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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Adam
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ideellt engagemang: En studie om motivationen bakom det ideella engagemanget inom idrotten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, The hospital of Halland Kungsbacka, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Stig
    Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Falun Hospital, Falun, Sweden.
    Jendle, Johan
    Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Evaluation of glucose control when a new strategy of increased carbohydrate supply is implemented during prolonged physical exercise in type 1 diabetes2015In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 115, no 12, p. 2599-2607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In healthy individuals, high carbohydrate intake is recommended during prolonged exercise for maximum performance. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), this would alter the insulin requirements. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of high glucose supplementation during prolonged exercise and the glucose control when a novel strategy of increased carbohydrate supply was implemented during prolonged exercise in T1D.

    Methods: Eight subjects with T1D participated in a sports camp including sessions of prolonged exercise and individualized feedback during three consecutive days. This was later followed by a 90 km cross-country skiing race. Large amounts of carbohydrates, 75 g/h, were supplied during exercise and the insulin requirements were registered. Glucose was measured before, during and after exercise aiming at euglycaemia, 4-8 mmol/L (72-144 mg/dL). During the race, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was used as an aspect of safety and to allow direct and individual adjustments.

    Results: Compared to ordinary carbohydrate supply during exercise, the high carbohydrate supplementation resulted in significantly increased insulin doses to maintain euglycaemia. During the cross-country skiing race, the participants succeeded to reach mean target glucose levels; 6.5 ± 1.9 mmol/L (117 ± 34 mg/dL) and 5.7 ± 1.5 mmol/L (103 ± 27 mg/dL) at the start and finish of the race, respectively. Episodes of documented hypoglycemia (<4 mmol/L/72 mg/dL) were rare. CGM was used for adjustments.

    Conclusion: In this study, large carbohydrate supplementation in T1D individuals during prolonged aerobic exercise is safe and allows the subjects to maintain glycaemic control and indicates the feasibility of CGM under these conditions.

  • 3.
    Almer Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Traditionell styrketräning och kombinerad styrke- och sprintträning - Hur påverkar de landsvägscyklisters prestationsförmåga?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Som landsvägscyklist krävs i första hand en hög aerob kapacitet, då tävlingarna ofta pågår i många timmar. Samtidigt behöver cyklister ha god anaerob kapacitet och anaerob effekt, då det är genom spurter och långa branta stigningar som tävlingsloppen avgörs. Under senare år har forskningen slutit sig till att cyklister har nytta av att styrketräna, då det kan leda till prestationsförbättringar genom främst förbättrad arbetsekonomi och anaeroba förmågor. Fram tills nyligen var traditionell tung styrketräning den vanligaste typen av styrketräning bland cyklister, men nu har olika varianter av kombinerad träning blivit allt vanligare, exempelvis där tunga benövningar varvas med explosiva sprinter på cykel.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka effekterna av kombinerad styrke- och sprintträning (KT) samt traditionell styrketräning (TS), som tillägg till ordinarie konditionsträning 2 ggr/vecka under 6 veckor, på olika delar av prestationsförmågan hos landsvägscyklister på motionärsnivå. Prestationsförmågan utvärderades före och efter interventionen genom ett anpassat VO2max-test, Wingate-test samt ett estimerat 1RM-test i liggande benpress där arbetsekonomi, maximal syreupptagningsförmåga, andra ventilatoriska tröskeln, peak power, mean power, power drop och benstyrka registrerades för analys.

    Vid analys av samtliga parametrar efter interventionen kunde ingen effekt av varken KT eller TS observeras. På individnivå kunde en viss förbättring observeras för peak power, benstyrka samt den andra ventilatoriska tröskeln där TS hade fler individer med förbättring. En ökning i power drop kunde också observeras där individer i TS uppvisade en större försämring än KT som presterade likvärdigt vid för- och eftertester.

    Slutsatsen i denna studie är att de observerade resultaten ej stödjer hypotesen om att kombinerad styrke- och sprintträning skulle vara effektivare för utveckling av arbetsekonomi, anaerob effekt samt anaerob kapacitet. Vidare tyder resultaten på att ingen av träningsmetoderna har en positiv effekt på gruppernas medelvärden, men stora individuella skillnader finns där båda träningsmetoderna gett positiva och negativa effekter hos försökspersonerna för de registrerade parametrarna.

  • 4.
    Almquist, Ida
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Effekt av koffein på prestation, substratutnyttjande och upplevd ansträgning vid sub- och supramaximalt arbete på ergometercykel2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Almqvist, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Palm, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    ”Så fort det blir något bra höjer man dem till skyarna”: - En studie om hur idrottslärare ger och resonerar kring feedback2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Motivation ses som en avgörande faktor i lärandemiljöer och idrottsmiljöer.    En lärares förmåga att motivera elever blir således ett viktigt redskap för att bedriva framgångsrik undervisning. Den inre formen av motivation är lättare att bibehålla över en längre tidsperiod och är förknippad med långsiktigt lärande och djupinlärning. Lärarna i ämnet idrott och hälsa kan påverka elevernas inre motivation genom att ge dem feedback. Forskning visar på att det finns ett starkt samband mellan höga nivåer av inre motivation och lärares positiva feedback. Studiens teoretiska referensram utgår ifrån motivationsteorin Self-determination theory (SDT) och dess underteori Cognitive evaluation theory (CET).       Syfte: Att synliggöra hur idrottslärare ger feedback till eleverna under lektioner i ämnet idrott och hälsa samt att undersöka hur dessa lärare resonerar kring feedback. Metod: Då syftet är av både kvantitativ och kvalitativ karaktär så har en mixad metod tillämpats. Den kvantitativa delen bestod av en öppen observationsstudie och den kvalitativa delen utgjordes av halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Tre idrottslärare verksamma på gymnasienivå deltog i studien. Varje lärare observerades under tre lektioner utifrån observationsschemat Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) och därefter genomfördes en intervju. Resultat: Studiens resultat visar att den feedback de observerade lärarna gav till eleverna i hög grad var positiv feedback. Negativ feedback till eleverna var under dessa lektioner sparsamt förekommande i relation till den positiva feedbacken. Detta överensstämmer med lärarnas resonemang kring feedback då de strävar efter att ge positiv feedback och vill undvika att ge negativ feedback.        Slutsatser: Utifrån motivationsteorin CET innebär dessa resultat att det finns goda förutsättningar för att den feedback som lärarna ger kan öka elevernas inre motivation inom ämnet idrott och hälsa. Detta kan i sin tur förbättra elevernas möjligheter till lärande inom ämnet samt inspirera dem till fortsatt fysisk aktivitet.

     

  • 6.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pragmatiska studier av meningsskapande2008In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 11-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the article is to present a pragmatic approach for studies of meaning-making used in the articles of this issue. The approach, which is developed within the SMEDgroup (Studies of Meaning-making in Educational Discourses), mainly builds on the writings of John Dewey, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Michel Foucault. A common ambition for the researchers in SMED is to enable studies and discussions on questions concerning how meanings are made in people’s actions. Another ambition is to carry out these studies beyond assumptions of dualism, essentialism, causality and determinism. In this perspective learning and socialization are viewed in a communicative perspective. We argue in the article that our approach makes it possible, and important, to study meaning-making in action in different kinds of educational practices.

     

  • 7.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Tema: Didaktiska undersökningar2008In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 5-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En presentation av det didaktiska angreppssättet som ligger till grund för temat Didaktiska undersökningar i Utbildning och demokrati nr 3, 2008.

  • 8.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Is There (Any)Body in Science Education?2015In: Interchange, ISSN 0826-4805, E-ISSN 1573-1790, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 439-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we develop and use a comparative approach for studies of the role of the body in meaning making processes in science education (SE). In debates about learning, the discussion often centres on how to explore the relation between body and mind. For example, many studies either focus on changes of bodily behaviour or on changes of people’s conceptions and ideas. In a pragmatic perspective on learning it is not possible to envision an ontological distinction between body and mind. By comparing video recordings of physical education lessons, we have studied the role of the body in meaning making processes in SE. The results show that the body is used and constituted in different ways in the analysed situations and how the participants use artefacts in order to do things in a way that would not otherwise be possible. Furthermore, we argue that the comparative approach developed in the article, together with the results of the study, can be used by teachers in their discussions about teaching in relation to different educational objectives and content.

  • 9. Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro University, Department of Education.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Östman, Leif
    Pragmatic investigation: studies of meaning-making in educational practices2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to present and discuss a pragmatic approach for studies of meaning-making in different educational practices. The approach – built on a framework developed within the SMED-group (Studies of Meaning-making in Educational Discourses) at the universities of Uppsala and Örebro – is illustrated in a number of empirical studies. The main point of departure in the studies is taken in pragmatic curriculum theory and sociocultural perspectives on learning, and is inspired mainly by John Dewey, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Michel Foucault. A special focus is directed to communication practices and content selection within Physical education, Environmental education and Science education. A common ambition is to offer a language that enables studies and discussions on questions concerning how meanings are made in people’s actions. Another ambition is to make these investigations beyond assumptions of dualisms, essentialism, causality and determinism. In this perspective learning and socialisation is viewed in communicative perspective. Therefore, many of the studies are built on video recorded classroom conversations, but also on analysis of various kinds of written texts. We argue in the paper that this approach makes it possible to study meaning-making – learning and socialisation – in different kinds of educational practices.

  • 10.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    How Wii teach Physical Education and Health2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The potential use of exergames in Physical Education and Health is surrounded by a growing discussion among practitioners, policy makers and researchers focusing on different expectations about the games. In this discussion there is, however, a need to further include issues about the learning content offered by these games, how the content is expected to be taught and about the potential consequences the use of games may have for learning and socialisation. This study focus on how meanings about health and the human body are offered by the game: What kind of teaching is delegated to the artifact when used in Physical Education and Health?

    Focus of inquiry

    The aim of this article is to investigate how images of health and the human body and are taught by using exergames.

    Analytical framework and Research methods

    The empirical study builds on the use of an analytical tool called “Epistemological move analysis”. Studies of teaching and learning have shown how teachers use different kinds of actions (for example instructive, confirming, re-orienting, generative, re-constructive and evaluative moves) in order to try to direct the meaning making in educational settings. In this study, these categories are used, developed and specified in the context of teaching in Physical Education and Health. The empirical material used consists of video recordings from sessions where the games Wii Fit Plus and EA Sports Active were played.

    Research findings

    The results of the analyses show how the games offer different kinds of epistemological moves: Instructive moves about the fit body and how to play the game, re-orienting moves used in order to help the players to modify their action towards a more relevant and effective way, generative moves used to help the players to think about how to play the game and confirming move about the players’ gaming. In sum, the “teacher” constituted in the game is a teachers who instructs, confirms and encourages the players to move and exercise their bodies. But it is not a teacher who, in contrast to teaching in other contexts, is able to help the learners to make investigations or to participate in argumentation and discussion about for example images of health and the human body. Teaching in these games is constituted as a behavioral modification focused on an idea about a pre-defined and ideal body not expected to be discussed in education.

  • 11.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    What do Wii teach in PE?2012In: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In society, video- and computer games are often pointed out as risk factors in relation to physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour as well as increasing levels of obesity. At the same time, computers are an important source of knowledge where IT-competence and IT-experience provide pronounced advantages in society. 

    In the middle of this paradox a new type of videogames is introduced, where body movement and physical activity constitute the central element. These games, so called exergames or active video games, are games where physical movement is involved in the game through the use of for example balance-boards, step-up boards and dance-pads. Exergames are now more and more put forward in several countries as interesting tools to use in physical education in order to stimulate young people to be physically active.

    In a recent review and synthesis of research on video games and health, Papastergiou (2009) strongly argues that videogames can offer ”potential benefits as educational tools for Health Education and Physical Education, and that those games may improve young people’s knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours in relation to health and physical exercise” (Papastergiou, 2009, p 603). However, Vander Schee and Boyles (2010) argue that exergames rather should be seen as a body pedagogy producing certain narrow meanings about health, and that the uncritical implementation of exergames in school is a problematic way to place commercial products in school. Consequently, there are differences in views regarding exergames in educational settings that are worth paying attention to in research about people’s learning about the body, physical activity and health.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how images of the human body are expected to be learned when using exergames.

    The use of artifacts – physical objects made by humans – is a central part of human life. In fact, there are many activities that would not be possible to perform without the use of them. In schools, students learn to use paper and pencils, computers, vaulting-horses, footballs and so on. How and why artifacts are supposed to be used in educational settings is however not given beforehand (Cuban 1986). The use of artifacts mediates certain meanings about the view of learning and the goals and choices of content in education (Almqvist 2005, Quennerstedt et al in press).  

    In this paper, we will use discourse analytical strategies in order to analyse how meanings about the body are expected to be learned when playing exergames. The discourse analytical strategies involve an interest in how processes of discourse constitute how we experience or relate to ourselves as well as our environment (Laclau & Mouffe 1985). Discourses constitute what is possible to say or do as partial and temporal fixations (Foucault 1980). These fixations are imbued with power, values and ideologies. As Evans and colleagues argue: “/…/ health beliefs, perceptions and definitions of illness are constructed, represented and reproduced through language that is culturally specific, ideologically laden and never value free” (Evans et al 2008 p 46).

     

    Method

    To investigate what these games offer we have explored the manuals, the content, the animations of the games as well as the instructions and comments offered during game play. The empirical material consists of exergames most commonly used in schools: Wii fit and Wii sports (sports active). In the discourse analysis we have explored what is taken for granted in the empirical material in relation to other possible ways to argue. In this way we can explore what is included and excluded in the games and what is possible to think and act in relation to statements concerning the body.

     

    Expected Outcomes

    The analysis shows how the logic of the game, its animations, instructions and feedback to the player, constitutes the ideal body as a physically active, well-balanced, slim and strong body. The use of the game, the balance board and the hand control, makes it possible to measure and register how the player follows this logic. The analysis also shows how the way the player is supposed to learn about the body is strongly influenced by behaviorism. In the paper we argue that this way of learning about the body is narrow and limited and that it is important to critically discuss the effects of the use of these games in schools.

     

    References

    Almqvist, Jonas (2005). Learning and artefacts. On the use of information technology in educational settings. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Cuban, Larry (1986). Teachers and machines. The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press. Evans, John, Rich Emma & Davies Bryan (2008). Education, disordered eating and obesity discourse: Fat fabrications. London: Routledge Foucault, Michel (1980). Power/knowledge. Selected interviews & other writings 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books. Laclau, Ernesto & Mouffe, Chantal (1985). Hegemony and socialist strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics. London: Verso. Papastergiou, Marina (2009). Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: A literature review. Computers & Education, 53(3), 603-622. Quennerstedt, Mikael, Almqvist, Jonas & Öhman, Marie (in press). Keep your eye on the ball. Investigating artifacts in physical education. Interchange. Vander Schee, Carolyn J. & Boyles, Deron (2010): ‘Exergaming,’ corporate interests and the crisis discourse of childhood obesity. Sport, Education and Society, 15(2), 169-185.

  • 12.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Addressing gender equality: enactments of gender and hegemony in the educational textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport is often described as a field containing competitive and hierarchy shaping activities. However, in Sweden and elsewhere, this field is also permeated by democratic principles where, for example, everybody has the right to participate in children’s and youth sports regardless of gender, ethnicity or physical ability. In Sweden, there are distinct objectives for gender equality, where women/girls and men/boys should ideally be treated and recognised equally. The aim of this paper is twofold: to examine how gender is enacted in the textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes and to identify whether any of the enactments reflect a hegemonic masculinity. The textbooks used in two of the most extensive courses arranged by the Swedish Sports Confederation, ‘The Platform’ [Plattformen] and ‘Basic Coach Education’ [Grundtränarutbildning] are in focus. The theoretical framework and methodological approach are inspired by research on sport, gender and the hegemonic masculinity thesis. In the process of analysis, the hegemonic perspective is central. During the analysis, four themes are identified as expressions of a hegemonic masculinity and, thus, as obstacles to gender equality. Firstly, the binary sex norm poses a real challenge for the implementation of gender equality because it helps to shape a hierarchy that privileges men and masculinities. Secondly and thirdly, the themes ‘puberty’ and ‘the coach’ appear to be important, in that they support and contest a gendered hierarchy. Finally, there are examples of men, like sport coaches, appearing as genderless, which is interpreted as a hegemonic acceptance of the category of men (as universal and genderless subjects). By critically illuminating these themes, the paper adds to the wider research field of sport, coaching and education programmes and the complexity of gender mainstreaming in sport.

  • 13.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Föreställningar om maskuliniteter och feminiteter i idrottens ledarskapslitteratur2015In: Program SVEBI 2015 / [ed] Håkan Larsson och Marie Öhman, Växjö: Linnéuniversitet , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Trots att svensk idrott länge har haft ett övergripande jämställdhetsmål där kvinnor och män, pojkar och flickor ska ha samma villkor (RF, 1989, 2005, 2011) så går förändringsarbetet trögt. Detta förklaras ofta av att många idrottsgrenar bär en tradition där män dominerat med följden att normer och handlingar som förknippas med ”kvinnliga” egenskaper värderas lägre (se t ex Fundberg, 2003; Messner, 1992). Ett viktigt incitament för förändring är utbildning och inom idrottens (SISU:s) ledar-skapsutbildningar finns två ”grundutbildningar”: Plattformen och grundtränarutbildningen. Men möjliggör eller förhindrar innehållet i dessa utbildningar förändringar mot en mer jämställd idrott?

    Syfte & teoretisk ram: I detta paper studeras hur kön/genus represente-ras i litteraturen i dessa utbildningar med fokus på att synliggöra komplexiteter/motsägelsefullheter. Syftet är att utreda om och i så fall hur litteraturens innehåll utmanar eller bekräftar en traditionell, ste-reotypisk föreställning om mäns och manligheters dominans över kvinnor och kvinnligheter och om innehållet således bidrar till eller hindrar möjligheterna för en mer jämställd idrott. Teoretiskt bildar forskning om hegemoniska maskuliniteter (Connell 1983, 1996) och mäns hegemonier (Hearn, 2004) ramverk för analysen.

    Metod: Genom textanalys och ett diskursivt perspektiv studeras fyra böcker inom de ovan nämnda natio-nella utbildningarna. Dessutom används i viss utsträckning även kursernas powerpoint-presentatio-ner som underlag för analysen.

    Resultat: De preliminära resultaten visar att män skildras både stereotypiskt och som normbrytare genom att till exempel trösta och hålla om barn. Samtidigt reproducerar texterna ett binärt könssystem som tenderar att underordna kvinnor och kvinnlighet. Kvinnans kropp beskrivs som mindre kapabel och sämre utrustad för fysisk ansträngning. Detta gör också att attityden till kvinnor som kunskapsbärande och kunskapsproducerande subjekt påverkas.

    Diskussion: Diskussionen fokuserar på hur innehållet i denna litteratur tenderar att både reproducera och i viss mån utmana mäns och manligheters dominans inom idrotten. Samtidigt finns det något motsägelsefullt i att män bryter mot en traditionellt manlig norm eftersom detta snarare tenderar att omskapa en ny form av hegemoni (Connell 1983, 1996). Detta kan förklara trögföränderligheten hos hegemoniska mas-kuliniteter och ger således ny kunskap om jämställdhetsarbetets utmaningar.

  • 14.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    In The Name of Democracy: Varieties and continuities of associative sports masculinities at club level during the 20th century2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first half of the 20th century the Swedish Sports Confederation became the dominant sports organisation in Sweden. In short, the organisation adapted a representative democratic principle and argued that it fostered its members to democratic citizens. In turn, this legitimised annual state grants but did not prevent long-time male domination within Swedish sports. This paper deals with the contradictive contents of sports masculinity (e. g. being similarly democratic and exclusionary) and, more specific, it focuses the long-time duration of masculine domination in a Swedish, voluntary sports club and how different visual and textual strategies were used to strengthen the masculine hegemony in the organisation.

       The method draws inspiration from the concept of hegemonic masculinity, understood as something restraining and contradictive, and Wetherell & Edley´s (1999) more fine-grained analytical tool called “imaginary positions”. The source materials are texts and photos in members reviews of Örebro Sports Club and the chronological period is two-folded divided from the foundation of the club in 1908 to 1933 and from 1967 up until 1989 when the club was dissolved into different juridical persons.

       The results show that masculine positions were not only about winning and expressing a successful, active and struggling masculinity. The hegemonic (and heroic) position offered a range of possibilities to express and visualize masculinity but the very same position, on the other hand, contained plain borders towards deviant sexuality, functionality, ethnicity and gender. The discussion involves an approach to understand the results in relation to the difficulties of challenging patriarchy and male domination in sports.

  • 15.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helgesson, Jens
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Idrottsundervisning och maskulinitetens hegemoni: Genus och inflytande i gymnasieskolans ämne ”Idrott och hälsa”2017In: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, ISSN 2000-088X, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 8, p. 197-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish upper secondary school and its physical education (PE) should, according to the Lgy11 (the 2011 curriculum of upper secondary school in Sweden), raise aware- ness about and challenge stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Previous research, however, has concluded that there is an upholding of traditional, hegemonic masculinity ideals through PE. The purpose of this article is to highlight how gender and power influence the outcome of a just education. Theoretical inspiration is taken from Irish Marion Young’s and Raewyn Connell’s work on gender and hegemonic masculinity, and the method involves interviews with PE teachers and observations of PE classes. Dance, ball games, competition, socializing violence, performance of heterosexual norms are identified as key points, which are discussed in terms of norms and power linked to men and masculinity ideals. The results show that the making of masculinity is constantly oc- curring in PE, both in active elements but also during “inactive” breaks. Although strong ideals linked to men and masculinity were identified, there were usually also alternative representations. In other words, the educational gender practices were not identified as unambiguous, but rather as ambiguous and contradictory. However, most respondents showed decided views on how boys and girls naturally “are” in certain ways, which con- ditions a counter-stereotypical approach to education. 

  • 16.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Wallin, Sofie
    SISU Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergvall Virtanen, Peter
    Örebro Läns Idrottsförbund, Örebro, Sweden.
    Managing Progression: Örebro Sports County´s Efforts to Reduce Gender Gap and Increase Gender Equality2016In: SVEBI 2016 / [ed] Håkan Larsson, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An overall ambition with the gender equality objectives of Swedish sports is that gender mainstreaming should permeate every decision, in all activities, and at every level of the sports movement. Despite the fact that modern sports, to a large extent, have privileged (some) men and (some) masculinities, increasing female participation has, since the 1970s, also characterized Swedish modern sports. However, in the county of Örebro, male participation in associative sports, among 7- to 25-year-olds, is approximately 67 per cent according to LOK-statistics (Lokalt aktivitetsstöd – Local Activity Support). This unequal representation has initiated a work of that includes structural as well as individual factors.

    Aim and Theoretical Frames: This paper presents an ongoing gender equality project enacting a double-focus on, firstly, recruiting and empowering women/girls in sports and secondly, making visible privileges for men and masculinities in sports and educating participative clubs (i.e. coaches, leaders and board members) in issues concerning gender, norms and masculine domination.

    Theoretically the project is inspired from critical perspectives on gender, men and masculinities and the hegemonic masculinity thesis (HMT).

    Method: Methodologically this project draws on mixed governing methods which explores the dilemma of implementing a policy in a self-autonomous, voluntary culture. More precisely, participating clubs has applied for economical backing (from Idrottslyftet) for one-year, financing gender equality projects aiming to, on one hand, empower or recruit a disadvantaged social group or, on the other hand, to raise awareness of the existing norms in club’s culture (e.g. masculinity or heterosexual norms). The clubs’ specific projects vary greatly depending on sport genre, number of members/volunteers in the club and other conditions regarding work efforts and access to sport facilities etcetera. Diverse cooperation with local governments in the county of Örebro has also been employed involving financial support and other “structural” target areas. Since knowledge of gender equality and gender awareness is vital for a change management, the participating clubs must partake in educational meetings and, at the end of the year, also give a presentation for all participative clubs at joint forum about their project and its concrete results. Beside these strategical efforts, interviews and observations have also been utilized.

    Findings: Changing a rigid structure, such as sports, is a challenge and must, as a suggestion, involve several institutions as well as motivated agents. One central finding is the importance of raising awareness about budgets, facilities and investments from a gender perspective. In some cases, these kind of questions have not been raised before. In other words, the motivation among politicians and club members vary, which causes a reproductive potential of the gender gap. In the work, we have also found different techniques for reproducing men’s power advantage through, for example, the planning and placing of training sessions, the non-encouragement for girls to become “professional” athletes but also how women, themselves, support structures that discriminate themselves.

    Discussion: Tentatively, the discussion focuses on dilemmas and the complexities of measuring and managing sports’ gender equality. Several issues for discussion return throughout the project, such as: what should be measured and how and why? Identifying such essential factors leads to the issue of how to manage a change of these factors. What institutions should be involved? What demands could, on one hand, be placed on a local club (with a right of self-determination) and, on the other hand, the governing sports bodies (that should implement government policies)?

  • 17.
    Althage, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jämförelse av två olika fälttest för fotbollsspelare på olika tävlingsnivåer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Olika fälttest är flitigt använda för att utvärdera fotbollsspelares fysiska uthållighet, däribland Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) och Coopers löptest. Ytterst lite är dock känt om Coopertestets lämplighet som mätmetod i en sport med intermittent arbete som fotboll. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka prestation i Coopertestet i förhållande till Yo-Yo IR1 testet hos fotbollsspelare på olika tävlingsnivåer. Under försäsongen testades 19 manliga fotbollsspelare (23 ± 4 år, 181 ± 9 cm, 77 ± 9 kg) från svensk division 1 (hög-nivå, n=5), division 3 (mellan-nivå, n=6) och division 5 (låg-nivå, n=8). Coopertestet består av oavbruten löpning så långt som möjligt under 12 minuter på löparbana. Yo-Yo IR1 testet består av upprepade 2x20 meters löpningar i ökande hastighet, med 10 sekunder aktiv vila mellan varje omgång. Testerna utfördes under standardiserade former på kvällstid med minst 72 timmars mellanrum. Resultatet för Coopertestet var; hög-nivå 3056 ± 194m, mellan-nivå 2950 ± 188m och låg-nivå 2916 ± 203m, utan signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna (p>0,05). Yo-Yo IR1 resultaten var; hög-nivå 2264 ± 286m, mellan-nivå 1933 ± 395m och låg-nivå 1615 ± 496m. Det fanns en signifikant skillnad i testresultaten mellan hög-nivå och låg-nivå (p<0,05). Förhållandet mellan de två testerna för hela populationen var r=0,89 (p<0,001), och inom grupperna; hög-nivå r=0,69 (p=0,2), mellan-nivå r=0,99 (p<0,001) och låg-nivå r=0,98 (p<0,001). I motsats till övriga grupper visade resultaten att hög-nivå gruppen, som har större mängd fotbollsspecifik träning, inte hade något signifikant samband mellan de två testen. Coopertestets utformning med oavbruten löpning, tillsammans med dess oförmåga att särskilja mellan olika tävlingsnivåer, medför att Yo-Yo IR1 testet bör användas framför Coopertestet i syfte att få tydligare information om en fotbollsspelares fysiska uthållighet under matchsituation.

  • 18. Ambrosio, Fabrisia
    et al.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lexell, Jan
    Fitzgerald, G. Kelley
    Boninger, Michael L.
    Huard, Johnny
    The effect of muscle loading on skeletal muscle regenerative potential: an update of current research findings relating to aging and neuromuscular pathology2009In: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, ISSN 0894-9115, E-ISSN 1537-7385, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with a remarkable ability to continuously respond to environmental stimuli. Among its adaptive responses is the widely investigated ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate after loading or injury or both. Although significant basic science efforts have been dedicated to better understand the underlying mechanism controlling skeletal muscle regeneration, there has been relatively little impact in the clinical approaches used to treat skeletal muscle injuries and wasting. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the basic biology of satellite cell function in response to muscle loading and to relate these findings in the context of aging and neuromuscular pathology for the rehabilitation medicine specialist.

  • 19.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    A new sports manager does not make a better team2011In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 167-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article surveys the literature on the impact of managerial successions on team performance in professional sports and assesses ten studies on the effect of managerial succession. They cover 80 years (1920-2000) with data from four different sports and two countries. From these studies, three lessons emerge when teams perform poorly: (i) a change of coach or manager during the season is not helpful; (ii) if succession is deemed necessary, change the manager between seasons; and (iii) if the choice is between a manager from inside the organization and one from the outside, choose the former. What is critical is that whichever manager is replaced or for whatever reason, the performance of the team will most likely not improve for that reason alone. In short, a new manager does not make a better team.

  • 20.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Seven pitfalls in organisation literature2012In: Dynamic relationships management journal, ISSN 2232-5867, E-ISSN 2350-367X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 48-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current organisation literature is rife with several incorrect and confusing assertions which continually create problems for students and researchers alike. Seven of these unfortunate beliefs are presented here and provocatively called ‘pitfalls’. The aim of this article is to draw attention to some of these theoretically incorrect assertions and how they can be avoided in scholarly work. The implications for managers are also presented.

  • 21.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    Kovac, Jure
    University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Why European subordinates trust their managers2012In: Organizacija, ISSN 1318-5454, E-ISSN 1581-1832, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 300-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the problem of why subordinates trust their managers based on the responses from 108 subordinatesof seven Slovenian managers and from 138 subordinates of eight Swedish managers. The subordinates of these managersresponded to a 20-item instrument tested for reliability and validity. In both samples the managers enjoyed different degreesof trust. The level of trust vested in Slovenian managers was higher than in Swedish ones. The kinds of managers’ actions thatenhanced trust were similar amongst Swedish and Slovenian subordinates. Different socio-cultural contexts may theoreticallyexplain why some other kinds of actions had contrasting effects between the samples. On the whole, the actions of managersexplain trust in both countries. Subordinates’ trust in managers declines with the increasing hierarchical distance in bothnational samples. Managers need to show in action that they trust their subordinates, promote their interests, demonstrateappreciation of their subordinates, and solve problems.

  • 22.
    Anderson, Cheryl B
    et al.
    epartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Validation of the PDPAR as an adolescent diary: effect of accelerometer cut points2005In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1224-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR) as a physical activity diary in adolescents using two accelerometer intensity classifications.

    METHODS: One hundred eighth graders (47 boys, 53 girls) used the PDPAR as a daily diary and wore MTI accelerometers for four consecutive days. Measured time spent in moderate (> or = 3 METs) and vigorous (> or = 6 METs) activity was based on two published MTI cut-point limits (that of Freedson et al./Trost et al. and that of Puyau et al.). Spearman rank order correlations and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine agreement between MTI and PDPAR diary estimates of activity.

    RESULTS: MTI estimates of mean minutes per day of total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 65.2 (+/-43.2) using the Freedson et al./Trost et al. cutoffs and 17.5 (+/-18.5) using those of Puyau et al., while students self-reported 105.1 (+/-80.1) min.d(-1). Significant relationships were observed between the diary and MTI for total MVPA using either the Freedson et al./Trost et al. (r = 0.42) or Puyau et al. (r = 0.41) cutoff as well as raw counts (r = 0.44). Plots showed reasonable agreement between the diary and Freedson et al./Trost et al. MTI estimates of MVPA for daily totals of < or = 60 min, but the Puyau et al. estimates were consistently lower. Diaries overestimated activity as time increased when compared to either MTI cut point, especially on vigorous activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Time estimates of MVPA differed by assessment tool, but diary estimates showed adequate association with the MTI. Diaries reflected intensity-specific activity, corresponding most closely with the Freedson et al./Trost et al. classification of moderate, but substantially overestimated vigorous activity regardless of cut-point method. This is likely due to the measurement characteristics of the PDPAR, which classifies activities in 30-min blocks, as well as the nature of common activities in which high levels of intensity are not sustained.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Elevers inställning till idrott och hälsa: Fysiska aktivitetsvanor, kön och ålders betydelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Fogelberg, Hanna
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Om sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa: Hur lärare i idrott och hälsa tolkar ett mål i kursplanen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Människors kost- och motionsvanor framstår som ett av de mer centrala folkhälsoproblemen i dagens samhälle. Genom olika medier som lyfter samhällets normer och värderingar matas vi med budskap om hur vi ska agera för att bli hälsosamma. Då skolan och ämnet idrott och hälsa påverkas av hur hälsa framställs i samhället blir det viktigt att reflektera över begrepp som mat, motion och hälsa.

     

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur lärare i idrott och hälsa på grundskolan tolkade målet att eleven ska förstå sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa. Metoden som användes var inspirerad av den hermeneutiska forskningsansatsen och semistrukturerade intervjuer av fem lärare i idrott och hälsa på grundskolan senare år genomfördes.

     

    Resultatet visade att majoriteten av lärarna tolkar målet främst ur ett patogent synsätt, som då handlar om att förebygga framtida hälsoproblem. Lärarna såg målet som svårt, men viktigt. Förväntningar på ämnet uppgavs som en av svårigheterna, medan elevernas fysiska status uppgavs som förklaring till varför målet var viktigt att uppmärksamma. Sambandet sågs i första hand ur ett fysiologiskt perspektiv, där det handlade om att fysisk aktivitet och bra mat leder till god hälsa. Lärarnas tal om sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa skiljde sig oftast åt från hur de sedan uppgav att de arbetade med sambandet. Det som sades och det som gjordes kom till uttryck på olika sätt.

     

    Slutsatserna utifrån studien blev ett flertal. En slutsats blev att lärarna resonerade kring sambandet ur ett fysiologiskt perspektiv och såg på målet ur ett patogent perspektiv. En ytterligare slutsats var att fetma och övervikt i vissa skolor kanske inte är ett så stort problem som det framställs i samhällsdebatten och i forskningen. Snarare talade lärarna om undervikt än om övervikt. Ännu en slutsats i studien blev att sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa sågs som något givet. Att lärarna talade om sambandet på ett sätt, men tycktes agera på ett annat, blev den sista slutsatsen i studien.

     

  • 25.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    En historisk tillbakablick på fenomenet fysisk beröring: Kvalitativa textanalyser på en idrottslärartidskrift2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Karlsen, Anette
    Inst Basic Med Sci, Fac Med, Dept Nutr, Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, Rune
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, Truls
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway .
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players2010In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 10, p. 1492-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90 min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n 8) trained for 1 h at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training), while the passive group rested (n 8). Blood samples were taken before the games; immediately after the games; 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game; and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker GSSG increased by the same extent after both the games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione and uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power increased immediately after both the games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols and ascorbic acid (AA) increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, AA and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h, and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary antioxidant defence, but not the endogenous antioxidant defence, is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    The physiological impact of soccer on elite female players and the effects of active recovery training2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Female soccer is becoming more popular and professional in the world. There are, however, limited scientific data available on how elite female players respond to physical stress during soccer games. An effective recovery strategy following a game is important, because there are few recovery days between the games in international tournaments. The present thesis, which was designed to mirror a competitive situation, aimed to investigate changes in several physiological systems occurring in female elite players in response to two soccer games. It also aimed to investigate the effects of active recovery training on the recovery of several physiological systems. METHODS: Two elite female soccer teams played two 90-min games separated by 72 h active or passive recovery. The active recovery training (cycling at 60% HRpeak, resistance training at <50% 1RM) lasted one hour and was performed 22 and 46 h after the first game. Countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint time and isokinetic knee strength were measured before, immediately, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after the first game, and immediately after the second game. The physical stress markers (CK, urea), oxidative stress markers (e.g., GSSG, lipid peroxidation), endogenous (e.g., UA, thiols) and dietary antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols, carotenoids) and a large battery of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α) were analysed in blood. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the performance parameters, oxidative stress and antioxidant levels or inflammatory response between the active and passive recovery groups. Sprint and isokinetic knee strength were reduced by the same extent after both games. CMJ decreased after the first game and remained reduced throughout the study period. Blood physical stress markers, GSSG and endogenous antioxidants increased with similar amplitude after both games together with unchanged lipid peroxidation. The dietary antioxidants showed either a rapid and persistent change (e.g., tocopherols) or a delayed rise (carotenoids) after the first game. A transient increase occurred in several pro- (e.g., IL-12, TNF-a, MCP-1), anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-4, IL-10, INF-a) and mixed (IL-6) cytokines after the first game. Fewer cytokines increased in response to the second game. CONCLUSION: Two repeated elite female soccer games separated by 72 h induced similar acute changes in several physiological parameters. After the first game, differences in the recovery pattern of the neuromuscular parameters occurred. In particular, the slow recovery of CMJ indicates that special attention should be devoted to the training of explosive force. Furthermore, the recruitment of antioxidants in response to the transient increase in GSSG resulted in the maintenance of the redox-balance in female players. Similarly, a strong and balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurred after one single female soccer game. The consequences of the dampened cytokine response during repeated soccer games are, however, unknown. In general, the majority of the parameters had recovered prior to the second game and the physiological alterations induced by the first game did not affect the performance of players in the second game. Finally, active recovery training conducted after a soccer game does not accelerate the recovery time for neuromuscular, oxidative stress, antioxidant and inflammatory responses in elite female players.

    List of papers
    1. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 372-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5025 (URN)10.1249/mss.0b013e31815b8497 (DOI)18202563 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 600-608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Keyword
    d-ROMs, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, polyphenols, intermittent exercise, endurance training
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Physiology; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10875 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00987.x (DOI)000279905400008 ()19706000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77955127862 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Keyword
    Inflammation, intermittent exercise, active recovery, chemokines, training
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Physiology; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10876 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00989.x (DOI)000281666200006 ()19765242 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77956495319 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90-min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n=8) trained for one hour at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training)while the passive group rested(n=8). Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker oxidized glutathione increased by the same extent after both games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacrons reactive-oxygen metabolites remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione, uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay increased immediately after both games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols, ascorbic acid increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary but not endogenous antioxidant defence is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

    Keyword
    Intermittent exercise, training, recovery, free radicals, football
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Physiology; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10881 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 28.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bøhn, S. K.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Paulsen, G.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, R.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Helena M
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Krustrup, Peter
    Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions2008In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 113-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21, s = 1 vs. 22, s = 2), standing tackles (10, s = 1 vs. 11, s = 1) or headers per game (8, s = 1 vs. 8, s = 1), whereas there were fewer sliding tackles (P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass (2.1, s = 0.5 vs. 4.3, s = 0.6). There were more short passes (218, s = 14 vs. 167, s = 12) and midfield-to-midfield passes (148, s = 11 vs. 107, s = 8) (both P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass. On a scale of 0-10, where 0 = "better than", 5 = "equal to", and 10 = "worse than", the male players reported a negative overall impression (8.3, s = 0.2), poorer ball control (7.3, s = 0.3), and greater physical effort (7.2, s = 0.2) on artificial turf than natural grass. In conclusion, the running activities and technical standard were similar during games on artificial turf and natural grass. However, fewer sliding tackles and more short passes were performed during games on artificial turf. The observed change in playing style could partly explain the male players' negative impression of artificial turf.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Karlsen, A.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, R.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 600-608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Karlsen, Anette
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo.
    Blomhoff, Rune
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo.
    Raastad, Truls
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female playersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90-min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n=8) trained for one hour at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training)while the passive group rested(n=8). Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker oxidized glutathione increased by the same extent after both games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacrons reactive-oxygen metabolites remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione, uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay increased immediately after both games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols, ascorbic acid increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary but not endogenous antioxidant defence is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Raastad, Truls
    Nilsson, Johnny
    Paulsen, Göran
    Garthe, Ina
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery2008In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 372-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Randers, Morten B
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heiner-Møller, Anja
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krustrup, Peter
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mohr, Magni
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games2010In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 912-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p < 0.05) in INT compared with DOM. More (p < 0.05) HIR was covered in INT than DOM during first and second half. Additionally, more (p < 0.05) sprinting occurred in INT compared with DOM in the first half. In both game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p < 0.05) in the last 15-minute period compared with the first four 15-minute periods of the game. The midfielders covered longer (p < 0.05) distances with HIR in INT than in DOM over the entire game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Jacob
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Aktivitetens betydelse för fysiskt aktiva ungdomar: En kvantitativ studie om lektionsinnehållet i ämnet idrott och hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Garrison, Jim
    School of Education, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia.
    Embodying meaning: Qualities, feelings, selective attention, and habits2016In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 207-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been increasing pedagogical interest in the qualities and characteristics of movement. This article examines these qualities and characteristics in terms of John Dewey's distinction between abstract, linguistic significant meanings and concrete, embodied imminent meanings. Imminent meanings are comprised of intuitive qualities, feelings, selective attention, and habits. We examine each of these in turn in hopes of better understanding the learning of "body techniques" while illuminating some important aspects of body pedagogics.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Garrison, Jim
    School of Education, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Physical education teaching as a caring act: techniques of bodily touch and the paradox of caring2016In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate “no touch policies” as a practical teacher concern that includes the body as a location, a source, and a means in educational activity. We argue that to understand issues regarding physical touch within school practice we must conceive it as deeply associated with specific teaching techniques. Thus, the didactical challenge is not found in argumentations about the pro and cons of physical touch, but through analysis of how teachers handle student interaction and teaching intentions.

    We consider teaching as a caring profession. Caring, as a practical teacher concern, requires wisdom regarding the right time to use bodily touch and to refrain from such use. This wisdom involves the ability to discern people’s needs, desires, interests, and purposes in particular situations and act appropriately. From a body pedagogical perspective we approach intergenerational touch not only as a discursive and power related question but as an essential tension in the intersection of the; ambiguity attendant to any intentional act such as teaching, the conflict between the ethics of care and the ethics of justice, and finally, the paradox of caring.

    We draw on interviews with PE-teachers in Swedish primary, secondary, and upper-secondary schools and analyses of a collection of techniques of bodily touch that are established and practiced with specific pedagogical purposes. The results shows PE teacher’s competence in handling different functions of intergenerational touch in relation to three different techniques of bodily touch; 1) Security touch, which is characterized by intentions to handle the fragile; 2) Denoting touch, which is characterized by intentions to handle learning content; 3) Relational touch, which is characterized by caring intentions. Each of these is of importance for the teachers in carrying out their call to teach and each of these relies on professional assessments whether or not it meets its intended purpose.

     

  • 37.
    Andersson, Joacim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    I am sailing: towards a transactional analysis of ´body techniques´2015In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 722-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in questions related to embodiment and learning. Within the field of ‘body pedagogics’ great efforts have been made to develop theory and methodology that can deal with the corporeal aspects of experience and knowledge without adopting any form of dualistic conceptions of body/mind and organism/environment. This article connects to this body of research. The purpose is to first present a synthesis of James’ radical empiricism, Dewey’s transactional understanding of experience and learning and Marcel Mauss’ concept of ‘body techniques’ and the notion of education embedded in it. Against the background of this theoretical development, and with a Transactional Model of Analyzing Bodying (TMAB), we then show how we can analytically come to terms with different dualistic problems that research into ‘body pedagogics’ has to deal with. We use an empirical example of dinghy sailing to create knowledge about what we learn when learning embodied knowledge, and how this learning takes place. We argue that experience is an important concept for understanding the acting knowing human being, describing how experience is organized and developed and outlining how this organization can be understood as learning. We hold that situations where someone learns to embody certain knowledge are cases of overt actions, in which we can see what kinds of relations are created and how these relations become meaningful for further action.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Jonathan
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    "Idrottspsykologi för mig är att vara mentalt stark" En kvalitativ studie om riksidrottselevers uppfattningar om idrottspsykologi i undervisningen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Over the past 200 years, schools have been through a lot of different reforms. Sports in school have evolved to sports and health, field days have been created and given more place in school and different forms of sport programs have emerged and have made an impact in the community. Within the various sports programs, students are studying special sports and different courses within this subject. Within the courses and the topic, there is even one samll topic that the students study, and that topic is sports psychology. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the different variations that occur among students’ perceptions on the teaching element and the sports psychology theories within the subject special sports at RIG-secondary schools.

    The study had a qualitativ research approach, a didactic triangle as an umbrella to create didactic questions for the study and semi-structed interview. In order to analyze the collected data, the study used inspiration from content analyzis. To understand the results, anthologies of sports psychology have been used along with an evaluation of special sports from previus research, and different learning theories. The results showed that there were various different perceptions of the meaning of sport psychology theories, motives to be taught in the field and how the teaching was done.

    The conclusion of the study is that there are different perceptions between students in a RIG-secondary school of the same phenomenon, sports psychology theories. Whatever the reason might be is difficult to say, but a varied education could be a good start for both the content and the students’ perception to be similar. Both from a previous assessment and this study, it has been determined that it will be important for schools, special sports and sports psychology, to look closely at how teaching occurs whilst listining to the students in order to make assessments involving them to see if changes or additions are needed.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Olsson, Isabelle
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    SPONSRING: En jämförande intervjustudie av tre fotbollsföreningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Motions- och styrketräningsvanor i förhållande till självkänsla bland styrketränande kvinnor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Andersson, Robert
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cedergren, Joakim
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ishockeypublikens påverkan: "När det är bra tryck i arenan så är de ju som en sjätte spelare!"2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Titel: Ishockeypublikens påverkan – ”När det är bra tryck i arenan så är de ju som en sjätte spelare!” (Citatet i titeln är hämtat från intervjun med respondent 6)

    Nyckelord: Motivation, Självförtroende, Nervositet, Ängslan, Ishockeyspelare, Publikpåverkan.

    Till varje lag i elitserien finns det publik som vill stödja sitt lag. De använder sig utav olika metoder för att hjälpa sitt lag till framgång. Stödet från publiken påverkar naturligtvis spelarna men det finns en begränsad tidigare forskning som kan visa på vilket sätt de reagerar psykologiskt. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur eltishockeyspelares motivation, självförtroende och ängslan/nervositet påverkas av publiken under matchdagar. Metoden som användes för att uppfylla detta syfte var en kvalitativ intervju. De som deltog i studien var sju stycken (ålder 19-34 år) manliga elitseriespelare i ishockey från två olika lag. Lagen som valdes ut är båda framgångsrika och har starka traditioner inom svensk ishockey. För att analysera intervjuerna så har dessa transkriberats. Resultatdelen presenterades i tre olika delar utifrån de tre teman som intervjuerna utgick ifrån. Det visade sig att alla de tillfrågade spelarna tycker att det är som roligast med ishockey när det är fullsatt i arenan. Då blir det en extra laddning i luften och spelarnas motivation höjs. Samtidigt bildas en form av nervositet hos spelarna eftersom de då förstår att matchen betyder något extra. En viss nervositet innan match gör oftast att spelarna presterar bättre. I diskussionen kopplades tidigare forskning ihop med studiens resultat och flera av dem styrktes då med hjälp av de tidigare studierna. Vi analyserade och använde egna reflektioner för att verkligen fördjupa vår förståelse för hur elitishockeyspelare påverkas av publiken.

  • 42.
    Angelin, Mathias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hallor, Anton
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kan koffein innan träning förbättra den aeroba prestationen över tid?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    : För att prestera väl inom en uthållighetsbaserad idrott krävs en hög aerob förmåga. För att öka den aeroba prestationen krävs träning, vilket har varit känt länge. Att maximera effekten av träningen är av stort intresse hos de allra flesta idrottare. Forskare studerar hela tiden nya tekniker för att försöka optimera ökningar i den aeroba prestationen. Koffein ökar akut tiden till utmattning vid given belastning, men frågan kvarstår om koffein även skulle kunna öka den aeroba prestationen över tid.

    Syfte

    : Att undersöka den långvariga effekten vid intag av 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein innan högintensiva intervallpass över tid på den aeroba prestationen hos motionslöpare.

    Metod:

    En randomiserad mellangrupps-studie med 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein och placebo. 16 deltagare (3 kvinnor och 13 män; medelvärde ± SD, 42 ± 8 år, VO2max: 47,6 ± 6,6 ml/kg/min) deltog i studien. Pre- och post-tester gjordes för VO2max och 3km löpning. Intervention bestod av två högintensiva löp-pass per vecka med intag av antingen koffein eller placebo 30–60 minuter innan träning. Borgskalan (6–20) användes som mått på ansträngning under intervaller. För att beräkna skillnader mellan grupper användes oparat t-test mellan grupper samt parat t-test inom grupp. Signifikansnivån sattes till P <0,05.

    Resultat

    : Ingen signifikant skillnad i delta(Δ) uppmättes mellan Δkoffein och Δplacebo i någon av mätningarna. Signifikant förbättring i tid på 3km löpning (P <0,05) för båda grupper, signifikant förbättring i VO2max för placebogrupp.

    Slutsats

    : Intag av 5mg/kg kroppsvikt koffein 30–60 minuter innan 2 högintensiva intervallpass/vecka har ej ytterligare effekt på den aeroba prestationen jämfört med placebo över en sex veckor lång intervention.

  • 43.
    Anselmius, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Kaloriförbrukning vid AVG-utövande: En kvantitativ studie angående fysisk påfrestning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    AbstraktInledning Det råder en omfattande hälsoproblematik idag och fysisk inaktivitet är en bidragande orsak. Stillasittandet har ökat i västvärlden och för att fånga även dessa individer erbjuder Tv-spelsmarknaden fysiskt aktiva spel. Handkontroll och stillasittande byts ut mot individens kroppsrörelser. Det finns till och med spel som räknar individens kaloriförbrukning under spelets gång.Syfte Syftet med studien är att se om det råder en signifikant skillnad gällande kaloriförbrukning mellan Your shape och indirekt kalorimetri samt hur Your shape förhåller sig mot Nintendo Wii boxing utifrån de fysiologiska variabler hjärtfrekvens och kaloriförbrukning.Metod En experimentell studiedesign genomfördes på 12 deltagare (7 kvinnor och 5 fem män med en medelvärdeskaraktärisering på 22.2 år, 67,9 kg, 171,3 cm och 23,0 BMI) med hjälp av indirekt kalorimetri i form av en portabel Oxycon Mobile Pro. VO2 och HF uppmättes under testet för att därefter räkna ut testpersonernas kaloriförbrukning. Spelkonsolen bestod av Microsoft xbox 360 med tillhörande kinect samt AVG-spelet Your shape. Av de fyra träningspassen som Your shape erbjuder valdes konditionsboxning ut till denna studie. Den statistiska beräkningen sattes till P = 0.05 och ett parat T-test genomfördes i SPSS.Resultat En signifikant skillnad existerade (P = 0.03) gällande kaloriförbrukning mellan Your shape och Oxycon Mobile Pro. Medelvärdet för testet gällande tid var 32 min och Your shape resulterade i ett medelvärdet på 139.7 kcal och Oxycon Mobile Pro 157.8. En skillnad på 12 %. Your shape underestimerar kaloriförbrukningen jämfört mot Oxycon Mobile Pro.Your shape redovisade högre resultat för både kcal/min och HF jämfört mot Nintendo Wii boxing.Slutsats Det finns en signifikant skillnad mellan Your shape och Oxycon Mobile Pro, nämligen en underskattning från Your shape med 12 %. Vilket ger en god uppskattning av kalorimätaren. Your shape är ett modernare AVG-spel jämfört mot Wii boxing men kräver liknande fysisk påfrestning.

  • 44.
    Anselmius, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Milton, Ludvig
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Expand A Lung: Ett träningsverktyg för andningsmuskulaturen?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Abstrakt

     

    Syfte:

    Syftet var att undersöka om prestation och uthålligheten hade förbättrats vid användandet av Expand a lung.

     

    Metod:

    En intervention genomfördes på sju testpersoner (4 kvinnor & 3 män) som använde Expand a lung under fjorton dagar, som jämfördes mot en kontrollgrupp på fyra testpersoner (2 kvinnor & 2 män). Testpersonerna genomförde två tester, med en intervall på fjorton dagar. I undersökningen figurerade 4 kvinnor och 3 män (ålder: 22.7 ± 2, vikt: 68.5 ± 10, längd: 175.1 ± 8.5) i experimentgruppen. 2 kvinnor och 2 män (ålder: 22.5 ± 1.5, vikt: 69 ± 9, längd: 170.7 ± 5.5) ingick i kontrollgruppen. Hjärtfrekvens, respiratoriska kvoten och blodlaktat uppmättes med hjälp utav Jaeger Oxycon Pro och lungvolym (SVC & FEV1) uppmättes med hjälp av Spirare SPS 310.

     

    Resultat:

    Ingen signifikant skillnad existerade inom grupperna. Experimentgruppen: SVC före x 4.73, SVC efter x 4,77. FEV1 före x 4.31, FEV1 efter x 4.29, HF (vid OBLA) före x 156, HF efter 155, RQ (vid OBLA) före x 1.04, RQ efter 1.05. Kontrollgruppen: SVC före x 4.98, SVC efter x 4.95. FEV1 före 4.48, FEV1 efter x 4.49, HF (vid OBLA) före x 165, HF efter 163, RQ (vid OBLA) före x 0.99, RQ efter x 1.00. Det som gick att urskilja var att det fanns skillnader på individnivå.

     

    Diskussion:

    Vår undersökning visade ingen signifikant skillnad på gruppnivå efter 14 dagars användande av Expand a lung. Dock fanns det skillnader på individnivå. Detta resultat kan bland annat bero på för kort träningsperiod och för få deltagare. Om Expand a lung kan förbättra prestationen vid träning under längre tid kan vi inte uttala oss om utan krävs vidare forskning.

     

    Nyckelord:

    Expand a lung, andningsmuskulaturträning, laktat, lungvolym.

    Inledning:

    Det existerar träningsredskap som utlovar en ökning gällande prestation och uthållighet, i träningssammanhang, av människans andningsmuskulatur. Träningsredskapen isolerade träningen till att bara sätta andningsmuskulaturen i arbete. Expand a lung var en av dessa nya, mer obeprövade, träningsredskap som utlovade en förbättrad prestation och uthållighet vid ett frekvent användande. Samtidigt visade en befintlig del av forskning att det indirekt inte gick att träna andningsmuskulaturen. Vi påträffade aldrig granskade vetenskaplig forskning som kunde fastställa vad Expand a lung utlovade.

  • 45.
    Armour, Kathleen
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Chambers, Fiona
    Sports Studies and Physical Education, School of Education, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Makopoulou, Kyriaki
    School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
    What is ‘effective’ CPD for contemporary physical education teachers?: A Deweyan framework2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 799-811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely argued that continuing professional development (CPD) for physical education (PE) teachers is important, yet questions remain about ‘effective’ CPD. We consider these questions afresh from a Deweyan perspective. An overview of the CPD/PE-CPD literature reveals conflicting positions on teachers as learners. Considering the nature of contemporary PE, and the learning needs of teachers, we argue that a different model of PE-CPD is required to reflect the dynamic nature of contemporary practice. We propose John Dewey's classic concept of ‘education as growth’ to underpin a new conceptual framework for the design, delivery and evaluation of PE-CPD. We argue that ‘effective’ PE-CPD will not be found in formal policies, structures and processes, however, well-intentioned, unless it (i) focuses on the dazzling complexity of the learning process, (ii) prioritises context and contemporary challenges; (iii) bridges research/theory–practice in innovative ways; and (iv) nurtures the career-long growth of PE teachers.

  • 46. Armstrong, Neil
    et al.
    Tomkinson, Grant R.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Aerobic fitness and its relationship to sport, exercise training and habitual physical activity during youth2011In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 849-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim To analyse aerobic fitness and its relationship with sport participation, exercise training and habitual physical activity (HPA) during youth. Methods Studies were located through computer searches of Medline, SPORT Discus and personal databases. Systematic reviews of time trends in aerobic fitness/performance, and exercise training and peak oxygen uptake (peak VO(2)) are reported. Results Peak VO(2) increases with age and maturation. Boys' peak VO(2) is higher than girls'. Despite data showing a decrease in performance test estimates of aerobic fitness there is no compelling evidence to suggest that young people have low levels of peak VO(2) or that it is declining over time. The primary time constant of the VO(2) kinetics response to moderate and heavy intensity exercise slows with age and the VO(2) kinetics response to heavy intensity exercise is faster in boys. There is a negative correlation between lactate threshold as a percentage of peak VO(2) and age but differences related to maturation or sex remain to be proven. Young athletes have higher peak VO(2), a faster primary time constant and accumulate less blood lactate at the same relative exercise intensity than their untrained peers. Young people can increase their peak VO(2) through exercise training but a meaningful relationship between aerobic fitness and HPA has not been demonstrated. Conclusions During youth the responses of the components of aerobic fitness vary in relation to age, maturation and sex. Exercise training will enhance aerobic fitness but a relationship between young people's current HPA and aerobic fitness remains to be proven.

  • 47.
    Arnelind, Petter
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Hälsa ur ett elevperspektiv: Hur gymnasieelever anser att ämnet idrott och hälsa behandlar hälsa2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Aronsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Hanna
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Fyra veckors bålträning förbättrar inte balansförmågan eller effektutvecklingsförmågan i de nedre extremiteterna2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Arvidsson, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    "Vi är ju killar och då måste vi ju idrotta mer":  en kvalitativ studie om maskulinitetskonstruktion i skolämnet idrott och hälsa2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Backlund, Isabelle
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Maria
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Inkludering av rörelsehindrade högstadieelever i idrott- och hälsoundervisningen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Our study illustrates how disabled high school students, their assistant and physical education teacher experience inclusion within the physical education. A total of seven interviews have been done to show their experiences. The questions we have chosen are: How do the student, assistant and physical education teacher experience their relationships? How do the student, assistant and physical education teacher experience the physical education? How do the student, assistant and physical education teacher experience inclusion of the student in the physical education?

    To illustrate their experiences a total of seven interviews have been done. They were carried out at the students schools, in the environment they are familiar to. The interviews were taped to later be transcribed and the material was analysed in four steps.

    In this study we refer inclusion to participate in an entirety. It is also about to considerate the conditions of every individual and to create the possibilities for the individual from this. To work towards inclusion means that everybody involved has to work towards the same goal to reach the best result.

    From this study we have seen that the disabled students are included in the physical education, but it can appear in different ways. They participate as much as they can and some exercises are adjusted to their needs. Another aspect to have in mind is that the students want to participate in the physical education. We have only studied two cases and can therefore not make a generalization of disabled students in general, we can just say how it is for the high school students we have interviewed.

    Keywords: Inclusion, children, disabilities, physical activity, education

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