psychology, Department of Education and Health Promotion, Research Centre for Health Promotion, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Maes, L
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Wolf, A
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Perez Rodrigo, C
    Community Nutrition Unit of Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorsdottir, I
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Rasmussen, M
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elmadfa, I
    Institute for Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Franchini, B
    Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Klepp, K-I
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Personal, social and environmental predictors of daily fruit and vegetable intake in 11-year-old children in nine European countries2008In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 62, no 7, p. 834-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential personal, social and physical environmental predictors of daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake in 11-year-old boys and girls in nine European countries.

    SUBJECTS: The total sample size was 13 305 (90.4% participation rate).

    RESULTS: Overall, 43.2% of the children reported to eat fruit every day, 46.1% reported to eat vegetables every day. Daily fruit intake and daily vegetable intake was mainly associated with knowledge of the national recommendations, positive self-efficacy, positive liking and preference, parental modeling and demand and bringing fruit to school (odds ratio between 1.40 and 2.42, P<0.02). These factors were associated fairly consistently with daily fruit intake across all nine European countries, implying that a rather uniform intervention strategy to promote fruit can be used across Europe. For vegetables, the pattern was, however, less consistent. Differences between countries in cooking and preparing vegetables might be responsible for this larger diversity.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that especially a combination of personal and social factors is related to daily fruit and vegetable intake in schoolchildren. This shows that a comprehensive multilevel intervention strategy based upon a series of individual and social correlates will be most promising in the promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in children.

  • 42.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    et al.
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    te Velde, Saskia J
    Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Departme nt of Public Health, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Klepp, Knut-Inge
    Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Rasmussen, Mette
    Department of Social Medicine, Univ ersity of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Thorsdottir, Inga
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali Un iversity Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wolf, Alexandra
    Institute of Nutrition, University of Vienna, Austria.
    Brug, Johannes
    Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Departme nt of Public Health, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Personal, social and environmental correlates of vegetable intake in normal weight and overweight 9 to 13-year old boys2006In: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 3, p. 37-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The first aim of the present study was to investigate differences in correlates of vegetable intake between the normal weight and the overweight boys in the Pro Children Cross Sectional Study. The second aim was to explore whether the association between vegetable intake and potential correlates is different in overweight boys compared with normal weight boys.

    METHODS: Random samples of mainly 11-year old children were recruited in 9 European countries. The total sample size consisted of 3960 boys (16.5% overweight). A validated self-report questionnaire was used to measure vegetable intake, and personal, social and environmental factors related to vegetable intake in the classroom. Weight and height were reported by the parents of the children in parents' questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Regression analyses explained 23% to 28% of the variance in vegetable intake by potential correlates. Liking, self-efficacy and bringing vegetables to school were related to intake in both normal weight and overweight boys (beta's>0.10). Active parental encouragement and availability at home was only related to intake in overweight boys (beta's>0.10), whereas knowledge about recommendations was only related to vegetable consumption in normal weight boys (beta>0.10)

    CONCLUSION: Intervention strategies to increase vegetable intake should focus on increase in liking and preferences, increase in self-efficacy, and increase in bringing vegetables to school in both normal weight and overweight boys. Further research should investigate whether advising parents of overweight boys to encourage their child to eat vegetables every day, to insist as far as possible that their child eats vegetables regularly and to make vegetables easily available at home is effective in changing vegetable intake.

  • 43.
    De Craemer, Marieke
    et al.
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Decker, Ellen
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Verloigne, Maïté
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Research Foundation Flanders, Brussels, Belgium.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Manios, Yannis
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens , Greece.
    Cardon, Greet
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    The effect of a cluster randomised control trial on objectively measured sedentary time and parental reports of time spent in sedentary activities in Belgian preschoolers: the ToyBox-study2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 13, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In preschoolers, high levels of sedentary behaviour are associated with several adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to report the effects of the ToyBox-intervention (a European 24-week cluster randomised controlled trial) on sedentary behaviour in preschoolers.

    Methods: In Belgium, 859 preschoolers from 27 kindergartens (15 intervention and 12 control) wore an accelerometer to objectively measure their sedentary time and 1715 parents/caregivers completed a questionnaire to assess sedentary activities in which preschoolers participate at home. Main outcomes were objectively measured sedentary time, time spent watching TV, using the computer and time spent in quiet play. Multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted to take clustering into account. Intention to treat analysis was used to handle missing data.

    Results: A sample of 859 (29.5% of all contacted children) preschoolers (4.4 ± 0.6 years, 54.4% boys) provided valid accelerometer data at either baseline or follow-up and parents of 1715 (58.9% of all contacted children) preschoolers (4.4 ± 0.5 years, 52.5% boys) completed a questionnaire at either baseline or follow-up. No intervention effects were found on objectively and subjectively measured total sedentary time in the total sample. However, some effects on objectively and subjectively measured sedentary time were found in specific subgroups. Preschoolers from the intervention group from high SES kindergartens and preschoolers with high levels of sedentary time at baseline decreased their sedentary time, while preschoolers from the control group increased their sedentary time. Girls in the intervention group decreased their TV viewing time during weekend days (-5.83 min/day), while girls' &TV viewing in the control group increased (+4.15 min/day). In low SES kindergartens, a smaller increase for computer time during weekend days was found in preschoolers in intervention kindergartens (+6.06 min/day) than in control kindergartens (+12.49 min/day).

    Conclusion: While some small positive effects were found in some sub-groups, the ToyBox-intervention had no effect on objectively and subjectively measured sedentary time in the total sample. A longer period to implement the intervention and a more active involvement of parents/caregivers might enhance intervention effects. The ToyBox-study is registered with the clinical trials registry clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT02116296.

  • 44.
    De Craemer, Marieke
    et al.
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    De Decker, Ellen
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Verloigne, Maïté
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Manios, Yannis
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece .
    Cardon, Greet
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Nilsen, Bente (Contributor)
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science, Oslo, Norway.
    The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study.2014In: The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 38-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours - including physical activity (PA) - by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers' objectively measured PA levels.

    METHODS: A sample of 472 preschoolers (4.43 ± 0.55 years; 55.1% boys) from 27 kindergartens (15 intervention, 12 control kindergartens) in Flanders, Belgium were included in the data analyses. Preschoolers wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for six consecutive days and were included in the data analyses if they had a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day, both at baseline and follow-up (one year later). Preschoolers' PA outcomes were estimated for an average day, weekday, weekend day, during school hours, and during after school hours. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample, and for sub-groups (according to sex, kindergarten levels of socio-economic status (SES) and risk groups (low levels of PA at baseline)) of preschoolers.

    RESULTS: Small intervention effects were found in the total sample. Most intervention effects were found in boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens. Boys from the intervention group had an increase in vigorous PA (ß=1.47, p=0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (ß=1.27, p=0.03) from baseline to follow-up, whereas PA levels in boys from the control group stagnated or decreased. In preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, the largest effects were found for PA outcomes during school hours and during after school hours.

    CONCLUSION: The results from the Belgian sample demonstrate that effects of the PA-component of the ToyBox-intervention on objectively measured PA were found in preschool boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, which means that the ToyBox-intervention was mainly effective in those sub-groups. Future interventions should search for alternative strategies to increase preschoolers' PA levels in preschool girls and preschoolers from low SES kindergartens, as these are the most important at-risk groups regarding PA.

  • 45.
    de la Torre-Robles, Amelia
    et al.
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Rivas, Ana
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lorenzo-Tovar, Maria Luisa
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Monteagudo, Celia
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Food Technology, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain .
    Olea-Serrano, Fátima
    Research Group on Nutrition, Diet and Risk Assessment – AGR255, Nutrition and Food Science Department, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Estimation of the intake of phenol compounds from virgin olive oil of a population from southern Spain2014In: Food Additives & Contaminants, ISSN 1944-0049, E-ISSN 1944-0057, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1460-1469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to determine the mean polyphenol composition of different varieties of virgin olive oil (VOO) habitually consumed in the region of southern Spain and to estimate the dietary exposure to olive oil polyphenols in that population. There were statistically significant differences in total polyphenols among varieties, with the Picual variety containing the largest amount with a mean value of 591.8 mg kg(-1). The main phenolic compounds found in the VOOs under study were tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol. The highest amounts of both substances were found in Picual olive oils with concentrations of 2.3-6.6 mg kg(-1). The total intake of polyphenols from VOO ranged between 8.2 mg day(-1) (SD = 4.14) for the under 19 year olds and 21.3 mg day(-1) (SD = 3) for the over 50 year olds. Some polyphenols, including tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, were consumed principally as olive oil. The intake of these compounds in the studied population was in the range of 88.5-237.4 μg day(-1). This has particular importance as recent studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol helps to improve plasma lipids levels and repair oxidative damage related to cardiovascular disease. There was a greater dietary consumption of polyphenols in olive oil among the participants who more closely followed the Mediterranean diet pattern. A higher consumption of olive oil and therefore a greater exposure to polyphenols was observed in females versus males and in participants of normal weight versus those who were overweight. The total intake of polyphenols from VOO significantly increased with higher age, reflecting the greater intake of this oil by older people, who also show a closer adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The over 50-year-old age group showed the greatest consumption of this olive oil and therefore of phenolic compounds, which are healthy protectors in the human diet that contribute to the acknowledged benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

  • 46.
    de Mello, Vanessa D. F.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition/Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Erkkilä, Arja T.
    Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwab, Ursula S.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition/Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Pulkkinen, Leena
    Department of Clinical Nutrition/Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    Department of Clinical Nutrition/Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Atalay, Mustafa
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Mussalo, Hanna
    Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lankinen, Maria
    Department of Clinical Nutrition/Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland.
    Lehto, Seppo
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Uusitupa, Matti
    Department of Clinical Nutrition/Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    The effect of fatty or lean fish intake on inflammatory gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with coronary heart disease2009In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 447-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of fish consumption on gene expression of inflammation-related genes in immune cells in coronary heart disease (CHD).

    AIM OF THE STUDY: We sought to evaluate the effect of a fatty fish (FF) or a lean fish (LF) diet on the modulation of inflammatory and endothelial function-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of subjects with CHD, and its association with serum fatty acid (FA) profile and lipid metabolic compounds.

    METHODS: Data from 27 patients randomized into an 8-week FF (n = 10; mean +/- SD: 4.3 +/- 0.4 portions of fish per week), LF (n = 11; 4.7 +/- 1.1 portions of fish per week), or control diet (n = 6; 0.6 +/- 0.4 portions of fish per week) were analyzed. The mRNA expression was measured using real-time PCR.

    RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on the mRNA expression of the genes studied did not differ among groups. In the FF group, however, the decrease in arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid (AA:EPA) ratio in cholesterol ester and phospholipid fractions strongly correlated with the change in IL1B mRNA levels (r (s) = 0.60, P = 0.06 and r (s) = 0.86, P = 0.002, respectively). In the LF group, the decrease in palmitic acid and total saturated FAs in cholesterol esters correlated with the change in intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) expression (r (s) = 0.64, P = 0.04 for both). Circulating levels of soluble ICAM-1 decreased only in the LF group (P < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The intake of FF or LF diet did not alter the expression of inflammatory and endothelial function-related genes in PBMCs of patients with CHD. However, the decrease in AA:EPA ratio in serum lipids in the FF group may induce an anti-inflammatory response at mRNA levels in PBMCs. A LF diet might benefit endothelial function, possibly mediated by the changes in serum FA composition.

  • 47.
    Derks, Ivonne P. M.
    et al.
    Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bolhuis, Koen
    Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Yalcin, Zeynep
    Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Gaillard, Romy
    Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Hillegers, Manon H. J.
    Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Brain Center, Utrecht University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundström, Sebastian
    Center for Ethics, Law and Mental Health, University of Gothenborg, Gothenborg, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bartels, Meike
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Boomsma, Dorret I.
    Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Tiemeier, Henning
    Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Jansen, Pauline W.
    Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Testing Bidirectional Associations Between Childhood Aggression and BMI: Results from Three Cohorts2019In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 822-829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prospective, potentially bidirectional association of aggressive behavior with BMI and body composition across childhood in three population-based cohorts.

    METHODS: Repeated measures of aggression and BMI were available from the Generation R Study between ages 6 and 10 years (N = 3,974), the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) between ages 7 and 10 years (N = 10,328), and the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD) between ages 9 and 14 years (N = 1,462). In all samples, aggression was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Fat mass and fat-free mass were available in the Generation R Study. Associations were examined with cross-lagged modeling.

    RESULTS: Aggressive behavior at baseline was associated with higher BMI at follow-up in the Generation R Study (β = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04), in NTR (β = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.06), and in TCHAD (β = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.07). Aggressive behavior was prospectively associated with higher fat mass (β = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05) but not fat-free mass. There was no evidence that BMI or body composition preceded aggressive behavior.

    CONCLUSIONS: More aggressive behavior was prospectively associated with higher BMI and fat mass. This suggests that aggression contributes to the obesity problem, and future research should study whether these behavioral pathways to childhood obesity are modifiable.

  • 48.
    Dernini, S.
    et al.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Forum on Mediterranean Food Cultures, Rome, Italy; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
    Berry, E. M.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism, Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Serra-Majem, L.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; University of Las Palmas of Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain; Inter-University International Centre of Mediterranean Food Cultures Studies (CIISCAM), Rome, Italy.
    La Vecchia, C.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Capone, R.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), Bari, Italy.
    Medina, F. X.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Universitat Oberta de Catalunya/Open University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Aranceta-Bartrina, J.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; University of Navarra, Navarra, Spain.
    Belahsen, R.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Chouaib Doukkali University, El Jadida, Morocco.
    Burlingame, B.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
    Calabrese, G.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Corella, D.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion, Valencia, Spain.
    Donini, L. M.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Inter-University International Centre of Mediterranean Food Cultures Studies (CIISCAM), Rome, Italy; INRA, INSERM, NORT/Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Lairon, D.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Meybeck, A.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
    Pekcan, A. G.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Department of Nutrition and Dietetic, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Piscopo, S.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Inter-University International Centre of Mediterranean Food Cultures Studies (CIISCAM), Rome, Italy.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom.
    Trichopoulou, A.
    International Foundation of Mediterranean Diet (IFMeD), London, United Kingdom; Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
    Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits2017In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 1322-1330Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns.

    Design: A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0.

    Setting/subjects: We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined.

    Results: The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet.

    Conclusions: By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  • 49. Domingo, Jose L.
    et al.
    Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Martorell, Isabel
    Perello, Gemma
    Nadal, Marti
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Human dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend2012In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 1575-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assessed the levels of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the most widely consumed foodstuffs in Catalonia, Spain, as well as the total dietary intake of these compounds. Forty food items were analysed. Only perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA) and perfluorooctanoicdecanoic acid (PFOcDA) were not detected in any sample. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the compound found in the highest number of samples (33 out of 80), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS). Fish and shellfish was the food group in which more PFASs were detected and where the highest PFAS concentrations were found. The highest dietary intakes corresponded to children, followed by male seniors, with values of 1787 and 1466 ng/day, respectively. For any of the age/gender groups of the population, the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDIs) recommended by the EFSA were not exceeded. In general terms, PFAS levels found in the current study are lower than the concentrations recently reported in other countries.

  • 50. Dullemeijer, Carla
    et al.
    Zock, Peter L.
    Coronel, Ruben
    Den Ruijter, Hester M.
    Katan, Martijn B.
    Brummer, Robert
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Kok, Frans J.
    Beekman, Jet
    Brouwer, Ingeborg A.
    Differences in fatty acid composition between cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs after fish oil feeding2008In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 794-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very long-chain n-3 PUFA from fish are suggested to play a role in the development of the brain. Fish oil feeding results in higher proportions of n-3 PUFA in the brains of newborn piglets. However, the effect of fish oil on the fatty acid composition of specific cerebral brain lobes in juvenile pigs is largely uninvestigated. This study examined the effect of a fish oil diet on the fatty acid composition of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital brain lobes in juvenile pigs (7 weeks old). Pigs were randomly allocated to a semipurified pig diet containing either 4% (w/w) fish oil (n 19) or 4% (w/w) high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSF diet, n 18) for a period of 8 weeks. The fish oil diet resulted in significantly higher proportions (%) of DHA in the frontal (10.6 (SD1.2)), parietal (10.2 (SD1.5)) and occipital brain lobes (9.9 (SD 1.3)), but not in the temporal lobe (7.7 (SD1.6)), compared with pigs fed the HOSF diet (frontal lobe, 7.5 (SD1.0); parietal lobe, 8.1 (SD 1.3); occipital lobe, 7.3 (SD1.2), temporal lobe, 6.6 (SD1.2). Moreover, the proportion of DHA was significantly lower in the temporal lobe compared with the frontal, parietal and occipital brain lobes in pigs fed a fish oil diet. In conclusion, the brains of juvenile pigs appear to be responsive to dietary fish oil, although the temporal brain lobe is less responsive compared with the other three brain lobes. The functional consequences of these differences are a challenging focus for future investigation.

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