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  • 1.
    Aarskog, Eirik
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education and Outdoor Life Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Spord Borgen, Jorunn
    Department of Sports, Physical Education and Outdoor Studies, University of South-Eastern Norway, Notodden, Norway.
    'When it's something that you want to do.': Exploring curriculum negotiation in Norwegian PE2022Inngår i: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 640-653Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Student participation in curriculum negotiation has been widely regarded as beneficial for student engagement, motivation, and learning. Within the physical education (PE) context however, several scholars claim that these benefits are seldom realized. Interestingly, most investigations into curriculum negotiation in PE focus on teacher actions and behavior. Investigations of students' actions in curriculum negotiation are rare. Further, while much of the literature claims curriculum negotiation is potentially beneficial for student learning, few of the conceptual and analytical frameworks utilized within previous PE literature are based on explicit learning theories.

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore student participation in curriculum negotiation in Norwegian PE through the lens of an explicit learning theoretical perspective.

    Method: A 10th grade class with 23 students (age 15-16) and an 8th grade class with 30 students (age 13-14) from 2 different schools, and their respective teachers were recruited for the project. Within these classes, participatory observation, video observations, and stimulated recall interviews were conducted to produce empirical material related to curriculum negotiation. The material then underwent qualitative thematic analysis where select parts of John Dewey's educational philosophy were used as the analytical framework.

    Results and discussion: With a basis in the analytical framework developed from Deweyan educational philosophy, the results show that students within the two contexts participate in both explicit and implicit forms of curriculum negotiation. Explicit curriculum negotiations to a large degree appear to be governed by the teachers and are deemed by teachers to be part of strategies for upholding Norwegian legislations and recommendations for including students in curricular decision-making. While not as easily noticeable, implicit forms of negotiations were more prominent within the explored contexts. The analysis also suggests that from a Deweyan perspective, possibilities to increase learning through curriculum negotiations occur when teachers notice, help, and guide students in their own reflective processes surrounding how to act in PE. Such pedagogical action makes implicit negotiations occurring more explicit, and explicit negotiations more intelligent.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Vilhelm
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ögren, Oscar
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    En didaktisk analys av idrottslärarstudenters möte med en akademiserad utbildning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottslärarutbildningen har historiskt beskrivits som starkt traditionsbunden där praktiskafärdigheter har varit en del av det huvudsakliga målet med utbildningen. I takt med tiden harutbildningen genomgått en akademisering där teoretiska innehåll och forskningsfält har fåttallt större utrymme. På grund av utbildningens starka prägel av tradition lever uppfattningenom att praktisk kunskap är den mest värdefulla till viss del fortfarande kvar, trotsutbildningens numera teoretiska karaktär. Därav är syftet med denna studie att undersökavilka perspektiv som konkurrerar om att göra anspråk på undervisningstiden. Vidare ämnar viundersöka vilka didaktiska konsekvenser som riskerar inträffa till följd av den praktisk lagdaidrottslärarstudenten och en alltmer akademiserad utbildning. Som ett resultat avakademiseringen har flera kritiska perspektiv velat få mer utrymme på PETE. Dessaperspektiv ämnar vi undersöka och redogöra för i resultatdelen.

    Som metod för arbetet genomfördes en systematisk litteraturstudie. En systematisklitteraturstudie karaktäriseras av att kritiskt granska, systematiskt söka och sammanställalitteratur inom ett avgränsat område för att skapa en ny syntes av tidigare studiers data.Resultatet av studien identifierade följande kritiska perspektiv: Social justice, Genderequality, Interkulturell kompetens och Models based practice. Dessa perspektiv beskrivs idagsläget inte få tillräckligt mycket utrymme på utbildningen. I diskussionen analyserar viresultatet utifrån en didaktisk triangel och identifierar vilka didaktiska konsekvenser somriskerar inträffa till följd av en praktisk lagd idrottslärare och en alltmer akademiseradutbildning. Efter studien kunde vi komma till slutsatsen att idrottslärare riskerar fleradidaktiska utmaningar i sitt kommande yrkesliv. Om studenten inte värderar de kritiskaperspektiven under utbildningens gång riskerar både eleven och innehållet att drabbas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Adam, Sandy
    et al.
    Faculty of Sport Science, Institute for Sport Psychology and Sport Pedagogy, Department of Sport Economics and Sport Management, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Grønkjær, Allan Bennich
    Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Strittmatter, Anna-Maria
    Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Wohlfart, Olivia
    Center for Teacher Education, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Playing by the rules of academia?: The impact of an international research project on the professional identity development of early-career academics in sport management2022Inngår i: International Journal of Educational Research Open, ISSN 2666-3740, Vol. 3, artikkel-id 100173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how participating in an international research project (IRP) can impact the way early-career academics (ECAs) perceive academia and thus their professional identity development. Based on neoinstitutional theory, we examine autoethnographic memory stories of six ECAs within sport management who participated in an international research project (IRP). These ECAs experienced an important professional socialization process into the institutional logics of sport management academia. We found that the academics' perception of doing research was influenced by reflection processes of and within the prevailing logics of the organizational field of sport management academia. ECAs benefit from participating in IRPs as they foster the ability to develop career decisions that will benefit them personally and professionally. The paper highlights opportunities of IRPs in contributing to transferable skill development for ECAs and concludes with recommendations for doctoral students and educators.

  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Adam
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Ideellt engagemang: En studie om motivationen bakom det ideella engagemanget inom idrotten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Ideellt engagemang
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, The hospital of Halland Kungsbacka, Kungsbacka, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Stig
    Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Falun Hospital, Falun, Sweden.
    Jendle, Johan
    Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Evaluation of glucose control when a new strategy of increased carbohydrate supply is implemented during prolonged physical exercise in type 1 diabetes2015Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 115, nr 12, s. 2599-2607Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In healthy individuals, high carbohydrate intake is recommended during prolonged exercise for maximum performance. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), this would alter the insulin requirements. The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of high glucose supplementation during prolonged exercise and the glucose control when a novel strategy of increased carbohydrate supply was implemented during prolonged exercise in T1D.

    Methods: Eight subjects with T1D participated in a sports camp including sessions of prolonged exercise and individualized feedback during three consecutive days. This was later followed by a 90 km cross-country skiing race. Large amounts of carbohydrates, 75 g/h, were supplied during exercise and the insulin requirements were registered. Glucose was measured before, during and after exercise aiming at euglycaemia, 4-8 mmol/L (72-144 mg/dL). During the race, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was used as an aspect of safety and to allow direct and individual adjustments.

    Results: Compared to ordinary carbohydrate supply during exercise, the high carbohydrate supplementation resulted in significantly increased insulin doses to maintain euglycaemia. During the cross-country skiing race, the participants succeeded to reach mean target glucose levels; 6.5 ± 1.9 mmol/L (117 ± 34 mg/dL) and 5.7 ± 1.5 mmol/L (103 ± 27 mg/dL) at the start and finish of the race, respectively. Episodes of documented hypoglycemia (<4 mmol/L/72 mg/dL) were rare. CGM was used for adjustments.

    Conclusion: In this study, large carbohydrate supplementation in T1D individuals during prolonged aerobic exercise is safe and allows the subjects to maintain glycaemic control and indicates the feasibility of CGM under these conditions.

  • 6.
    Aginger, Joel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    ”God hälsa handlar alltså lika mycket om knoppen som om kroppen”: En diskursanalytisk och komparativ studie av två läroböcker för idrottsämnet författade åren 1988 och 20122019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungdomar når inte upp till rekommenderade dosen av fysisk aktivitet, den psykiska ohälsan har ökat, samtidigt som många ungdomar inte trivs i skolan. Idrottsämnet som innefattar undervisning om hälsa har visat sig betona den fysiska hälsan framför den psykiska och sociala hälsan. Elever riskerar då att inte få tillräckliga kunskaper om hälsa som ett holistiskt hälsoperspektiv kan bidra med. Idrottsämnet har även historiskt betonat den fysiska hälsan. Läroböcker kan användas som verktyg i undervisningen och främja kunskaper om exempelvis hälsa. Syftet med studien har således varit att undersöka hur hälsa skildrats i gymnasieläroböcker författade åren 1988 och 2012. Det har visat hur mycket utrymme och på vilket sätt olika typer av hälsa beskrivits i läroböckerna. Frågeställningarna har varit: Vilka hälsodiskurser kan urskiljas och hur skildras de i läroböckerna? Vad finns det för likheter och skillnader gällande skildringen av hälsa i läroböckerna och vad kan det få för eventuella didaktiska konsekvenser i undervisningen? Diskursanalys har använts som metod i kombination med en hälsoteori med sedan tidigare identifierade hälsodiskurser. Även en komparativ metod har använts för att jämföra likheter och skillnader i läroböckernas hälsoskildring. Resultatet visar att flera hälsodiskurser har identifierats, där fysiologidiskursen och riskdiskursen dominerar. Fördelningen av hälsodiskurser var liknande i läroböckerna. Läroboken från år 2012 var mer detaljerad i skildringen av hälsa än läroboken från år 1988. Läroböckerna utgår från WHO:s definition av hälsa, dock skiljer sig hälsoskildringen. Läroboken från år 1988 domineras av den fysiska hälsan, och när psykisk och social hälsa skildras är det endast i relation till fysisk aktivitet. I läroboken från år 2012 får den fysiska hälsan mest utrymme, men hälsoskildringen är mer holistisk, när exempelvis psykisk och social hälsa skildras är det inte enbart i relation till fysisk aktivitet. Läroböckerna förhåller sig till de motsvarande läroplanerna Lgy 70 och Lgy 11. Lärare och elever bör vara kritiska till innehållet i läroböckerna, då de förmedlar olika hälsoideal som på olika sätt kan kategorisera elever. Kommunaliseringen kan ha en påverkan hur hälsa skildras i undervisningen. Läroboken från år 1988 kan i stor grad likställas med forskningsläget där det problematiserats att den fysiska hälsan dominerat. Lärobok från år 2012 motsäger sig en majoritet av forskningsläget då den förmedlar hälsa mer holistiskt, vilket kan främja en god kunskap om hälsa hos elever, i nuet och även i framtiden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    ”God hälsa handlar alltså lika mycket om knoppen som om kroppen”
  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Marcus
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Styrketräning för barn och ungdomar - riskfyllt eller fyllt med fördelar?: En systematisk litteraturstudie om fysiska effekter av styrketräning för barn och ungdomar.2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna systematiska litteraturstudie är att skapa en övergripande bild av de fysiska effekterna styrketräning har på barn och ungdomar. Frågeställningen som används är: “Vilka fördelar och risker finns det med styrketräning för barn och ungdomar?” och “Vilka fördelar och risker medför olika styrketräningmetoder?”. Peer-review-studier har sedan 2009 publicerats där barn och ungdomar (under 18 år) som utfört experimentella styrkeprogram inkluderats. I denna uppsats har 20 st artiklar analyserats och därefter systematiskt sammanställts. Resultatet av studien påvisar en positiv inverkan av styrketräning för barn och ungdomar. Studien ger även underlag till rekommendationer som forskning påvisat för barn och ungdomars utövande av styrketräning. Dessutom visar studien på tydliga fördelar med styrketräning för barn och ungdomar, samt minimala risker vid korrekt utövning av styrketräning. I denna studie visas även att styrketräning är ett brett område som går att individanpassa beroende på önskat resultat. Studien diskuterar även huruvida styrketräning kan användas för att motverka en stillasittande livsstil. Den stillasittande livsstilen och det livslånga perspektivet förs även upp i kunskapsbidraget, samt hur styrketräning är ett verktyg som bör läras ut till barn och ungdomar för att uppnå en bättre fysisk hälsa.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Styrketräning för barn och ungdomar - riskfyllt eller fyllt med fördelar?
  • 8.
    Aittamaa, Evelina
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    ”Man måste våga satsa för att etablera damishockeyn”: En kvalitativ studie om kvinnliga ishockeyspelares upplevelser av resursfördelning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Jämställdhet inom idrott är ett idag omdiskuterat ämne i idrottspolitiken och media där frågor om resursfördelningar och rådande maktstrukturer i idrottskulturen är centrala. Resursfördelning ses som en förutsättning för ett jämställt idrottsverige.

    Studien syftar till att undersöka kvinnliga ishockeyspelares upplevelser av ishockeyföreningars resursfördelning. Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer, som analyserats via en tematisk analys, visar resultatet att spelarna anser att ekonomiska resurser och prioritering är viktiga aspekter som möjliggör de faktiska resurserna; träningstider, tränare, ishallar, material, sponsring och transport. Brister i fördelningen av resurser, främst ekonomiska resurser och en upplevd bortprioritering, har påverkat spelarnas motivation negativt. Spelarna anser att motivationen skulle höjas genom en jämnare fördelning av dessa resurser. Spelarna menar att en förändring skett under deras idrottskarriär men att den inte är självklar och således finns fortfarande mycket utvecklingspotential i fördelning av resurserna för att nå en jämlik fördelning mellan könen.

    Resultatet har diskuterats utifrån Barbara J. Rismans (2004) teori om genus som social struktur för att söka en förståelse om varför resursfördelningen mellan könen ser ut som den gör och blir ett sätt att förstå dess utfall utifrån ishockeyns sociala struktur. Teorin kan identifiera faktorer som påverkar utfallet av dagens resursfördelning. I och med identifieringen av påverkansfaktorer kan situationer förstås och således, vid behov, förändras.

    Studiens slutsats är att de kvinnliga ishockeyspelarna upplever en nedprioritering som indikerar en ojämn fördelning av resurser mellan kvinnor och män. Resurserna är beroende av varandra där ekonomiska resurser skapar prioriteringen av de faktiska resurserna. Resursfördelningen påverkar spelarnas motivation och fortsatta idrottande, vilket gör att de upplevda bristfälliga resurserna hindrar möjliggörandet av damishockeyns etablering i ishockeysverige. Det finns mycket kvar att förändra för att nå en jämställd resursfördelning inom ishockeysverige.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    ”Man måste våga satsa för att etablera damishockeyn”
  • 9.
    Almer Carlsson, Sandra
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Johansson, Malin
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Traditionell styrketräning och kombinerad styrke- och sprintträning - Hur påverkar de landsvägscyklisters prestationsförmåga?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Som landsvägscyklist krävs i första hand en hög aerob kapacitet, då tävlingarna ofta pågår i många timmar. Samtidigt behöver cyklister ha god anaerob kapacitet och anaerob effekt, då det är genom spurter och långa branta stigningar som tävlingsloppen avgörs. Under senare år har forskningen slutit sig till att cyklister har nytta av att styrketräna, då det kan leda till prestationsförbättringar genom främst förbättrad arbetsekonomi och anaeroba förmågor. Fram tills nyligen var traditionell tung styrketräning den vanligaste typen av styrketräning bland cyklister, men nu har olika varianter av kombinerad träning blivit allt vanligare, exempelvis där tunga benövningar varvas med explosiva sprinter på cykel.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka effekterna av kombinerad styrke- och sprintträning (KT) samt traditionell styrketräning (TS), som tillägg till ordinarie konditionsträning 2 ggr/vecka under 6 veckor, på olika delar av prestationsförmågan hos landsvägscyklister på motionärsnivå. Prestationsförmågan utvärderades före och efter interventionen genom ett anpassat VO2max-test, Wingate-test samt ett estimerat 1RM-test i liggande benpress där arbetsekonomi, maximal syreupptagningsförmåga, andra ventilatoriska tröskeln, peak power, mean power, power drop och benstyrka registrerades för analys.

    Vid analys av samtliga parametrar efter interventionen kunde ingen effekt av varken KT eller TS observeras. På individnivå kunde en viss förbättring observeras för peak power, benstyrka samt den andra ventilatoriska tröskeln där TS hade fler individer med förbättring. En ökning i power drop kunde också observeras där individer i TS uppvisade en större försämring än KT som presterade likvärdigt vid för- och eftertester.

    Slutsatsen i denna studie är att de observerade resultaten ej stödjer hypotesen om att kombinerad styrke- och sprintträning skulle vara effektivare för utveckling av arbetsekonomi, anaerob effekt samt anaerob kapacitet. Vidare tyder resultaten på att ingen av träningsmetoderna har en positiv effekt på gruppernas medelvärden, men stora individuella skillnader finns där båda träningsmetoderna gett positiva och negativa effekter hos försökspersonerna för de registrerade parametrarna.

  • 10.
    Almquist, Ida
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Gustafsson, Patrik
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Effekt av koffein på prestation, substratutnyttjande och upplevd ansträgning vid sub- och supramaximalt arbete på ergometercykel2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 11.
    Almqvist, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Palm, Jonas
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    ”Så fort det blir något bra höjer man dem till skyarna”: - En studie om hur idrottslärare ger och resonerar kring feedback2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Motivation ses som en avgörande faktor i lärandemiljöer och idrottsmiljöer.    En lärares förmåga att motivera elever blir således ett viktigt redskap för att bedriva framgångsrik undervisning. Den inre formen av motivation är lättare att bibehålla över en längre tidsperiod och är förknippad med långsiktigt lärande och djupinlärning. Lärarna i ämnet idrott och hälsa kan påverka elevernas inre motivation genom att ge dem feedback. Forskning visar på att det finns ett starkt samband mellan höga nivåer av inre motivation och lärares positiva feedback. Studiens teoretiska referensram utgår ifrån motivationsteorin Self-determination theory (SDT) och dess underteori Cognitive evaluation theory (CET).       Syfte: Att synliggöra hur idrottslärare ger feedback till eleverna under lektioner i ämnet idrott och hälsa samt att undersöka hur dessa lärare resonerar kring feedback. Metod: Då syftet är av både kvantitativ och kvalitativ karaktär så har en mixad metod tillämpats. Den kvantitativa delen bestod av en öppen observationsstudie och den kvalitativa delen utgjordes av halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Tre idrottslärare verksamma på gymnasienivå deltog i studien. Varje lärare observerades under tre lektioner utifrån observationsschemat Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) och därefter genomfördes en intervju. Resultat: Studiens resultat visar att den feedback de observerade lärarna gav till eleverna i hög grad var positiv feedback. Negativ feedback till eleverna var under dessa lektioner sparsamt förekommande i relation till den positiva feedbacken. Detta överensstämmer med lärarnas resonemang kring feedback då de strävar efter att ge positiv feedback och vill undvika att ge negativ feedback.        Slutsatser: Utifrån motivationsteorin CET innebär dessa resultat att det finns goda förutsättningar för att den feedback som lärarna ger kan öka elevernas inre motivation inom ämnet idrott och hälsa. Detta kan i sin tur förbättra elevernas möjligheter till lärande inom ämnet samt inspirera dem till fortsatt fysisk aktivitet.

     

  • 12.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pragmatiska studier av meningsskapande2008Inngår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 11-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the article is to present a pragmatic approach for studies of meaning-making used in the articles of this issue. The approach, which is developed within the SMEDgroup (Studies of Meaning-making in Educational Discourses), mainly builds on the writings of John Dewey, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Michel Foucault. A common ambition for the researchers in SMED is to enable studies and discussions on questions concerning how meanings are made in people’s actions. Another ambition is to carry out these studies beyond assumptions of dualism, essentialism, causality and determinism. In this perspective learning and socialization are viewed in a communicative perspective. We argue in the article that our approach makes it possible, and important, to study meaning-making in action in different kinds of educational practices.

     

  • 13.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Kronlid, David
    Uppsala universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Tema: Didaktiska undersökningar2008Inngår i: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 5-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    En presentation av det didaktiska angreppssättet som ligger till grund för temat Didaktiska undersökningar i Utbildning och demokrati nr 3, 2008.

  • 14.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Is There (Any)Body in Science Education?2015Inngår i: Interchange, ISSN 0826-4805, E-ISSN 1573-1790, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 439-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we develop and use a comparative approach for studies of the role of the body in meaning making processes in science education (SE). In debates about learning, the discussion often centres on how to explore the relation between body and mind. For example, many studies either focus on changes of bodily behaviour or on changes of people’s conceptions and ideas. In a pragmatic perspective on learning it is not possible to envision an ontological distinction between body and mind. By comparing video recordings of physical education lessons, we have studied the role of the body in meaning making processes in SE. The results show that the body is used and constituted in different ways in the analysed situations and how the participants use artefacts in order to do things in a way that would not otherwise be possible. Furthermore, we argue that the comparative approach developed in the article, together with the results of the study, can be used by teachers in their discussions about teaching in relation to different educational objectives and content.

  • 15. Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Öhman, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Östman, Leif
    Pragmatic investigation: studies of meaning-making in educational practices2008Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to present and discuss a pragmatic approach for studies of meaning-making in different educational practices. The approach – built on a framework developed within the SMED-group (Studies of Meaning-making in Educational Discourses) at the universities of Uppsala and Örebro – is illustrated in a number of empirical studies. The main point of departure in the studies is taken in pragmatic curriculum theory and sociocultural perspectives on learning, and is inspired mainly by John Dewey, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Michel Foucault. A special focus is directed to communication practices and content selection within Physical education, Environmental education and Science education. A common ambition is to offer a language that enables studies and discussions on questions concerning how meanings are made in people’s actions. Another ambition is to make these investigations beyond assumptions of dualisms, essentialism, causality and determinism. In this perspective learning and socialisation is viewed in communicative perspective. Therefore, many of the studies are built on video recorded classroom conversations, but also on analysis of various kinds of written texts. We argue in the paper that this approach makes it possible to study meaning-making – learning and socialisation – in different kinds of educational practices.

  • 16.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    How Wii teach Physical Education and Health2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The potential use of exergames in Physical Education and Health is surrounded by a growing discussion among practitioners, policy makers and researchers focusing on different expectations about the games. In this discussion there is, however, a need to further include issues about the learning content offered by these games, how the content is expected to be taught and about the potential consequences the use of games may have for learning and socialisation. This study focus on how meanings about health and the human body are offered by the game: What kind of teaching is delegated to the artifact when used in Physical Education and Health?

    Focus of inquiry

    The aim of this article is to investigate how images of health and the human body and are taught by using exergames.

    Analytical framework and Research methods

    The empirical study builds on the use of an analytical tool called “Epistemological move analysis”. Studies of teaching and learning have shown how teachers use different kinds of actions (for example instructive, confirming, re-orienting, generative, re-constructive and evaluative moves) in order to try to direct the meaning making in educational settings. In this study, these categories are used, developed and specified in the context of teaching in Physical Education and Health. The empirical material used consists of video recordings from sessions where the games Wii Fit Plus and EA Sports Active were played.

    Research findings

    The results of the analyses show how the games offer different kinds of epistemological moves: Instructive moves about the fit body and how to play the game, re-orienting moves used in order to help the players to modify their action towards a more relevant and effective way, generative moves used to help the players to think about how to play the game and confirming move about the players’ gaming. In sum, the “teacher” constituted in the game is a teachers who instructs, confirms and encourages the players to move and exercise their bodies. But it is not a teacher who, in contrast to teaching in other contexts, is able to help the learners to make investigations or to participate in argumentation and discussion about for example images of health and the human body. Teaching in these games is constituted as a behavioral modification focused on an idea about a pre-defined and ideal body not expected to be discussed in education.

  • 17.
    Almqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marie
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    What do Wii teach in PE?2012Inngår i: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In society, video- and computer games are often pointed out as risk factors in relation to physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour as well as increasing levels of obesity. At the same time, computers are an important source of knowledge where IT-competence and IT-experience provide pronounced advantages in society. 

    In the middle of this paradox a new type of videogames is introduced, where body movement and physical activity constitute the central element. These games, so called exergames or active video games, are games where physical movement is involved in the game through the use of for example balance-boards, step-up boards and dance-pads. Exergames are now more and more put forward in several countries as interesting tools to use in physical education in order to stimulate young people to be physically active.

    In a recent review and synthesis of research on video games and health, Papastergiou (2009) strongly argues that videogames can offer ”potential benefits as educational tools for Health Education and Physical Education, and that those games may improve young people’s knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours in relation to health and physical exercise” (Papastergiou, 2009, p 603). However, Vander Schee and Boyles (2010) argue that exergames rather should be seen as a body pedagogy producing certain narrow meanings about health, and that the uncritical implementation of exergames in school is a problematic way to place commercial products in school. Consequently, there are differences in views regarding exergames in educational settings that are worth paying attention to in research about people’s learning about the body, physical activity and health.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how images of the human body are expected to be learned when using exergames.

    The use of artifacts – physical objects made by humans – is a central part of human life. In fact, there are many activities that would not be possible to perform without the use of them. In schools, students learn to use paper and pencils, computers, vaulting-horses, footballs and so on. How and why artifacts are supposed to be used in educational settings is however not given beforehand (Cuban 1986). The use of artifacts mediates certain meanings about the view of learning and the goals and choices of content in education (Almqvist 2005, Quennerstedt et al in press).  

    In this paper, we will use discourse analytical strategies in order to analyse how meanings about the body are expected to be learned when playing exergames. The discourse analytical strategies involve an interest in how processes of discourse constitute how we experience or relate to ourselves as well as our environment (Laclau & Mouffe 1985). Discourses constitute what is possible to say or do as partial and temporal fixations (Foucault 1980). These fixations are imbued with power, values and ideologies. As Evans and colleagues argue: “/…/ health beliefs, perceptions and definitions of illness are constructed, represented and reproduced through language that is culturally specific, ideologically laden and never value free” (Evans et al 2008 p 46).

     

    Method

    To investigate what these games offer we have explored the manuals, the content, the animations of the games as well as the instructions and comments offered during game play. The empirical material consists of exergames most commonly used in schools: Wii fit and Wii sports (sports active). In the discourse analysis we have explored what is taken for granted in the empirical material in relation to other possible ways to argue. In this way we can explore what is included and excluded in the games and what is possible to think and act in relation to statements concerning the body.

     

    Expected Outcomes

    The analysis shows how the logic of the game, its animations, instructions and feedback to the player, constitutes the ideal body as a physically active, well-balanced, slim and strong body. The use of the game, the balance board and the hand control, makes it possible to measure and register how the player follows this logic. The analysis also shows how the way the player is supposed to learn about the body is strongly influenced by behaviorism. In the paper we argue that this way of learning about the body is narrow and limited and that it is important to critically discuss the effects of the use of these games in schools.

     

    References

    Almqvist, Jonas (2005). Learning and artefacts. On the use of information technology in educational settings. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Cuban, Larry (1986). Teachers and machines. The classroom use of technology since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press. Evans, John, Rich Emma & Davies Bryan (2008). Education, disordered eating and obesity discourse: Fat fabrications. London: Routledge Foucault, Michel (1980). Power/knowledge. Selected interviews & other writings 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon Books. Laclau, Ernesto & Mouffe, Chantal (1985). Hegemony and socialist strategy. Towards a radical democratic politics. London: Verso. Papastergiou, Marina (2009). Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: A literature review. Computers & Education, 53(3), 603-622. Quennerstedt, Mikael, Almqvist, Jonas & Öhman, Marie (in press). Keep your eye on the ball. Investigating artifacts in physical education. Interchange. Vander Schee, Carolyn J. & Boyles, Deron (2010): ‘Exergaming,’ corporate interests and the crisis discourse of childhood obesity. Sport, Education and Society, 15(2), 169-185.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. RF-SISU Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Achieving gender equity: barriers and possibilities at board level in Swedish sport2022Inngår i: European Sport Management Quarterly, ISSN 1618-4742, E-ISSN 1746-031XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research questions How is the 'problem' of gender equity described, perceived and experienced by female and male board members in Swedish sport today? What key dilemmas can be identified in the realisation of a gender equitable sport management? Research methods The article builds on research conducted on three Swedish ball sport federations during 2020-2021 and is based on a total number of 27 (12 males, 15 females) structured interviews with top leaders. The methodology employs Fraser's concept of gender justice and the need to pay attention to cultural and economic dimensions in transformative interventions. Results and Findings Three dilemmas relating to the realisation of gender equity are analysed: between quotas and stigmatisation, overcoming gender equity as a side-project and how the democratic infrastructure of Swedish sport enables men's continued dominance. The findings indicate that one-dimensional (affirmative) interventions dominate, which in turn explain why achieving gender equity in Swedish sport is difficult, i.e. cultural interventions only limit the chances of achieving gender equity. Implications To implement transformative interventions, cultural and economic resources need to be equally recognised and redistributed so that the organisations' gender order is deconstructed and participation on equally recognised terms secured.

  • 19.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Sport Science.
    Addressing gender equality: enactments of gender and hegemony in the educational textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes2018Inngår i: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, nr 9, s. 840-852Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport is often described as a field containing competitive and hierarchy shaping activities. However, in Sweden and elsewhere, this field is also permeated by democratic principles where, for example, everybody has the right to participate in children’s and youth sports regardless of gender, ethnicity or physical ability. In Sweden, there are distinct objectives for gender equality, where women/girls and men/boys should ideally be treated and recognised equally. The aim of this paper is twofold: to examine how gender is enacted in the textbooks used in Swedish sports coaching and educational programmes and to identify whether any of the enactments reflect a hegemonic masculinity. The textbooks used in two of the most extensive courses arranged by the Swedish Sports Confederation, ‘The Platform’ [Plattformen] and ‘Basic Coach Education’ [Grundtränarutbildning] are in focus. The theoretical framework and methodological approach are inspired by research on sport, gender and the hegemonic masculinity thesis. In the process of analysis, the hegemonic perspective is central. During the analysis, four themes are identified as expressions of a hegemonic masculinity and, thus, as obstacles to gender equality. Firstly, the binary sex norm poses a real challenge for the implementation of gender equality because it helps to shape a hierarchy that privileges men and masculinities. Secondly and thirdly, the themes ‘puberty’ and ‘the coach’ appear to be important, in that they support and contest a gendered hierarchy. Finally, there are examples of men, like sport coaches, appearing as genderless, which is interpreted as a hegemonic acceptance of the category of men (as universal and genderless subjects). By critically illuminating these themes, the paper adds to the wider research field of sport, coaching and education programmes and the complexity of gender mainstreaming in sport.

  • 20.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. RF-SISU Örebro county, Örebro, Sweden.
    Brothers, bruises, and the will to win: a social-ecological hegemony perspective on Swedish ice hockey's past2023Inngår i: Sport in Society: Cultures, Media, Politics, Commerce, ISSN 1743-0437, E-ISSN 1743-0445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tradition of Swedish ice hockey as a masculine-dominated territory that encourages characteristics like roughness, aggressiveness, and to some extent violence has been hotly debated. Using historical articles from the Swedish Hockey magazine, and with a perspective combining hegemony with the social-ecological model of violence prevention, this study develops an interpretation of how masculinity traits and violence in Swedish ice hockey interconnect. The historical case provides findings for this interconnection, with meanings of masculinity and a competitive commitment as permeating threads. Triggered by individuals, but also connected to coaches' encouragements, organizations' endeavours, societal, and financial forces, the negotiations around playing styles and allowance levels have been permeated by ideals of masculinity; ideals that enforce the current hegemonic gender order. Ultimately, the article contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of sport violence as an issue that not only impacts or can be utilized by sport organizations and players/practitioners but also its broader societal implications.

  • 21.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Föreställningar om maskuliniteter och feminiteter i idrottens ledarskapslitteratur2015Inngår i: Program SVEBI 2015 / [ed] Håkan Larsson och Marie Öhman, Växjö: Linnéuniversitet , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Trots att svensk idrott länge har haft ett övergripande jämställdhetsmål där kvinnor och män, pojkar och flickor ska ha samma villkor (RF, 1989, 2005, 2011) så går förändringsarbetet trögt. Detta förklaras ofta av att många idrottsgrenar bär en tradition där män dominerat med följden att normer och handlingar som förknippas med ”kvinnliga” egenskaper värderas lägre (se t ex Fundberg, 2003; Messner, 1992). Ett viktigt incitament för förändring är utbildning och inom idrottens (SISU:s) ledar-skapsutbildningar finns två ”grundutbildningar”: Plattformen och grundtränarutbildningen. Men möjliggör eller förhindrar innehållet i dessa utbildningar förändringar mot en mer jämställd idrott?

    Syfte & teoretisk ram: I detta paper studeras hur kön/genus represente-ras i litteraturen i dessa utbildningar med fokus på att synliggöra komplexiteter/motsägelsefullheter. Syftet är att utreda om och i så fall hur litteraturens innehåll utmanar eller bekräftar en traditionell, ste-reotypisk föreställning om mäns och manligheters dominans över kvinnor och kvinnligheter och om innehållet således bidrar till eller hindrar möjligheterna för en mer jämställd idrott. Teoretiskt bildar forskning om hegemoniska maskuliniteter (Connell 1983, 1996) och mäns hegemonier (Hearn, 2004) ramverk för analysen.

    Metod: Genom textanalys och ett diskursivt perspektiv studeras fyra böcker inom de ovan nämnda natio-nella utbildningarna. Dessutom används i viss utsträckning även kursernas powerpoint-presentatio-ner som underlag för analysen.

    Resultat: De preliminära resultaten visar att män skildras både stereotypiskt och som normbrytare genom att till exempel trösta och hålla om barn. Samtidigt reproducerar texterna ett binärt könssystem som tenderar att underordna kvinnor och kvinnlighet. Kvinnans kropp beskrivs som mindre kapabel och sämre utrustad för fysisk ansträngning. Detta gör också att attityden till kvinnor som kunskapsbärande och kunskapsproducerande subjekt påverkas.

    Diskussion: Diskussionen fokuserar på hur innehållet i denna litteratur tenderar att både reproducera och i viss mån utmana mäns och manligheters dominans inom idrotten. Samtidigt finns det något motsägelsefullt i att män bryter mot en traditionellt manlig norm eftersom detta snarare tenderar att omskapa en ny form av hegemoni (Connell 1983, 1996). Detta kan förklara trögföränderligheten hos hegemoniska mas-kuliniteter och ger således ny kunskap om jämställdhetsarbetets utmaningar.

  • 22.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. RF-SISU Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Historicizing Machoism in Swedish Ice Hockey2022Inngår i: International Journal of the History of Sport, ISSN 0952-3367, E-ISSN 1743-9035, Vol. 38, nr 16, s. 1688-1709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Male ice hockey has long been regarded as a hyper-masculine sport. More importantly, the so-called machoism has been institutionalized in the ice hockey culture and, due to its comprehensive legitimacy and complexity, it has been impossible to problematize, challenge and ultimately change from within. Identifying ice hockey’s cultural promises, guidelines, psyche, and societal contributions, the controlling of changes is illuminated, which, taken together, help to deepen the understanding of machoism’s stability in sport. Although the journal Hockey is the main historical source, interviews, the media, and biographies have also been used. As Sweden is located between what was then the Soviet Union and North America, the Swedish Ice Hockey Association was inspired by these dominating ice hockey models. The professional and, mostly, Canadian hockey style gradually gained ground. In short, the appreciated masculine ideals interlinked with commercial forces and the tactical strategies of the game. By showing the culture’s stability and complexity, previous research on masculine domination in ice hockey is nuanced and complemented. 

  • 23.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    In The Name of Democracy: Varieties and continuities of associative sports masculinities at club level during the 20th century2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first half of the 20th century the Swedish Sports Confederation became the dominant sports organisation in Sweden. In short, the organisation adapted a representative democratic principle and argued that it fostered its members to democratic citizens. In turn, this legitimised annual state grants but did not prevent long-time male domination within Swedish sports. This paper deals with the contradictive contents of sports masculinity (e. g. being similarly democratic and exclusionary) and, more specific, it focuses the long-time duration of masculine domination in a Swedish, voluntary sports club and how different visual and textual strategies were used to strengthen the masculine hegemony in the organisation.

       The method draws inspiration from the concept of hegemonic masculinity, understood as something restraining and contradictive, and Wetherell & Edley's (1999) more fine-grained analytical tool called “imaginary positions”. The source materials are texts and photos in members reviews of Örebro Sports Club and the chronological period is two-folded divided from the foundation of the club in 1908 to 1933 and from 1967 up until 1989 when the club was dissolved into different juridical persons.

       The results show that masculine positions were not only about winning and expressing a successful, active and struggling masculinity. The hegemonic (and heroic) position offered a range of possibilities to express and visualize masculinity but the very same position, on the other hand, contained plain borders towards deviant sexuality, functionality, ethnicity and gender. The discussion involves an approach to understand the results in relation to the difficulties of challenging patriarchy and male domination in sports.

  • 24.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    ldrott, jämställdhet och organisatorisk makt: Möjligheter och hinder för kvinnor och män att nå höga ledarpositioner inom lagidrott2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    ldrott, jämställdhet och organisatorisk makt: Möjligheter och hinder för kvinnor och män att nå höga ledarpositioner inom lagidrott
  • 25.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Örebro County’s Sports Confederation.
    ‘Power in the arm, steel in the will and courage in the breast’: a historical approach to ideal norms and men’s dominance in Swedish club sports2018Inngår i: Sport in History, ISSN 1351-5462, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 365-402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From both a quantitative and qualitative perspective, research shows that men and masculinities have dominated the Swedish sports movement for a long time and that sport as a so-called ‘democratic people’s movement’ has been criticised for being a male movement. Given the self-made claims of the Swedish Sports Confederation’s fostering of inclusivity and democratisation, this study encompasses a critical and historical perspective on the inclusive and exclusive dimensions of sport. The study object is a Swedish sports club and the specific aim is to analyse the prevailing norms and ideals and how they eventually helped to reproduce men’s domination in a local sports club. Chronologically, the paper uses a historical comparative approach studying the club’s 1910s–1920s and 1970s–1980s. The research questions put are: What characterised the norms of the ideal member and collective membership in terms of gender and did these change over time? Is it possible to find specific examples of inclusion and exclusion techniques by studying the club’s photographs and stories? The main result shows subtle and explicit power techniques that reproduced (some) men’s superior position at the club level.

  • 26.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. The Sports Confederation of Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    The need for a violence prevention programme in ice hockey: a case study on how hegemonic masculinity supports and challenges violent behaviour in Swedish ice hockey2021Inngår i: European Sport Management Quarterly, ISSN 1618-4742, E-ISSN 1746-031X, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 218-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: Research has shown that male team sports can nurture aggressive and sexist attitudes and behaviour. Against a background of identified sports and ice hockey masculinities and how they relate to violence norms, the aim of this article is to identify masculinity ideals in need of interventions.

    Research method: As part of a larger project on masculinity ideals and violence norms in Swedish ice hockey, this case study is based on a thematic analysis of interviews with five Swedish ice hockey coaches. Theoretically, the analysis is inspired by work on hegemonic masculinity and violence prevention.

    Results and Findings: The findings derived from the interviews are discussed under three thematic headings: ‘The dual functions of sexism and group dynamics’, ‘Aggression and violence as problematic and progressive’ and ‘The stabilising and transformative role of a competitive environment’. In these, core values of the construction of hegemonic masculinity are identified and discussed.

    Implications: The article contributes knowledge about risk factors in team sports and how attitudes and behaviour in a team or club can be both progressive and destructive at the same time. Based on the study's findings, work on violence prevention and the results of previous research, three preventive actions are suggested: 1. To erase sexist and derogative attitudes and actions so that they do not escalate, 2. Zero tolerance of alcohol consumption and drugs and 3. Change the rules in order to eliminate hard and reckless play.

  • 27.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Våld föder våld, eller?: Om män, sportvåld och formande av hegemonisk manlighet som bidragande riskfaktor till våldet i samhället2017Inngår i: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, E-ISSN 2002-3383, Vol. 2, s. 1-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel undersöker argumentet att det våld och den hårda fysiska kontakten som vissa idrotter innehåller, samt de ideal som hyllas i dessa, bidrar till en normalisering av mäns våldsanvändning mot andra människor även utanför själva idrottsarenan. Sportvåldet tolkas med inspiration från den kritiska forskningen om män och maskuliniteter och ses som ett led i upprätthållandet av en hierarkisk, patriarkal maktordning. I artikeln förs en diskussion kring vissa idrotters normalisering av våld som problemlösande metod och huruvida sådana idrotter skapar mer våldsbenägna män. Slutsatsen är att det i vissa idrotter kan finnas en riskfaktor för somliga män.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Sports Confederation of Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Angelin, Mathias
    Sports Confederation of Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    ‘It’s freer and easier in a changing room, because the barriers disappear…’: A case study of masculinity ideals, language and social status amongst Swedish ice hockey players2020Inngår i: European Journal for Sport and Society, ISSN 1613-8171, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 26-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified sports-related risk factors that can cause acts of violence outside the sporting milieu. The purpose of this case study is to examine the ideals, language and social status of male ice hockey players and determine whether and how they affect their views of sexuality, aggressiveness and actions outside the ice hockey milieu. The method and material are based on a qualitative content analysis of interviews with six senior ice hockey players in Sweden. Research on masculinity and violence theoretically inspires the study. The findings show that expectations and norms can create increased status in a team and at the same time can also make it difficult for players to fully follow their own values and inner guides. In other words, players can be themselves, yet sometimes have to toe the line and follow the group (even if they do not always want to). Another finding is the dilemma of silence and the difficulties that players face in setting limits for team-mates who, for example, joke in a diminishing and inappropriate way. The article ends with a discussion about the challenges that these results entail regarding progressive (violence-preventative) work within ice hockey at the individual and structural levels.

  • 29.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Helgesson, Jens
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Idrottsundervisning och maskulinitetens hegemoni: Genus och inflytande i gymnasieskolans ämne ”Idrott och hälsa”2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Sport Studies Forum, E-ISSN 2000-088X, Vol. 8, s. 197-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish upper secondary school and its physical education (PE) should, according to the Lgy11 (the 2011 curriculum of upper secondary school in Sweden), raise aware- ness about and challenge stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Previous research, however, has concluded that there is an upholding of traditional, hegemonic masculinity ideals through PE. The purpose of this article is to highlight how gender and power influence the outcome of a just education. Theoretical inspiration is taken from Irish Marion Young’s and Raewyn Connell’s work on gender and hegemonic masculinity, and the method involves interviews with PE teachers and observations of PE classes. Dance, ball games, competition, socializing violence, performance of heterosexual norms are identified as key points, which are discussed in terms of norms and power linked to men and masculinity ideals. The results show that the making of masculinity is constantly oc- curring in PE, both in active elements but also during “inactive” breaks. Although strong ideals linked to men and masculinity were identified, there were usually also alternative representations. In other words, the educational gender practices were not identified as unambiguous, but rather as ambiguous and contradictory. However, most respondents showed decided views on how boys and girls naturally “are” in certain ways, which con- ditions a counter-stereotypical approach to education. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Idrottsundervisning och maskulinitetens hegemoni: Genus och inflytande i gymnasieskolans ämne ”Idrott och hälsa”
  • 30.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Johansson, Emma
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; RF-SISU Örebro län, Sweden.
    A gang of ironworkers with the scent of blood: A participation observation of male dominance and its historical trajectories at Swedish semi-professional ice hockey events2022Inngår i: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, E-ISSN 1461-7218, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 54-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice hockey has traditionally been a male-dominated culture that has both promoted and legitimised masculine dominance and gender inequality. The question is, how might ice hockey games, or other male-dominated sports, be organised differently and thus become more gender equal? Our ambition in this article is to initiate a discussion about how the construction of gender in ice hockey events operationalises or opposes the dominance of men and the marginalisation of women. The specific purpose is to identify techniques that configure men/masculinities as dominant in the ice hockey culture. Taking critical studies of men and masculinities as the point of departure, with a specific focus on the situational aspects of gender construction, this case study makes use of participatory observations of eight qualification games in Swedish semi-professional ice hockey. Our results show that men and certain types of masculinity dominate in the events framing the game and how this links the ice hockey players and the club with the local body-worker culture and its industrial, economic and historical context. Identification with these men is ideally created amongst male spectators, given that children and women do not have the same obvious place in the event’s narrative. Some clubs seek to include women and children in their matches, which affects both the atmosphere and the situation. By focusing on the events’ introductions and general narratives, and how they make use of a (masculine) version of the place’s past in the present, we discuss how the ice hockey culture contributes to the current hegemony of men and masculinities.

  • 31.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Strand, Susanne
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Idrottens ansvar att förebygga mäns våld mot kvinnor2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Svensson, Robert
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    I amatörismens gränsland: Konsekvenser av fotbollstränarens ökade inflytande i den flersektionella idrottsföreningen under det tidiga 1900-talet2015Inngår i: Idrott, historia & samhälle, ISSN 0280-2775, s. 21-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to challenge the image of Swedish sports as an amateuristic, unified and democratic people’s movement. With references to Pierre Bourdieu, Swedish sports is analysed in terms of field, capitals and poles. The article shows how the strive towards a successful (male) senior football team in Örebro Sportklubb (ÖSK) and the administration of the sports centre (Eyravallen) resulted in an increased engagement of coaches, and thus an increased prioritisation of economic and academic capital at the expense of ideological capital. The source materials consist of club material and with the chronological focus on the 1920s and 1930s the article argues, in contrast to former research, that the processes of professionalisation, commercialisation and the enhanced focus on winning started long before the decision to overturn the amateur regulations in 1967.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    I amatörismens gränsland: Konsekvenser av fotbollstränarens ökade inflytande i den flersektionella idrottsföreningen under det tidiga 1900-talet
  • 33.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Tjønndal, Anne
    Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    ‘The Nordic female fighter’: Exploring women’s participation in mixed martial arts in Norway and Sweden2020Inngår i: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, E-ISSN 1461-7218, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 471-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate women’s participation in mixed martial arts in the Nordic countries. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative methodological approach consisting of individual interviews and focus group interviews with Swedish female mixed martial arts fighters and data from a Norwegian survey of participants in Norwegian mixed martial arts clubs. A total of 12 female fighters were interviewed, while 484 respondents participated in the survey. The results show that women exercising mixed martial arts contain a potential to act as feminist role models through their counter-hegemonic renegotiation of norms and views on femininity and, more specifically, the perception of femininity as something fragile and passive. Despite this progressive potential, the informants unanimously affirm that combat sports in general and in different ways are dominated by males. The data indicates that women still represent a small and marginalised group among mixed martial arts participants in the Nordic countries. Furthermore, women participating in mixed martial arts compete less and are less motivated by performance enhancement (developing as fighters, winning fights/tournaments/titles) compared to the male participants. However, both male and female participants value health and fun as the most important reasons for their participation in mixed martial arts training groups.

  • 34.
    Alsarve, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Wallin, Sofie
    SISU Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bergvall Virtanen, Peter
    Örebro Läns Idrottsförbund, Örebro, Sweden.
    Managing Progression: Örebro Sports County's Efforts to Reduce Gender Gap and Increase Gender Equality2016Inngår i: SVEBI 2016 / [ed] Håkan Larsson, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An overall ambition with the gender equality objectives of Swedish sports is that gender mainstreaming should permeate every decision, in all activities, and at every level of the sports movement. Despite the fact that modern sports, to a large extent, have privileged (some) men and (some) masculinities, increasing female participation has, since the 1970s, also characterized Swedish modern sports. However, in the county of Örebro, male participation in associative sports, among 7- to 25-year-olds, is approximately 67 per cent according to LOK-statistics (Lokalt aktivitetsstöd – Local Activity Support). This unequal representation has initiated a work of that includes structural as well as individual factors.

    Aim and Theoretical Frames: This paper presents an ongoing gender equality project enacting a double-focus on, firstly, recruiting and empowering women/girls in sports and secondly, making visible privileges for men and masculinities in sports and educating participative clubs (i.e. coaches, leaders and board members) in issues concerning gender, norms and masculine domination.

    Theoretically the project is inspired from critical perspectives on gender, men and masculinities and the hegemonic masculinity thesis (HMT).

    Method: Methodologically this project draws on mixed governing methods which explores the dilemma of implementing a policy in a self-autonomous, voluntary culture. More precisely, participating clubs has applied for economical backing (from Idrottslyftet) for one-year, financing gender equality projects aiming to, on one hand, empower or recruit a disadvantaged social group or, on the other hand, to raise awareness of the existing norms in club’s culture (e.g. masculinity or heterosexual norms). The clubs’ specific projects vary greatly depending on sport genre, number of members/volunteers in the club and other conditions regarding work efforts and access to sport facilities etcetera. Diverse cooperation with local governments in the county of Örebro has also been employed involving financial support and other “structural” target areas. Since knowledge of gender equality and gender awareness is vital for a change management, the participating clubs must partake in educational meetings and, at the end of the year, also give a presentation for all participative clubs at joint forum about their project and its concrete results. Beside these strategical efforts, interviews and observations have also been utilized.

    Findings: Changing a rigid structure, such as sports, is a challenge and must, as a suggestion, involve several institutions as well as motivated agents. One central finding is the importance of raising awareness about budgets, facilities and investments from a gender perspective. In some cases, these kind of questions have not been raised before. In other words, the motivation among politicians and club members vary, which causes a reproductive potential of the gender gap. In the work, we have also found different techniques for reproducing men’s power advantage through, for example, the planning and placing of training sessions, the non-encouragement for girls to become “professional” athletes but also how women, themselves, support structures that discriminate themselves.

    Discussion: Tentatively, the discussion focuses on dilemmas and the complexities of measuring and managing sports’ gender equality. Several issues for discussion return throughout the project, such as: what should be measured and how and why? Identifying such essential factors leads to the issue of how to manage a change of these factors. What institutions should be involved? What demands could, on one hand, be placed on a local club (with a right of self-determination) and, on the other hand, the governing sports bodies (that should implement government policies)?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Althage, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för idrott och hälsa.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för idrott och hälsa.
    Jämförelse av två olika fälttest för fotbollsspelare på olika tävlingsnivåer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Olika fälttest är flitigt använda för att utvärdera fotbollsspelares fysiska uthållighet, däribland Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) och Coopers löptest. Ytterst lite är dock känt om Coopertestets lämplighet som mätmetod i en sport med intermittent arbete som fotboll. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka prestation i Coopertestet i förhållande till Yo-Yo IR1 testet hos fotbollsspelare på olika tävlingsnivåer. Under försäsongen testades 19 manliga fotbollsspelare (23 ± 4 år, 181 ± 9 cm, 77 ± 9 kg) från svensk division 1 (hög-nivå, n=5), division 3 (mellan-nivå, n=6) och division 5 (låg-nivå, n=8). Coopertestet består av oavbruten löpning så långt som möjligt under 12 minuter på löparbana. Yo-Yo IR1 testet består av upprepade 2x20 meters löpningar i ökande hastighet, med 10 sekunder aktiv vila mellan varje omgång. Testerna utfördes under standardiserade former på kvällstid med minst 72 timmars mellanrum. Resultatet för Coopertestet var; hög-nivå 3056 ± 194m, mellan-nivå 2950 ± 188m och låg-nivå 2916 ± 203m, utan signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna (p>0,05). Yo-Yo IR1 resultaten var; hög-nivå 2264 ± 286m, mellan-nivå 1933 ± 395m och låg-nivå 1615 ± 496m. Det fanns en signifikant skillnad i testresultaten mellan hög-nivå och låg-nivå (p<0,05). Förhållandet mellan de två testerna för hela populationen var r=0,89 (p<0,001), och inom grupperna; hög-nivå r=0,69 (p=0,2), mellan-nivå r=0,99 (p<0,001) och låg-nivå r=0,98 (p<0,001). I motsats till övriga grupper visade resultaten att hög-nivå gruppen, som har större mängd fotbollsspecifik träning, inte hade något signifikant samband mellan de två testen. Coopertestets utformning med oavbruten löpning, tillsammans med dess oförmåga att särskilja mellan olika tävlingsnivåer, medför att Yo-Yo IR1 testet bör användas framför Coopertestet i syfte att få tydligare information om en fotbollsspelares fysiska uthållighet under matchsituation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 36. Ambrosio, Fabrisia
    et al.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Lexell, Jan
    Fitzgerald, G. Kelley
    Boninger, Michael L.
    Huard, Johnny
    The effect of muscle loading on skeletal muscle regenerative potential: an update of current research findings relating to aging and neuromuscular pathology2009Inngår i: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, ISSN 0894-9115, E-ISSN 1537-7385, Vol. 88, nr 2, s. 145-155Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with a remarkable ability to continuously respond to environmental stimuli. Among its adaptive responses is the widely investigated ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate after loading or injury or both. Although significant basic science efforts have been dedicated to better understand the underlying mechanism controlling skeletal muscle regeneration, there has been relatively little impact in the clinical approaches used to treat skeletal muscle injuries and wasting. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the basic biology of satellite cell function in response to muscle loading and to relate these findings in the context of aging and neuromuscular pathology for the rehabilitation medicine specialist.

  • 37.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    A new sports manager does not make a better team2011Inngår i: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 167-178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article surveys the literature on the impact of managerial successions on team performance in professional sports and assesses ten studies on the effect of managerial succession. They cover 80 years (1920-2000) with data from four different sports and two countries. From these studies, three lessons emerge when teams perform poorly: (i) a change of coach or manager during the season is not helpful; (ii) if succession is deemed necessary, change the manager between seasons; and (iii) if the choice is between a manager from inside the organization and one from the outside, choose the former. What is critical is that whichever manager is replaced or for whatever reason, the performance of the team will most likely not improve for that reason alone. In short, a new manager does not make a better team.

  • 38.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Ekonomihögskolan (ELNU), Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Seven pitfalls in organisation literature2012Inngår i: Dynamic relationships management journal, ISSN 2232-5867, E-ISSN 2350-367X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 48-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Current organisation literature is rife with several incorrect and confusing assertions which continually create problems for students and researchers alike. Seven of these unfortunate beliefs are presented here and provocatively called ‘pitfalls’. The aim of this article is to draw attention to some of these theoretically incorrect assertions and how they can be avoided in scholarly work. The implications for managers are also presented.

  • 39.
    Andersen, Jon Aarum
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Kovac, Jure
    University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Why European subordinates trust their managers2012Inngår i: Organizacija, ISSN 1318-5454, E-ISSN 1581-1832, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 300-309Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the problem of why subordinates trust their managers based on the responses from 108 subordinatesof seven Slovenian managers and from 138 subordinates of eight Swedish managers. The subordinates of these managersresponded to a 20-item instrument tested for reliability and validity. In both samples the managers enjoyed different degreesof trust. The level of trust vested in Slovenian managers was higher than in Swedish ones. The kinds of managers’ actions thatenhanced trust were similar amongst Swedish and Slovenian subordinates. Different socio-cultural contexts may theoreticallyexplain why some other kinds of actions had contrasting effects between the samples. On the whole, the actions of managersexplain trust in both countries. Subordinates’ trust in managers declines with the increasing hierarchical distance in bothnational samples. Managers need to show in action that they trust their subordinates, promote their interests, demonstrateappreciation of their subordinates, and solve problems.

  • 40.
    Anderson, Cheryl B
    et al.
    epartment of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Validation of the PDPAR as an adolescent diary: effect of accelerometer cut points2005Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 37, nr 7, s. 1224-1230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR) as a physical activity diary in adolescents using two accelerometer intensity classifications.

    METHODS: One hundred eighth graders (47 boys, 53 girls) used the PDPAR as a daily diary and wore MTI accelerometers for four consecutive days. Measured time spent in moderate (> or = 3 METs) and vigorous (> or = 6 METs) activity was based on two published MTI cut-point limits (that of Freedson et al./Trost et al. and that of Puyau et al.). Spearman rank order correlations and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine agreement between MTI and PDPAR diary estimates of activity.

    RESULTS: MTI estimates of mean minutes per day of total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 65.2 (+/-43.2) using the Freedson et al./Trost et al. cutoffs and 17.5 (+/-18.5) using those of Puyau et al., while students self-reported 105.1 (+/-80.1) min.d(-1). Significant relationships were observed between the diary and MTI for total MVPA using either the Freedson et al./Trost et al. (r = 0.42) or Puyau et al. (r = 0.41) cutoff as well as raw counts (r = 0.44). Plots showed reasonable agreement between the diary and Freedson et al./Trost et al. MTI estimates of MVPA for daily totals of < or = 60 min, but the Puyau et al. estimates were consistently lower. Diaries overestimated activity as time increased when compared to either MTI cut point, especially on vigorous activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Time estimates of MVPA differed by assessment tool, but diary estimates showed adequate association with the MTI. Diaries reflected intensity-specific activity, corresponding most closely with the Freedson et al./Trost et al. classification of moderate, but substantially overestimated vigorous activity regardless of cut-point method. This is likely due to the measurement characteristics of the PDPAR, which classifies activities in 30-min blocks, as well as the nature of common activities in which high levels of intensity are not sustained.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Daniel
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Elevers inställning till idrott och hälsa: Fysiska aktivitetsvanor, kön och ålders betydelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Elevers inställning till idrott och hälsa
  • 42.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Fogelberg, Hanna
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Om sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa: Hur lärare i idrott och hälsa tolkar ett mål i kursplanen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Människors kost- och motionsvanor framstår som ett av de mer centrala folkhälsoproblemen i dagens samhälle. Genom olika medier som lyfter samhällets normer och värderingar matas vi med budskap om hur vi ska agera för att bli hälsosamma. Då skolan och ämnet idrott och hälsa påverkas av hur hälsa framställs i samhället blir det viktigt att reflektera över begrepp som mat, motion och hälsa.

     

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur lärare i idrott och hälsa på grundskolan tolkade målet att eleven ska förstå sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa. Metoden som användes var inspirerad av den hermeneutiska forskningsansatsen och semistrukturerade intervjuer av fem lärare i idrott och hälsa på grundskolan senare år genomfördes.

     

    Resultatet visade att majoriteten av lärarna tolkar målet främst ur ett patogent synsätt, som då handlar om att förebygga framtida hälsoproblem. Lärarna såg målet som svårt, men viktigt. Förväntningar på ämnet uppgavs som en av svårigheterna, medan elevernas fysiska status uppgavs som förklaring till varför målet var viktigt att uppmärksamma. Sambandet sågs i första hand ur ett fysiologiskt perspektiv, där det handlade om att fysisk aktivitet och bra mat leder till god hälsa. Lärarnas tal om sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa skiljde sig oftast åt från hur de sedan uppgav att de arbetade med sambandet. Det som sades och det som gjordes kom till uttryck på olika sätt.

     

    Slutsatserna utifrån studien blev ett flertal. En slutsats blev att lärarna resonerade kring sambandet ur ett fysiologiskt perspektiv och såg på målet ur ett patogent perspektiv. En ytterligare slutsats var att fetma och övervikt i vissa skolor kanske inte är ett så stort problem som det framställs i samhällsdebatten och i forskningen. Snarare talade lärarna om undervikt än om övervikt. Ännu en slutsats i studien blev att sambandet mellan mat, motion och hälsa sågs som något givet. Att lärarna talade om sambandet på ett sätt, men tycktes agera på ett annat, blev den sista slutsatsen i studien.

     

  • 43.
    Andersson, Emilia
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lampén, Felicia
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Implementering av utökad fysisk aktivitet – en inblick i arbetet. En kvalitativ studie om hur och varför olika grundskolor arbetar med utökad fysisk aktivitet2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today's young people do not reach the recommendations that exist regarding physical activity, despite the majority of studies showing positive health effects of physical activity. As a consequence, Swedish schools have decided to implement increased physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine, from a teacher’s perspective, why different schools have chosen to implement increased physical activity and how it is described by active teachers. 

     This qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews, examined four compulsory schoolteacher’s experiences of working with increased physical activity. The study showed that the reasons behind the implementation of increased physical activity varied. The differences vary from PE teachers seeing the health benefits as well as the academic benefits that the student could gain by participating in the activities provided by the school. However, many factors, such as resources, collaboration between colleagues and activity content, played a major role in actually implementing increased physical activity and making it successful. How different schools worked with different activities also varied, however, the results of this study presents seven different types of activities named as: “idrottsprofil”, “skolgårdsdisco”, “pulspass”, “rörelsepauser”, “rastaktiviteter”, “extra idrott” and “motorikpass”. However, it could be problematic that some schools provide students the opportunity to be more physically active while others may not get the same opportunity. Further findings from the study also showed that the teachers did not have any common documents to base the implementation on. A common document and a clear vision on why and how we can implement increased physical activity could help us create a long-term solution to get students to be more physically active.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    En historisk tillbakablick på fenomenet fysisk beröring: Kvalitativa textanalyser på en idrottslärartidskrift2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    En historisk tillbakablick på fenomenet fysisk beröring
  • 45.
    Andersson, Erik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Political socialization and the coach-created educational environment of competitive games: the case of grassroots youth soccer in Sweden2020Inngår i: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 725-740Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grassroots youth soccer is a major education environment in which coaching not only influences the quality of young athletes' performances, but also their political socialization. I.e. their formation of political identities, values, attitudes and norms, their adaption to, learning about and sometimes changes in the political culture of a community. Based on an empirical study exploring competitive games of grassroots youth soccer in Sweden, the article contributes knowledge about political socialization in coaching and the coach-created educational environment of competitive games. In particular, it offers a typology that can be used in research, coach education programmes and for practitioners to analyse and understand the socio-political dimension of coaching practice. Two main coaching approaches are identified, Growth (include all and focuses on the process) and Selective (optimizing the team and focusing on the results), constituted by different social and learning norms having specific political socialization and education consequences for the players.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Karlsen, Anette
    Inst Basic Med Sci, Fac Med, Dept Nutr, Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, Rune
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, Truls
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway .
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players2010Inngår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, nr 10, s. 1492-1499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90 min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n 8) trained for 1 h at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training), while the passive group rested (n 8). Blood samples were taken before the games; immediately after the games; 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game; and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker GSSG increased by the same extent after both the games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione and uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power increased immediately after both the games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols and ascorbic acid (AA) increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, AA and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h, and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary antioxidant defence, but not the endogenous antioxidant defence, is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    The physiological impact of soccer on elite female players and the effects of active recovery training2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Female soccer is becoming more popular and professional in the world. There are, however, limited scientific data available on how elite female players respond to physical stress during soccer games. An effective recovery strategy following a game is important, because there are few recovery days between the games in international tournaments. The present thesis, which was designed to mirror a competitive situation, aimed to investigate changes in several physiological systems occurring in female elite players in response to two soccer games. It also aimed to investigate the effects of active recovery training on the recovery of several physiological systems. METHODS: Two elite female soccer teams played two 90-min games separated by 72 h active or passive recovery. The active recovery training (cycling at 60% HRpeak, resistance training at <50% 1RM) lasted one hour and was performed 22 and 46 h after the first game. Countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint time and isokinetic knee strength were measured before, immediately, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after the first game, and immediately after the second game. The physical stress markers (CK, urea), oxidative stress markers (e.g., GSSG, lipid peroxidation), endogenous (e.g., UA, thiols) and dietary antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols, carotenoids) and a large battery of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α) were analysed in blood. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the performance parameters, oxidative stress and antioxidant levels or inflammatory response between the active and passive recovery groups. Sprint and isokinetic knee strength were reduced by the same extent after both games. CMJ decreased after the first game and remained reduced throughout the study period. Blood physical stress markers, GSSG and endogenous antioxidants increased with similar amplitude after both games together with unchanged lipid peroxidation. The dietary antioxidants showed either a rapid and persistent change (e.g., tocopherols) or a delayed rise (carotenoids) after the first game. A transient increase occurred in several pro- (e.g., IL-12, TNF-a, MCP-1), anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-4, IL-10, INF-a) and mixed (IL-6) cytokines after the first game. Fewer cytokines increased in response to the second game. CONCLUSION: Two repeated elite female soccer games separated by 72 h induced similar acute changes in several physiological parameters. After the first game, differences in the recovery pattern of the neuromuscular parameters occurred. In particular, the slow recovery of CMJ indicates that special attention should be devoted to the training of explosive force. Furthermore, the recruitment of antioxidants in response to the transient increase in GSSG resulted in the maintenance of the redox-balance in female players. Similarly, a strong and balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurred after one single female soccer game. The consequences of the dampened cytokine response during repeated soccer games are, however, unknown. In general, the majority of the parameters had recovered prior to the second game and the physiological alterations induced by the first game did not affect the performance of players in the second game. Finally, active recovery training conducted after a soccer game does not accelerate the recovery time for neuromuscular, oxidative stress, antioxidant and inflammatory responses in elite female players.

    Delarbeid
    1. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
    Vise andre…
    2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 372-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Idrottsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5025 (URN)10.1249/mss.0b013e31815b8497 (DOI)000252608300024 ()18202563 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-38349086979 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-01-21 Laget: 2009-01-21 Sist oppdatert: 2023-12-08bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
    Vise andre…
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 600-608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Emneord
    d-ROMs, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, polyphenols, intermittent exercise, endurance training
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Fysiologi; Idrottsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10875 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00987.x (DOI)000279905400008 ()19706000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77955127862 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-06-02 Laget: 2010-06-01 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
    Vise andre…
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 740-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Emneord
    Inflammation, intermittent exercise, active recovery, chemokines, training
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Fysiologi; Idrottsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10876 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00989.x (DOI)000281666200006 ()19765242 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77956495319 (Scopus ID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-06-02 Laget: 2010-06-01 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-19bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
    Vise andre…
    (engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90-min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n=8) trained for one hour at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training)while the passive group rested(n=8). Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker oxidized glutathione increased by the same extent after both games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacrons reactive-oxygen metabolites remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione, uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay increased immediately after both games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols, ascorbic acid increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary but not endogenous antioxidant defence is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

    Emneord
    Intermittent exercise, training, recovery, free radicals, football
    HSV kategori
    Forskningsprogram
    Fysiologi; Idrottsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10881 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-06-02 Laget: 2010-06-01 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-18bibliografisk kontrollert
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  • 48.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Bøhn, S. K.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Paulsen, G.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, R.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 740-747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Helena M
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Krustrup, Peter
    Elite football on artificial turf versus natural grass: movement patterns, technical standards, and player impressions2008Inngår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 113-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the movement patterns, ball skills, and the impressions of Swedish elite football players during competitive games on artificial turf and natural grass. Time - motion analyses (36 observations) and technical analyses (16 team observations) were performed and 72 male and 21 female players completed a questionnaire. No differences were observed between artificial turf and natural grass in terms of total distance covered (mean 10.19 km, s = 0.19 vs. 10.33 km, s = 0.23), high-intensity running (1.86 km, s = 0.10 vs. 1.87 km, s = 0.14), number of sprints (21, s = 1 vs. 22, s = 2), standing tackles (10, s = 1 vs. 11, s = 1) or headers per game (8, s = 1 vs. 8, s = 1), whereas there were fewer sliding tackles (P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass (2.1, s = 0.5 vs. 4.3, s = 0.6). There were more short passes (218, s = 14 vs. 167, s = 12) and midfield-to-midfield passes (148, s = 11 vs. 107, s = 8) (both P < 0.05) on artificial turf than natural grass. On a scale of 0-10, where 0 = "better than", 5 = "equal to", and 10 = "worse than", the male players reported a negative overall impression (8.3, s = 0.2), poorer ball control (7.3, s = 0.3), and greater physical effort (7.2, s = 0.2) on artificial turf than natural grass. In conclusion, the running activities and technical standard were similar during games on artificial turf and natural grass. However, fewer sliding tackles and more short passes were performed during games on artificial turf. The observed change in playing style could partly explain the male players' negative impression of artificial turf.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Karlsen, A.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Blomhoff, R.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raastad, T.
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 600-608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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