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  • 1.
    Andersson, Gunnel
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Urinary incontinence: prevalence, treatment seeking behaviour, experiences, and perceptions among persons with and without urinary leakage2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to describe urinary incontinence (UI) from a population perspective and to describe experiences and perceptions of UI from an individual perspective. This includes assessing the prevalence of urinary incontinence as well as describing treatment seeking and experiences of living with UI. A secondary aim was to describe the perception of UI among cultures other than the Swedish mainstream, exemplified in this case by Syrian women living in Sweden. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used, including questionnaires and interviews.

    Studies I and II were quantitative studies based on a population-based study. Together with a postal survey on general health and living conditions “Life & Health”, a questionnaire on urinary incontinence was sent out to 15 360 randomly-selected residents aged 18-79 in Orebro County, Sweden. In Study I, UI was found to affect 19%. The majority of the respondents experienced minor problems, and only 18% of those reporting UI wanted treatment. However, there was also a group who reported severe problems, but despite this 42% of them did not want treatment. Study II investigated why people with UI refrain from seeking care and treatment. It was found that the desire for treatment was regulated by the frequency of UI, being restricted from participating in various activities, the degree of inconvenience, and the type of UI.

    Studies III and IV were both qualitative interview studies, describing older women’s experiences of living with UI (Study III) and Syrian women’s perceptions of UI (Study IV). There were similarities between the results of these two studies; the women described UI as a normal and expected problem, and they knew that the district nurse could prescribe incontinence protections and that treatments existed. In both studies, the women expressed difficulties in making contact with the health care service, while the women who did not speak Swedish (Study IV) also had difficulties due to different communication problems.

    In conclusion, it is important that health care resources are optimized to identify and meet the needs of those who experience major problems with UI, and that there is awareness of the communication difficulties that can be present in meeting with people who speak other languages. However it is also important not to medicalize those who experience minor problems and who have the desire to manage on their own.

    List of papers
    1. Urinary incontinence prevalence, impact on daily living and desire for treatmentt: a population-based study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urinary incontinence prevalence, impact on daily living and desire for treatmentt: a population-based study
    2004 (English)In: Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence in a representative population in Sweden, and to assess to what extent the condition affects daily life and to what degree those afflicted desire treatment.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS:

    In a population-based study, a postal questionnaire comprising 12 questions on urinary incontinence was sent to a representative sample of 15 360 randomly selected residents (aged 18-79 years) of Orebro County, Sweden. This was a supplement to a comprehensive survey of public health and general living conditions.

    RESULTS:

    The response rate was 64.5%. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 19% when defined as "any leakage" and 7% when defined as "at least once a week". Women were more afflicted than men, and the proportion of people with urinary incontinence increased markedly with increasing age. Most considered their problems to be minor, having little impact on daily life, which was reflected by the fact that only 18% of those with urinary incontinence desired treatment. About 17% of those with urinary incontinence reported severe problems that interfered with daily life. Of respondents with severe problems, 42% did not want treatment.

    CONCLUSION:

    According to this population-based study, urinary incontinence is not a major problem for most people in the community. Although a considerable proportion of the population report urinary incontinence, the majority experience minor problems and only 18% desire treatment. For a limited group of people, urinary incontinence is a severe problem. It is important that healthcare resources are optimized to identify and meet the needs of those who are most afflicted.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2004
    Keywords
    impact on daily life, population‐based study, prevalence, urinary incontinence Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00365590310022608
    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3043 (URN)10.1080/00365590310022608 (DOI)000221058000005 ()15204395 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-1942422250 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-01-12 Created: 2009-01-12 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
    2. Urinary incontinence - why refraining from treatment?: a population based study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urinary incontinence - why refraining from treatment?: a population based study
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate why persons with urinary incontinence (UI) refrain from seeking care and treatment.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study was undertaken in which a public health survey and a specific UI questionnaire were sent to 15 360 randomly selected residents (age 18-79 years) of Orebro County, Sweden. For all persons reporting UI, the expressed wish for treatment or no treatment was analyzed in relation to relevant variables from both inquiry forms using binary logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 64.5%. UI was reported by 2194 persons, 1724 of whom comprised the study population. A statistically significant association was found between the degree of UI and a desire for treatment. Persons who did not experience daily leakage and those who did not perceive the leakage as troublesome or having an affect on their daily life mostly stated that they did not desire treatment. Socioeconomic or other health-related factors were not associated with desiring or not desiring treatment for UI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is the perceived severity of UI that determines whether afflicted persons desire treatment or not. Other factors, relating to seeking healthcare in general, were not found to be of importance. Interventions to identify those in need of treatment for UI should primarily be directed towards those with severe symptoms.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2005
    Keywords
    : Healthcare-seeking behavior, population-based study, urinary incontinence
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Urology and Nephrology Nursing
    Research subject
    Medicine; Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4540 (URN)10.1080/00365590510031129 (DOI)000231453100007 ()16118105 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-27144476977 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Part of thesis: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2713

    Available from: 2008-04-14 Created: 2008-04-14 Last updated: 2022-08-03Bibliographically approved
    3. Accepting and adjusting: Older women's experiences of living with urinary incontinence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accepting and adjusting: Older women's experiences of living with urinary incontinence
    2008 (English)In: Urologic Nursing, ISSN 1053-816X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 115-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In-depth interviews were performed with 11 Swedish women who contacted a district nurse to obtain sanitary protection. Three key constituents (themes) emerged: "learning to live with it despite difficulties," "other illnesses are more important," and "reluctance to seek care." The essence of the phenomenon of living with urinary incontinence (Ul) was expressed as "a situation to accept and adjust to."

    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3045 (URN)- ()18488587 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-45849087670 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Part of thesis: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2713

    Funding agency:Orebro CountyCouncil's Research Fund

    Available from: 2009-01-12 Created: 2009-01-12 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
    4. Perceptions of urinary incontinence among syrian Christian women living in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of urinary incontinence among syrian Christian women living in Sweden
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Transcultural Nursing, ISSN 1043-6596, E-ISSN 1552-7832, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 296-303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perception of urinary incontinence (UI) among Syrian women living in Sweden. DESIGN: A qualitative, descriptive design with focus group discussions (FGDs) was used and analyzed with content analysis. Fourteen Syrian women were interviewed in three FGDs. FINDINGS: Three categories emerged, "Thoughts on UI," "Managing UI," and "Communication With the Health Care System." Among the interviewees, UI was a common, and expected, problem, which could be managed. However, some expressed shame and embarrassment. Some talked about communication problems with health care. DISCUSSION: and Implications for Practice: The health care system should be adjusted to the women's needs, with awareness of the communication difficulties, which could result in misunderstanding and neglected treatments.

    Keywords
    urinary incontinence, ethnic group, interpreter, focus group discussion, psychosocial factors
    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7355 (URN)10.1177/1043659609334850 (DOI)000267504000005 ()19372538 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-67650503250 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-06-22 Created: 2009-06-22 Last updated: 2022-07-04Bibliographically approved
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  • 2.
    Andersson, Katri
    et al.
    Institutionen för livsmedelshygien, Kungliga Veterinärhögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Barn smittar hund1977In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 29, no 24, p. 977-977Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Children with cancer: focusing on their fear and on how their fear is handled2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various fears in children with cancer have previously been identified as a result of studying e.g. symptom experiences, distress and uncertainty within this population. Studies of the meaning the children give to their fear, as well as the handling of their fear seem to be sparse, however. Also, fear has not been an exclusive focus in previous studies. Professionals in clinical practice have pointed to the need for such research, which has prompted the present research work. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore twofold; firstly, the aim was to elucidate fear in children and adolescents with cancer in order to gain an understanding from the perspective of adolescents and parents. Secondly, it was to elucidate parents’ and professionals’ handling of the fear. This in order to gain a deeper understanding of what performances and manners the children and adolescents can face when being fearful. A qualitative descriptive design was adopted in the five included studies. The methods used in the data analysis were phenomenological hermeneutical method (studies I–III) and qualitative content analysis (studies IV–V).

    In study I six adolescent girls, aged 14–16 years, with experiences of various cancer diagnoses, but now declared fit, were interviewed. The results reveal that they experience their fear as embodied, which in the comprehensive understanding of the results was interpreted as a threat to their personal self, their whole existence. Their fear was seen as a holistic intertwined experience, including fear related to the physical body and to the social self. Also, existential fear was described. Their described experience was interpreted as suffering.

    Studies II and III share the same data. Fifteen parents of children at various ages with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed in focus groups about their experience of their child’s fear. In study II the result reveals how the parents experienced and understood their child’s fear. The fear was described as a multidimensional phenomenon, which was not always easy to identify. It was contrasted to feelings of unease and to absence of fear. In the comprehensive understanding the fear was interpreted as a suffering, as that was regarded to be what was the common meaning in the narratives. The suffering was interpreted as an ethical demand to the parents to take action. In study III the parents described their actions, i.e. they described how they dealt with the fear. Their actions were described as acting in the best interests of the child, which included striving to make the child feel secure and experience wellbeing, up to a certain point. However, after this point the parents used their parental authority to maintain the child’s physical health rather than trying to prevent or relieve the child’s fear. In the comprehensive understanding the parents’ handling of their child’s fear was interpreted as revealing mercy and as being synonymous with meeting the ethical demand put on them.

    In study IV ten experienced nurses and physicians were individually interviewed about how they handled fear in children with cancer. The result reveals that the existential issues were dealt with within the relationship with the child, on a sliding scale between closeness and distance, and that the fear related to medical procedures occurred on a continuum between support and lack of support. The various actions involved, and the manner in which these actions were performed, was described.

    In the observational study (study V) eleven parents and their children as well as eleven health professionals participated. They were observed at children’s routine visits at the outpatient clinic. The aim was to study the interactions related to fear. The result reveals that when children were fearful they expressed this both verbally and non-verbally. The parents’ and professionals’ actions and interactions in these situations were found to be characterized by recognition of the fear or lack of attention to the fear.

    The findings can contribute to a broadened knowledge on fear in children and adolescents with cancer. Awareness and understanding of the meaning adolescents give to their fear, and furthermore, of the parents’ experience and understanding of their child’s fear can provide tools for interacting with these groups. The findings on how fear is dealt with by the ones children have claimed as important sources for support, can give insights into what the child may face when being fearful. These insights can form the basis for individual, as well as collegial, reflections on what is done when children face fear, how fear is handled on an everyday basis and why it is handled in this way. Such reflections could lead to an ethical awareness of handling fear in children with cancer.

    List of papers
    1. Embodied suffering: experiences of fear in adolescent girls with cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embodied suffering: experiences of fear in adolescent girls with cancer
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 129-143Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, fear in adolescents with cancer has been sparsely described from an emic perspective. The aim of this study was to illuminate fear in adolescents with personal experience of cancer. The participants were six adolescent girls between the age of 14 and 16 years who were no longer under active treatment for cancer but still went for regular check-ups. Open interviews were conducted. Data were analysed according to the phenomenological hermeneutic method. In the result one main theme was identified: `an embodied fear — a threat to the personal self'. This theme was built up by three separate but intertwined themes: `experiencing fear related to the physical body', `experiencing existential fear' and `experiencing fear related to the social self'. In the comprehensive understanding the fear was interpreted from youth cultural aspects as well as a holistic perspective. The importance of professionals taking the whole person and their situation into account when meeting the fear is underlined.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Sage, 2008
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Surgery Cancer and Oncology
    Research subject
    Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5377 (URN)10.1177/1367493508088550 (DOI)000207648000005 ()2-s2.0-50349084497 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-02-06 Created: 2009-02-06 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Children's fear as experienced by the parents of children with cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children's fear as experienced by the parents of children with cancer
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 233-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that children with cancer experience and express fear, but little is found in the literature about how the parents experience their child's fear. This study aimed to highlight the parents' lived experience and understanding of their child's fear. Focus group interviews with 15 parents were performed. Data were analyzed through a phenomenological hermeneutic method. Fear in children with cancer is described by the parents as a multidimensional phenomenon, which is somehow difficult to identify. It appears in contrast to the absence of fear. The comprehensive understanding of the results reveals that the parents experience their children's fear as both a suffering and an ethical demand for the parents to answer.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007
    Keywords
    Cancer, barn, rädsla, upplevelse
    National Category
    Pediatrics Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Nursing Medical and Health Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3979 (URN)10.1016/j.pedn.2007.03.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-34248530826 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Parental handling of fear in children with cancer: caring in the best interests of the child
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parental handling of fear in children with cancer: caring in the best interests of the child
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2837 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    4. How physicians and nurses handle fear in children with cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How physicians and nurses handle fear in children with cancer
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on fear in children with cancer has often focused on interventions to alleviate fear related to medical procedures and less on how to meet the challenges related to existential fear. This study aimed to describe how experienced nurses and physicians handle fear in children with cancer. Ten nurses and physicians with more than 10 years of experience in child oncology from a university hospital in Sweden were interviewed, and a qualitative content analysis was performed on the data. Nurses' and physicians' handling of fear encompasses commitment and closeness and yet also a distancing from fear and its expressions

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Nursing Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Medical and Health Sciences Pediatrics
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2838 (URN)10.1016/j.pedn.2006.05.010 (DOI)2-s2.0-33846211904 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    5. Fear in children with cancer: observations at an outpatient visit
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear in children with cancer: observations at an outpatient visit
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe interactions within the family and between them and professionals on a routine visit at a paediatric oncology outpatient clinic where the visiting child was likely to be fearful. Observations were performed. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The behaviours most frequently observed as expressing fear were being quiet, withdrawn or providing detailed descriptions of experiences. Within the theme `Recognition of the fear', an attentive attitude to the fear was traced; fear was confirmed and cooperation was seen. Although many efforts were made to meet the fear, this was not always successful. Within the theme `Lack of attention to the fear', the fear was not in focus due to parental worries and concerns about the child's health, and organizational disturbances. The results can serve as a basis for collegial reflections of how to handle fear in children with cancer.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Sage, 2008
    National Category
    Nursing
    Research subject
    Nursing Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5375 (URN)10.1177/1367493508092519 (DOI)000207648100003 ()2-s2.0-55949135870 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-02-06 Created: 2009-02-06 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Anjum, Muna F
    et al.
    Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK.
    Schmitt, Heike
    Centre for Zoonoses and Environmental Microbiology - Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3720 BA, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), 751 89, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, 171 82 Solna, Sweden.
    Berendonk, Thomas U
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), 751 89, Uppsala, Sweden Present address: Department of Microbiology, Public Health Agency of Sweden, 171 82 Solna, Sweden.
    The potential of using E. coli as an indicator for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment2021In: Current Opinion in Microbiology, ISSN 1369-5274, E-ISSN 1879-0364, Vol. 64, p. 152-158Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), in a One-Health perspective, surveillance play an important role. Monitoring systems already exist in the human health and livestock sectors, but there are no environmental monitoring programs. Therefore there is an urgent need to initiate environmental AMR monitoring programs nationally and globally, which will complement existing systems in different sectors. However, environmental programs should not only identify anthropogenic influences and levels of AMR, but they should also allow for identification of transmissions to and from human and animal populations. In the current review we therefore propose using antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli as indicators for monitoring occurrence and levels of AMR in the environment, including wildlife.

  • 5.
    Arnison, Tor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Schrooten, Martien G. S.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Longitudinal, bidirectional relationships of insomnia symptoms and musculoskeletal pain across adolescence: the mediating role of mood2022In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 163, no 2, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have established a bidirectional relationship between sleep and pain, and mood has been proposed as a mediator of this relationship. There are only a limited number of longitudinal studies examining the mediational role of mood, and the directionality of effects between sleep, pain and mood is uncertain. Also, and despite the high prevalence of pain and sleep problems during adolescence, these relationships have rarely been examined in a longitudinal sample of adolescents. Here, longitudinal survey data with five yearly measurements was used to examine the bidirectional relationship between insomnia symptoms and pain across adolescence (Mbaseline age = 13.65 years, Nbaseline = 2766). We also explored if depressed mood, positive affect and anxious mood function as mediators in both directions of the sleep-pain relationship. Utilizing latent variables for insomnia, pain and mood at multiple time-points, the data was analyzed with cross-lagged panel models for longitudinal data with structural equation modeling. Current results confirmed a bidirectional relationship between insomnia symptoms and pain, where the effect of insomnia symptoms on pain was stronger than vice versa. Depressed mood and anxious mood mediated the effect of insomnia symptoms on pain, but not the reverse effect of pain on insomnia symptoms. Positive affect did not serve as a mediator in either direction. These findings add novel insights into the temporal directionality of sleep, pain and mood during adolescence, suggesting a temporal path from sleep to pain, via mood, rather than a reciprocal relationship between the constructs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Longitudinal, bidirectional relationships of insomnia symptoms and musculoskeletal pain across adolescence: the mediating role of mood
  • 6.
    Bansal, Ruby
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Tighe, Daniel
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Danai, Amin
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Rawn, Dorothea F. K.
    Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
    Gaertner, Dean W.
    Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
    Arnold, Doug L.
    Health Canada, Health Products and Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada.
    Gilbert, Mary E.
    Toxicity Assessment Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA.
    Zoeller, R. Thomas
    Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA; Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) interferes with thyroid hormone action independent of effects on circulating levels of thyroid hormone in male rats2014In: Endocrinology, ISSN 0013-7227, E-ISSN 1945-7170, Vol. 155, no 10, p. 4104-4112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0-30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology.

  • 7.
    Beck-Friis, Johan
    et al.
    Sveriges veterinärförbund.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise (intervjuobjekt)
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salmonella: en smitta att ta på allvar2004In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 33-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Berndtson, E.
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Emanuelson, U.
    Swedish Association for Livestock Breeding and Production, Eskilstuna, Sweden .
    Engvall, A.
    Department of Epizootiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A 1-year epidemiological study of campylobacters in 18 Swedish chicken farms1996In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, E-ISSN 1873-1716, Vol. 26, no 3-4, p. 167-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broiler chickens are often intestinal carriers of Campylobacter. During processing, Campylobacter may be spread over the carcass. Thus, undercooked chicken meat, or other foods contaminated by raw chicken can act as a source of infection to humans. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for chicken flocks being colonized with Campylobacter. Eighteen chicken farms with altogether 62 chicken compartments were studied for 1 year with visits during each growing period and sampling of chicken caecal contents at slaughter. Four to six subsequent flocks were raised in each compartment during the study. A detailed questionnaire was used to record farm parameters such as building materials, feed and water equipment, hygiene and management routines. Campylobacter prevalence varied between farms, between growing periods within the farms and also during the year, with lowest prevalence during the spring. Campylobacters were isolated from 27% out of 287 flocks. Only two farms were negative at all samplings. Often the flock following a positive flock in a compartment was negative, indicating that normal cleaning and disinfecting routines are sufficient for eliminating the bacteria from the house. Usually only one serotype was found in each positive flock. Campylobacter occurrence increased with the age of the chickens at slaughter, and also with flock size.

    Univariable chi-square tests were done of the association between possible risk factors and Campylobacter prevalence. Factors associated with higher Campylobacter prevalence in flocks were lack of or diffuse hygiene barriers, increasing flock size, increasing age at slaughter, short vs. long empty periods, wet litter beds, other poultry nearby or staff handling other poultry, flocks divided before slaughter, staff loading to slaughter at several farms and occurrence of mice. Under Swedish conditions, water does not seem to be a source of infection for chickens. Origin and handling of day-old chickens, feed additives, houses and litter were not associated with higher Campylobacter prevalence.

  • 9.
    Berndtson, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engvall, Anders
    Department of Epizootiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experimental colonization of mice with Campylobacter jejuni1994In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 41, no 1-2, p. 183-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of one human and two chicken strains of Campylobacter jejuni to colonise and survive in three different strains of laboratory mice (NMRI, CBA and C57-Black) was studied. Mice were inoculated orally with Campylobacter jejuni and faeces samples were cultured at regular intervals during the following months. The length of colonisation of mice differed between mouse strains but also between Campylobacter strains. The mouse strain C57-Black was not colonised with C. jejuni to the same degree as the other mouse strains. It is concluded that mice can become colonised for prolonged periods and that they may act as reservoirs of Campylobacter for other species.

  • 10.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Landén, Annica
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergström, Martin
    Department of Business Support, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Ulrika Grönlund
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Sweden2012In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 597-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the most frequent causes of infections in dogs. In Europe, there are increasing reports of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), and in Sweden, MRSP has also been more frequently isolated during recent years. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology and genetic relationship among the Swedish isolates. This study therefore investigated the genetic relationship of MRSP isolated from companion animals in Sweden. In the study, MRSP isolates taken in the period January 2008-June 2010 from a total of 226 dogs and cats were characterized by spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In addition, the geographical distribution of the isolates based on year of isolation and genetic typing was determined using a geographical information system. One multiresistant clonal lineage dominated among Swedish MRSP isolates, corresponding to the European winning lineage ST71-J-t02-SCCmec II-III. Furthermore, the geographical dissemination of MRSP corresponded to areas with high dog densities, centered on the three major cities in Sweden where the largest animal hospitals are situated.

  • 11.
    Böttiger, Anna
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Genetic variation in the folate receptor-alpha and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes as determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive disease such as dementia. The B vitamins folate and B12 are the main de terminants of tHcy. tHcy concentration can also be affected by mutations in genes coding for receptors, enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism of Hcy. This thesis focuses on mutations in the genes for folate receptor-alpha and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and the effect they have on tHcy concentrations.

    Six novel mutations in the gene for folate receptor-alpha were described in Paper I. Taken together they exist in a population with a prevalence of approximately 1% and thus are not unusual. There may be an association of –69dupA and –18C>T to tHcy but for the 25-bp deletion, –856C>T, –921T>C and –1043G>A there is probably no association to tHcy. Mutation screening was continued and four additional mutations, 1314G>A, 1816delC, 1841G>A and 1928C>T, were described in Paper II. The prevalences for the heterozygotes were between 0.5% and 13% in an elderly population. There was no significant difference in prevalence between the elderly subjects and patients with dementia. The 1816(–)-allele and the 1841A-allele were in complete linkage and the haplotype 1816(–)-1841A may possibly have a tHcy raising effect. The 1314G>A and 1928C>T mutations had no association to tHcy.

    The genotype prevalences and haplotype frequencies of the MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C and 1793G>A polymorphisms were determined in a population sample of Swedish children and adolescents (Paper III). The MTHFR 677T-allele was associated with increased tHcy concentrations in both children and adolescents. A small elevating effect of the 1298C-allele and a small lowering effect of the 1793A-allele could be shown. In an epidemiological sample of adults from the Canary Islands, Spain, data for serum folate and vitamin B12 were used for a broader study of the nutrigenetic impact on tHcy (Paper IV). The 677T-allele had a significant tHcy increasing effect in men but not in women. The 1298C-allele had a minor elevating effect on tHcy in men with the 677CT genotype. It was not possible to document any effect of the 1793A-allele on tHcy due to its low prevalence. A slightly superior explanatory power for the genetic impact was obtained using the MTHFR haplotypes in the analysis compared to the MTHFR 677C>T genotype-based approach in both the Swedish children and adolescents and in the Spanish adults. Therefore MTHFR haplotypes should be considered when analysing the impact of the MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C and 1793G>A polymorphisms on tHcy.

    Notwithstanding the large geographical distance between our study populations the haplotype composition is quite similar. The MTHFR 677T-allele is slightly more prevalent in Spain compared to Sweden but it has only an effect on tHcy in the Spanish men. Age, gender and factors linked to the ethnicity of the studied subjects, seem to be able to override the nutrigenetic impact of tHcy-raising genotypes or haplotypes in particular settings, such as in the Spanish women in our study. Gene-nutrient interactions on plasma tHcy levels thus may or may not exist in a certain population. The transferability of nutrigenetic findings may therefore be limited, and must be re-evaluated for each particular setting of age-gender-ethnicity.

    List of papers
    1. Novel mutations in the 5'-UTR of the FOLR1 gene
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel mutations in the 5'-UTR of the FOLR1 gene
    2006 (English)In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 161-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously reported two novel mutations in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the gene for folate receptor-alpha (FOLR1). In our search for additional mutations, 92 patient samples with elevated levels of homocysteine were screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) between nt -425 and -782, and -712 and -1110. Between nt -425 and -782 we did not find any mutations. Between nt -712 and -1110 there were three novel mutations. One subject had two mutations very close to each other, c.-856C>T and c.-921T>C. Two subjects had a c.-1043G>A mutation. To get an idea of the prevalence of FOLR1 mutations in an unselected population, we also screened 692 healthy school children for mutations. In this cohort, between nt -188 and +272 we discovered one novel mutation, a single nucleotide substitution, c.-18C>T, in addition to five children with the 25-bp deletion mutation previously described by us. Thus, so far we have discovered six novel mutations in the 5'-UTR region of the gene for folate receptor-alpha. We genotyped all 17 subjects with a FOLR1 mutation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, and developed new single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping protocols for MTHFR 1298A>C and 1793G>A utilising Pyrosequencing technology. None of the 17 subjects had the 677TT genotype, which ruled out this as a cause of elevated homocysteine levels, which was observed in some of the subjects. Further studies of mutations in the 5'-UTR of FOLR1, and in particular of their interplay with folate intake status, are warranted.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3035 (URN)10.1515/CCLM.2006.029 (DOI)000235777200006 ()16475900 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-11-15 Created: 2008-11-15 Last updated: 2022-11-25Bibliographically approved
    2. Mutations in exons 2 and 3 of the FOLR1 gene in demented and non-demented elderly subjects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mutations in exons 2 and 3 of the FOLR1 gene in demented and non-demented elderly subjects
    2007 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 653-662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously reported six novel mutations in the 5'-UTR of the gene for folate receptor-alpha (FOLR1). In our search for additional mutations we screened patients, referred for investigation of suspected dementia (DGM subgroup) by SSCP and DNA sequencing from the end of exon 1 to the first bases of intron 3. We found 4 sequence variations, FOLR1 g.1314G>A, g.1816delC, g.1841G>A, and g.1928C>T. Pyrosequencing genotyping assays were developed for all of them, and 389 active seniors (AS subgroup) and the 202 DGM patients were genotyped for these mutations. The frequency q of the mutated allele was, among the AS subjects, 0.068, 0.0026, 0.0026, and 0.024 respectively, and among the DGM subjects, 0.067, 0.0076, 0.0078, and 0.023. The g.1816delC and g.1841G>A mutations thus were more frequent in the DGM than in the AS subgroup, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The mutated alleles, FOLR1 1816(-) and 1841A, always occurred together in the same subjects, suggestive of a rare double-mutant haplotype. The two common polymorphisms, FOLR1 g. 1314G>A and g.1928C>T seemed not to raise tHcy plasma levels, whereas the double-mutated g.1816(-)-g.1841A haplotype may possibly have a slight tHcy-raising effect. Thus, so far 8 novel rare FOLR1 mutations with a combined prevalence of approximately 1.3% in Whites as well as two common polymorphisms with 5% and 13%, respectively, have been demonstrated. Only a few of the rare mutations may potentially be associated with raised plasma tHcy concentrations. No association with dementia was found.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Athens, Greece: D.A. Spandidos, 2007
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Geriatrics
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3036 (URN)17912458 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-11-15 Created: 2008-11-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Association of total plasma homocysteine with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes 677C>T, 1298A>C, and 1793G>A and the corresponding haplotypes in Swedish children and adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association of total plasma homocysteine with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes 677C>T, 1298A>C, and 1793G>A and the corresponding haplotypes in Swedish children and adolescents
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 659-665Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 692 Swedish children and adolescents (aged 9-10 or 15-16 years, respectively), in order to evaluate the effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, 1298A>C, and 1793G>A polymorphisms on total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy). Genotyping was performed with Pyrosequencing technology. The MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism was associated with increased tHcy concentrations in both the children and the adolescents (P<0.001 for both age groups) in both genders. The effect of MTHFR 1298A>C was studied separately in subjects with the 677CC and 677CT genotypes, and the 1298C allele was found to be associated with higher tHcy levels both when children were stratified according to 677C>T genotypes, and when using haplotype analyses and diplotype reconstructions. The 1793A allele was in complete linkage disequilibrium with the 1298C allele. It was still possible to show that the 1793A allele was associated with lower tHcy levels, statistically significant in the adolescents. In conclusion, a haplotype-based approach was slightly superior in explaining the genetic interaction on tHcy plasma levels in children and adolescents than a simple genotype based approach (R2 adj 0.44 vs. 0.40). The major genetic impact on tHcy concentrations is attributable to the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. The common 1298A>C polymorphism had a minor elevating effect on tHcy, whereas the 1793G>A polymorphism had a lowering effect on tHcy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Athens, Greece: D.A. Spandidos, 2007
    Keywords
    Molecular medicine
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Medical Genetics
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3037 (URN)17334642 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2008-11-15 Created: 2008-11-15 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
    4. Plasma homocysteine and MTHFR genotypes and haplotypes: gene-nutrient interactions in the Canary Islands Nutrition Study (ENCA)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma homocysteine and MTHFR genotypes and haplotypes: gene-nutrient interactions in the Canary Islands Nutrition Study (ENCA)
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Keywords
    molecular medicine, medical genetics
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Medical Genetics
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3038 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-15 Created: 2008-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
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  • 12.
    Chi, Xiaohui
    et al.
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Berglund, Björn
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Zou, Huiyun
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Zheng, Beiwen
    State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ji, Xiang
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    Department of Risk and Benefit Assessment, National Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Global Health—Health Systems and Policy, Medicines, Focusing Antibiotics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Xuewen
    Department of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Characterization of Clinically Relevant Strains of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Occurring in Environmental Sources in a Rural Area of China by Using Whole-Genome Sequencing2019In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen, and a common cause of healthcare-associated infections such as pneumonia, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. The purpose of this study was to survey the occurrence of and characterize K. pneumoniae in different environmental sources in a rural area of Shandong province, China. Two hundred and thirty-one samples from different environmental sources in 12 villages were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae, and 14 (6%) samples were positive. All isolates were multidrug-resistant and a few of them belonged to clinically relevant strains which are known to cause hospital outbreaks worldwide. Serotypes, virulence genes, serum survival, and phagocytosis survival were analyzed and the results showed the presence of virulence factors associated with highly virulent clones and a high degree of phagocytosis survivability, indicating the potential virulence of these isolates. These results emphasize the need for further studies designed to elucidate the role of the environment in transmission and dissemination of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and the potential risk posed to human and environmental health.

  • 13.
    Corrò, Michela
    et al.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, viale Università 10, 35020, Legnaro, PD, Italy.
    Skarin, Joakim
    Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), SE-751 89, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), SE-751 89, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rota, Ada
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Largo Paolo Braccini 2-5, 10090, Grugliasco, TO, Italy.
    Occurrence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in successive parturitions of bitches and their puppies in two kennels in Italy2018In: BMC Veterinary Research, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 14, article id 308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Multi-drug methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) detection is rapidly increasing in microbial specimens from pets across Europe. MRSP has also been isolated from bitches and newborns in dog breeding kennels. This study assessed whether MRSP lineage differs between breeding kennels and is maintained over time. Post-partum bitches (at day 3 vaginal and day 3, 9 and 35 milk samples) and their litters (at day 3, 9 and 35 oral and abdominal skin samples) from two Italian breeding kennels (A and B) were sampled and MRSP was subsequently characterized via whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The study was carried out from October 2014 to March 2016 and included successive parturitions from the same animals.

    RESULTS: The analysis revealed different situations in both investigated kennels. In kennel A, circulating strains were from 7-locus sequence types ST688, ST258 and closely related isolates of ST71, which included most isolates. In kennel B, only a new isolate, ST772, was detected. In addition, most isolates from both kennels had multi-resistant antibiotic profiles. MRSP was only isolated from litters of MRSP-positive bitches, thus suggesting that bitch-litter transmission is likely.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that MRSP circulation can differ in different settings, that several clonal lineages can circulate together, and that vertical transmission appears common. MRSP colonization did not affect the health conditions of the bitches or of their litters.

  • 14.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Den veterinäre livsmedelshygienikern: från patolog till risk- och faroanaytiker2004In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 19-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fekala funderingar2003In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 55, no 15, p. 53-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hurdan veterinär vill det svenska samhället ha?2004In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 39-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Köttkontrollens historia: från allmänna slakthus till Livsmedelsverket2003In: Vår Föda, no 5, p. 20-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mjölkontrollens historia: förfalskad grädde och TBC – problem på 1800-talet2003In: Vår Föda, ISSN 0042-2657, no 6, p. 12-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rapport från veterinärutbildningens nya antagningssystem2000In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 781-782Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salmonella i avloppsvatten och slam1978In: XIII Nordiska Veterinärkongressen, Pohjoismainen Eläninlääkärrikongressi: Turko – Åbo, 19–22 July, 1978, FÖREDRAG OCH RAPPORTER, Esitelemät ja raportit, Prodeedings, / [ed] Bengt Westerling Toim., Helsinki: Nordiska Veterinärkongressen , 1978, p. 102-103Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Davey, Gareth
    et al.
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Khor, Mei
    Department of Psychology, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, Malaysia.
    Zhao, Xiang
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Key beliefs underlying public feeding of free-roaming cats in Malaysia and management suggestions2019In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public feeding of free-roaming cats subsidizes their population growth, and has consequences in highly interconnected ecosystems including predation of native wildlife and alteration of their behavior and populations. Research is needed to explain, predict, and possibly curb public feeding. We conducted a theoretically informed analysis of key beliefs underlying intentions to feed free-roaming cats in Malaysia, offering new insights as well as management suggestions. Normative beliefs had the strongest associations with behavioral intentions. Management strategies should consider social influences from families and friends of those who feed free-roaming cats, especially cat owners and their significant others. Our results also suggest key behavioral beliefs regarding disadvantages of feeding free-roaming cats could be strengthened through education and other initiatives. The findings are particularly important for Malaysia, which is biodiversity-rich but has a large free-roaming cat population and a high incidence of public feeding.

  • 22.
    Davey, Gareth
    et al.
    College of Arts and Sciences, Webster University, Thailand Campus, Tambon Sampraya, Cha-am, Phetchaburi, Thailand.
    Zhao, Xiang
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    ‘Feeding a cat that isn’t yours? Think again!’: an intervention protocol for reducing the feeding of free-roaming cats by residents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia2020In: Pacific Conservation Biology, ISSN 1038-2097, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 420-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-roaming cats negatively affect wildlife, human health, and society, and anthropogenic food sources partly maintain their populations. There is a dearth of theory-informed interventions to change people’s beliefs about feeding animals. Here, we outline a behavioural change intervention protocol to modify Malaysians’ key beliefs (i.e. the most influential beliefs) about feeding free-roaming cats. Our protocol serves as a novel, timely, and potentially valuable tool for addressing a significant conservation and societal issue. The Theory of Planned Behaviour is the theoretical framework of the intervention, underpinning its targets (i.e. behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs), content, delivery, and evaluation. The prescriptive intervention consists of one full-day workshop (duration = 5 h) with three sessions each attempting to alter one key belief using behavioural change strategies. A two-armed parallel-group prospective-cluster randomised controlled trial will be used to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. The protocol can be easily delivered for the public and adapted for other types of locations, human–animal interactions, and contexts. It also complements animal management and policy change approaches.

  • 23.
    Davey, Gareth
    et al.
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Zhao, Xiang
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Free-Roaming Cat (Felis Catus) Management and Welfare Policies in Two University Campuses in Beirut, Lebanon: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Opportunities2020In: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, ISSN 1088-8705, E-ISSN 1532-7604, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little information has been reported about the welfare and management of free-roaming animals in Middle Eastern countries. Here we describe a case study of free-roaming cat (Felis catus) management policies in two universities in Beirut, Lebanon whereby cats are immensely valued for their presence and the benefits they bring to students and employees. Guided by concern for animal welfare, the innovative, humane approaches by the universities include arranging adoptions, discouraging pet abandonment, food provision, health monitoring, nurturing a social responsibility consciousness among young people, formal endorsement of animal rights and humane treatment in student conduct expectations, sterilization, and veterinary care. The policies serve as blueprint for universities and other institutions across the globe to adopt proactive approaches to free-roaming cat management as well take responsibility for the welfare of all animals on campus (rather than only for ethical conduct in use of animals in scientific research). They also inspire students, as the next generation, to safeguard animals and the environment.

  • 24.
    Eilertz, Ingrid
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hammarberg, Karl-Erik
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reeves, MW
    Rocourt, Jocelyne
    Laboratoire des Listeria, Institute Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Seeliger, HPR
    Institute für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, Würzburg, Germany.
    Swaminathan, Balasubramanian
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA, USA.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from goat cheese associated with a case of listeriosis in goat1993In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the brain of a goat, which was euthanized due to listeriosis. A few weeks later a similar subtype of L. monocytogenes was isolated from an on-farm manufactured fresh cheese which did not contain any milk from the goat which had suffered from listeriosis. A similar subtype was also found on 1 of the shelves in the refrigerator where cheeses were stored. Prior to the onset of listeriosis, 1 fresh cheese had been made of milk from the actual goat, which may have excreted L. monocytogenes in her milk. Thus, the cheese made of this milk may have contaminated the shelves in the refrigerator which then has served as a Listeria reservoir for new cheeses during several weeks.

  • 25.
    Eld, Karin
    et al.
    Bacteriological Laboratory, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Anders
    Bacteriological Laboratory, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparison of a cold enrichment method and the IDF method for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from animal autopsy material1992In: Listeria 1992: The Eleventh International Symposium on Problems of Listeriosis: book of abstracts, København: Statens Seruminstitut , 1992, p. 158-159Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Eld, Karin
    et al.
    Bacteriological Laboratory, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Anders
    Bacteriological Laboratory, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparison of a cold enrichment method and the IDF method for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from autopsy material1993In: Veterinary Microbiology, ISSN 0378-1135, E-ISSN 1873-2542, Vol. 36, no 1-2, p. 185-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The method most often used in Sweden for isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from animal autopsy material is a cold enrichment method. This method is very slow. The International Dairy Federation (IDF) has recently presented a method for detection of L. monocytogenes in milk and milk products that is complete in one week. During a two year period 69 specimens from dead animals with suspected listeriosis were examined for L. monocytogenes in parallel analyses with both the cold enrichment method and the IDF method. Samples derived from different autopsy material representing a variety of animals. L. monocytogenes was isolated in 27.5% of the samples with the IDF method but only in 4.3% with the cold enrichment method. It is concluded that the IDF method was more sensitive than the cold enrichment method.

  • 27.
    Eliasson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Tularemia: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the small, fastidious, gram-negative rod Francisella tularensis that appears over almost the entire Northern Hemisphere. In Sweden, tularemia has appeared mainly in restricted areas in northern parts of central Sweden.

    The disease can be transmitted through several routes: direct contact with infected animals, by vectors, through contaminated food or water or through inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. Distinct clinical forms of the disease are seen, depending on the route of transmission. During the last years, tularemia has emerged in new areas in central Sweden, south of the endemic area. The emergence of tularemia in the County of Örebro prompted the investigations presented in this thesis.

    We performed a case-control study, using a mailed questionnaire, to identify risk factors for acquiring tularemia in Sweden (Paper I). After multivariate analysis, mosquito bites and cat ownership could be associated with tularemia in all studied areas while farming appeared as a risk factor only in endemic areas.

    In Paper II, we evaluated a PCR analysis, targeting the tul4 gene, used on samples from primary lesions in patients with ulceroglandular tularemia. The method performed well, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specifi city of 96%. The clinical characteristics of tularemia in an emergent area in Sweden were studied Paper III), using case fi les and a questionnaire. Of 278 cases of tularemia reported during the years 2000 to 2004, 234 had been in contact with a doctor from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Örebro University Hospital, and were thus included. The ulceroglandular form of the disease was seen in 89% of the cases, with the primary lesion, in most cases, on the lower leg. An overwhelming majority of cases occurred during late summer and early autumn, further supporting transmission by mosquitoes. Erythemas overlying the affected lymph node areas were seen in 19% of patients with forms of tularemia affecting peripheral lymph nodes. Late skin manifestations, of various appearances, were seen in 30% of the cases, predominantly in women. A raised awareness of tularemia among physicians in the county during the course of the outbreak was found, as documented by the development of shorter doctor’s delay and less prescription of antibiotics inappropriate in tularemia.

    Finally, we developed a simplifi ed whole-blood lymphocyte stimulation test, as a diagnostic tool in tularemia (Paper IV). The level of IFN-γ, as a proxy for lymphocyte proliferation, was measured after 24-h stimulation. Additionally, a tularemia ELISA with ultra-purifi ed LPS as the antigen was evaluated, showing a high sensitivity. The lymphocyte stimulation test, when performed on consecutive samples from subjects with ongoing tularemia was able to detect the disease earlier in the course of the disease than both the new ELISA and the tube agglutination test. Furthermore, all tularemia cases became positive in the lymphocyte stimulation test within 12 days of disease. In conclusion, this thesis describes risk factors for acquiring tularemia as well as the clinical characteristics of the disease in Sweden. Additionally, a Francisella PCR analysis and a tularemia ELISA based on highly purifi ed LPS is evaluated, and a simplified lymphocyte stimulation test, for early confirmation of the disease, is developed.

    List of papers
    1. The 2000 tularemia outbreak: a case-control study of risk factors in disease-endemic and emergent areas, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The 2000 tularemia outbreak: a case-control study of risk factors in disease-endemic and emergent areas, Sweden
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 956-960Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A widespread outbreak of tularemia in Sweden in 2000 was investigated in a case-control study in which 270 reported cases of tularemia were compared with 438 controls. The outbreak affected parts of Sweden where tularemia had hitherto been rare, and these "emergent" areas were compared with the disease-endemic areas. Multivariate regression analysis showed mosquito bites to be the main risk factor, with an odds ratio (OR) of 8.8. Other risk factors were owning a cat (OR 2.5) and farm work (OR 3.2). Farming was a risk factor only in the disease-endemic area. Swollen lymph nodes and wound infections were more common in the emergent area, while pneumonia was more common in the disease-endemic area. Mosquito bites appear to be important in transmission of tularemia. The association between cat ownership and disease merits further investigation.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2913 (URN)10.3201/eid0809.020051 (DOI)000177728700013 ()12194773 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-0036714697 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-02-20 Created: 2008-02-20 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Clinical use of a diagnostic PCR for Francisella tularensis in patients with suspected ulceroglandular tularaemia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical use of a diagnostic PCR for Francisella tularensis in patients with suspected ulceroglandular tularaemia
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 833-837Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A retrospective analysis to evaluate the clinical use of a diagnostic PCR for Francisella tularensis in patients with suspected ulceroglandular tularaemia was performed. 154 samples, 129 from patients with definitive tularaemia and 25 from patients where tularaemia could be ruled out, were analysed. The diagnostic PCR had a specificity of 96%, a sensitivity of 78.3%, and a Positive Predictive Value of 99%. Especially samples from encrusted lesions, even up to 4 weeks old, in patients with tularaemia, were PCR positive to a high degree when taken properly. The diagnostic PCR is useful in suspected ulceroglandular tularaemia, giving a fast and accurate diagnosis.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2914 (URN)10.1080/00365540500400951 (DOI)000233618800005 ()16308216 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-30544447246 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-02-20 Created: 2008-02-20 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Tularaemia in an emergent area in Sweden: An analysis of 234 cases in five years
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tularaemia in an emergent area in Sweden: An analysis of 234 cases in five years
    2007 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 880-889Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A retrospective study of clinical tularaemia in an emergent area in Sweden is presented. 234 patients seen during the y 2000-2004 were studied, using case files and a questionnaire. There was a predominance of ulceroglandular tularaemia (89%), occurring in late summer and early autumn, reflecting the dominance of mosquito-borne transmission. The incubation period varied from a few hours to 11 d, with a median of 3 d. Cutaneous manifestations of tularaemia, apart from primary lesions, were noted in 43% of the cases. Coughing was common, even in patients with ulceroglandular tularaemia, supporting the view that haematogenous spread to the respiratory system occurs. Regular laboratory tests, such as WBC, ESR and C-reactive protein, were in general only moderately elevated. In the earlier y studied, the Doctor's Delay was substantial as was the misdiagnosis and prescription of inadequate antibiotics. In the later y, however, the delay and misdiagnosis were significantly lower, reflecting the increased recognition of the disease by the physicians in the area. A few relapses occurred, all in patients treated with doxycycline. No lethality was seen, reflecting the benign course of tularaemia type B infection.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2007
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Infectious Medicine
    Research subject
    Infectious Diseases
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2915 (URN)10.1080/00365540701402970 (DOI)000249598300007 ()2-s2.0-34748858629 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-02-20 Created: 2008-02-20 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Kinetics of immune response in tularemia: comparison between ELISA, tube agglutination and a novel whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kinetics of immune response in tularemia: comparison between ELISA, tube agglutination and a novel whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2916 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-02-20 Created: 2008-02-20 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Englund, Lena
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bille, Jaques
    Centre National de Référence des Listerias, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Eld, Karin
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gavier-Widén, D.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rocourt, Jocelyne
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden..
    A possible outbreak of listeriosis in a farmed herd of fallow deer (Dama dama)1992In: Listeria 1992: The Eleventh International Symposium on Problems of Listeriosis (ISOPOL XI) / [ed] Peter Gerner-Smidt, ISOPOL, Copenhagen, Denmark: SSI , 1992, p. 43-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Ericsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Inst för livsmedelshygien, Veterinärhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Unnerstad, Helle
    Avd för mastit och substratproduktion, SVA, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Alderborn, Anders
    Pyrosequencing AB, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Jens G.
    Avd för parasitologi, SVA, Uppsala, Sverige.
    Pyrosekvensering som typningsmetod för Listeria monocytpgenes2003In: Svensk veterinärtidning, ISSN 0346-2250, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 23-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Evans, Alina L.
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sahlén, Veronica
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Stoen, Ole-Gunnar
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Åsa
    Section of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada.
    Brunberg, Sven
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Madslien, Knut
    Section for Wildlife Health, National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Swenson, Jon E.
    Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway; Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Campus Evenstad, Norway; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Capture, Anesthesia, and Disturbance of Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) during Hibernation2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, article id e40520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two-to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21-66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02-0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9-2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1-3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO2 57-74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean +/- standard deviation) 3.2 +/- 3.6 (range 0.5-10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9 +/- 0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2 +/- 7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730 +/- 589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment.

  • 31.
    Forslund, Kerstin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Quell, Robin
    Centrum för omvårdnadsvetenskap, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro.
    Sørlie, Venke
    Bodö högskola, Bodö, Norge.
    Acute chest pain emergencies: spouses' prehospital experiences2008In: International emergency nursing, ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Vilken betydelse har skelettscintigrafi vid diagnos av scaphoideumfraktur?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En scaphoideumfraktur är den vanligaste frakturen bland karpalbenen i handen. Frakturen orsakas vanligen av ett kraftigt extensionsvåld mot handleden.

    Scaphoideums stora rörlighet i handen och dess begränsade blodförsörjning bidrar till att scaphoideumfrakturer kan vara svårläkta.

    Scaphoideumfrakturer kan vara svåra att påvisa på konventionell röntgen, även vid upprepade undersökningar. Visar konventionell röntgen ett negativt resultat, men klinisk misstanke om fraktur kvarstår, finns olika undersökningsmetoder att tillgå för att en säker diagnos ska kunna ställas.

    Syftet med den här litteraturstudien var att undersöka betydelsen av skelettscintigrafi som undersökningsmetod vid diagnos av scaphoideumfraktur.

    Resultatet visar att skelettscintigrafi har stor betydelse vid diagnos av en scaphoideumfraktur.

    Kan inte en säker diagnos ställas på konventionell röntgen är skelettscintigrafi en metod som båda kan påvisa och exkludera en scaphoideumfraktur.

  • 33.
    Hahn-Strömberg, Victoria
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Cell adhesion proteins in different invasive patterns of colon carcinomas: a morphometric and molecular genetic study2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal carcinoma is the second most common type of cancer in both men and women in Sweden. Cancer of the colon and rectum are often considered together and their ten year survival rate is approximately 50 – 60 % depending on sex and location. Different histopathological characteristics of such cancers, including the complexity of growth, are of importance for prognosis.

    This thesis has compared different morphometric methods in order to achieve a quantitative and objective measurement of the invasive front of colon carcinoma. Since the growth pattern is dependent on the cell adhesiveness of different proteins we studied the distribution and localization of E-cadherin, Beta-catenin, Claudin 1,2,7 and Occludin as well as screened the genes for mutations.

    We found a perturbed protein expression of E-cadherin, Beta-catenin, Claudin 1,2,7 and Occludin in tumor sections compared to normal mucosa, but no relation to tumor volume or growth pattern could be seen. The tumor volume was found to be correlated to the growth pattern but not responsible to the perturbed protein expression. In the mutation screening we found a SNP in exon 13 the E-cadherin gene in the tumor, as well as in exon 2 of Claudin 1 and exon 4 of Claudin 7 in both tumor and normal mucosa. No correlation between mutations and growth pattern or tumor volume was found.

    In conclusion, this thesis shows that the computer image analysis with estimation of fractal dimension and number of free tumor cell clusters is superior to the semi quantitative visual grading of tumor invasive complexity. The aberrant expression of cell adhesion proteins in the tumor compared to normal mucosa as well as polymorphisms in the cell adhesion genes CLDN1 and CLDN7 in both tumor and normal mucosa can suggest that these aberrations are important in the tumorigenesis of colon carcinoma.

     

    List of papers
    1. Characterization of colon carcinoma growth pattern by computerized morphometry: definition of a complexity index
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of colon carcinoma growth pattern by computerized morphometry: definition of a complexity index
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 465-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The invasive front of carcinomas may vary in complexity from smooth to highly complex when the front splits up into small cell clusters or even single cancer cells. The degree of complexity is usually estimated visually and semiquantitatively by a pathologist, although more objective methods based on computer-assisted image analysis are available. In this study, we compared the visual estimation of the irregularity of the tumour invasion front of colon carcinomas to different quantitative image analytical techniques and defined a complexity index for the invasive margin. Sections from 29 archived colon carcinomas were stained immunohistochemically for cytokeratin 8. Images of the tumour invasion front were read into a computer and thresholded so that the tumour tissue became black and the background white or so that the tumour front was outlined by a single pixel line. The invasive front was visually classified into four degrees of irregularity by a pathologist. The complexity of the front was then assessed using four different image analysis techniques, i.e. the estimation of fractal dimension, tumour front length, number of tumour cell clusters and lacunarity. Fractal dimension and tumour cell clusters together gave the best correlation to visual grading using a discriminant analysis. A cluster analysis and a tree diagram analysis were then performed and were found to be superior to visual estimation. The clusters represent different degrees of complexity and the result of the tree diagram analysis can be used to assign complexity indices to colon tumours. The fractal dimension separated tumours up to a certain level (1.5-1.6) of complexity. When the tumour front split up into small cell clusters, the counting of tumour cell clusters separated the cells over and above the fractal dimension. This new technique can be used to objectively and quantitatively describe the complexity of the invasive front of tumours.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3031 (URN)10.3892/ijmm_00000044 (DOI)000259763500009 ()18813853 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-54049084178 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-11-10 Created: 2008-11-10 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. Disturbed expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and tight junction proteins in colon carcinoma is unrelated to growth pattern and genetic polymorphisms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disturbed expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and tight junction proteins in colon carcinoma is unrelated to growth pattern and genetic polymorphisms
    2008 (English)In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 116, no 4, p. 253-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion proteins are responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial tissue and in tumors this integrity is often lost, resulting in a disorganization of the tissue. In the present study the complexity of the invasive front of colon carcinomas was correlated with cell adhesion protein expression and with polymorphisms in their genes. A complexity index was constructed from 32 colon carcinomas using computer-assisted morphometry estimating fractal dimension and tumor cell clusters followed by tree analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of beta-catenin, E-cadherin, occludin and claudin 2 was used for assessment of protein expression. Genetic screening of tissue from the tumor invasion front with laser microdissection was performed using SSCP and DNA sequencing. Adhesion protein distribution was significantly disturbed in most carcinomas. A single mutation in the gene of beta-catenin was found but there was no correlation between protein expression and genetic polymorphism. Nor was there any correlation between the complexity of the invasive border and protein distribution or genetic alterations. The results indicate that the complexity of colon carcinoma invasion is not dependent on genetic derangements in the genes of adhesion proteins or the protein distribution. Rather, aberrations in the function of other proteins related to the adhesive proteins could be responsible.

    Keywords
    patology, molecular cell biology
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Cell and Molecular Biology
    Research subject
    Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3032 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0463.2008.00894.x (DOI)000254665600001 ()18397460 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-41849126729 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-11-10 Created: 2008-11-10 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Tumor volume of colon carcinoma is related to the invasive pattern but not to the expression of cell adhesion proteins
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tumor volume of colon carcinoma is related to the invasive pattern but not to the expression of cell adhesion proteins
    2009 (English)In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Tumor volume increases during growth and due to tumor progression various mutations appear that may cause phenotypic changes. The invasive pattern may thus be affected resulting in a more disorganized growth. This phenomenon might be due to mutations in the genome of the adhesion proteins, which are responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial tissue. Tumor volume was assessed in whole mount sections of 33 colon carcinomas using Cavalieri's principle. Images from the entire invasive border were captured and used for calculating the irregularity of the border (Complexity Index). The expression of the adhesion proteins E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Claudin 2 and Occludin was assessed after immunohistochemical staining of two randomly selected areas of the invasive front of the tumor. Statistical significance for differences in volume was obtained for tumor Complexity Index, tumor stage (pT) and lymph node status (pN). Expression of adhesion proteins was significantly perturbed in the tumors compared with normal mucosa but only infrequently correlated to tumor differentiation or invasive pattern. The results show that when tumor volume increases the invasive pattern becomes more irregular which is compatible with tumor progression. A direct contribution of adhesion protein derangement to this process appears to be insignificant.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2009
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3033 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0463.2008.00011.x (DOI)000265487600006 ()19245593 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-61349175837 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-11-10 Created: 2008-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Claudin 1 and Claudin 7 gene polymorphisms and protein derangement are unrelated to the growth pattern of colon carcinoma
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Claudin 1 and Claudin 7 gene polymorphisms and protein derangement are unrelated to the growth pattern of colon carcinoma
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3034 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-10 Created: 2008-11-10 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
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  • 34.
    Hammarberg, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet Dalarna Gävleborg, Storvik, Sverige.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-LouiseDepartment of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bakteriologi, hygien och egenkontroll vid ystning i småskalig produktion: Kompendium Juni 20042004Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Hellander-Edman, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Animal Environment & Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Makdoumi, Karim
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Ophthalmology.
    Mortensen, Jes
    Department of Ophthalmology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ekesten, Bjorn
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis2013In: BMC Veterinary Research, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 9, p. 128-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting.

    Results: Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4-26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis.

    Conclusions: CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species.

  • 36.
    Hysing, Tommy
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Uppföljning av TSH`s beslutsgränser för analys av TPO-antikroppar2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mätning av autoantikroppar mot tyreoperoxidas (TPO) är en

    viktig del för att diagnostisera autoimmun tyreoideafunktions rubbning. Hos det stora flertalet som har en autoimmun tyreoidea sjukdom hittar man TPO-antikroppar. Vid hypotyreos är det av betydelse att se om det finns TPO-antikroppar för att påvisa eller utesluta autoimmunitet som orsak till hypotyreosen.

    Ett problem är att det inte finns något allmänt accepterat referensintervall för TPO-antikroppar. I Sverige varierar det mellan 2 och 60 kIU/l beroende på vilken mätmetod som används.

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att se hur vanligt det är med förhöjda värden för tyreoidea stimulerande hormon (TSH) och hur fördelningen av antikroppar för tyreoidea peroxidas (TPO-antikroppar) ser ut vid normala och subnormala TSH-värden.

    De serumprover som ingick i undersökningen analyserades med en fluoroimmunoassay teknik på instrumentet AutoDELFIAÔ , Perkin-Elmer. Proverna valdes slumpmässigt från de rutinprover som kommer till laboratoriet.

    Mellan 8 – 13 % av de undersökta patientproverna har en lätt förhöjning (4,3 – 6,0 mIU/l) av TSH-värdena. Totalt för alla värden mer än 4,3 mIU/l är 15 %.

    Kvinnor har en högre andel av TPO-antikroppar jämfört med män vilket andra undersökningar också visat.

    Referensintervallet, < 35 kIU/l, för TPO-antikroppar är relevant gentemot frågeställningen. I den undersökta populationen är det ett prov som hamnar utanför detta intervall.

    44 % hade förhöjda värden på TPO-antikroppar vid måttligt förhöjda TSH värden, detta indikerar att analys av TPO-antikroppar bör göras när TSH visar värden > 4,3 mIU/l.

    Den metodjämförelse som gjordes mellan fluoroimmunoassay och kemiluminiscens visar på dålig korrelation.

    Denna undersökning är en pilotstudie för att kunna gå vidare med frågeställningar som

    - kan man korrigera på något sätt för de olikheter som uppenbarligen finns mellan de olika mätmetoderna

    - kan man ta bort spädningssteget i fluoroimmunoassay-metoden för att därigenom kunna sänka referensgränsen

  • 37.
    Ivarsson, Niklas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    An inquiry to a possible fatty acid metabolism defect due to carnitine deficiency in patient fibroblast, analysed with a tritium release assay2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of tritiated water from [9,10-3H]-palmitic acid has been recommended as an adequate screening method to detect patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Intact cultured fibroblasts from three patients (a young girl, the Mother and Grandfather) plus controls have been studied using this method with 3H-palmitic acid at the presence or absent of excess of carnitine. The patients were suspected to have an aberrant carnitine transport over the cell membrane, which probably could secondary affects the fatty acid metabolism.

    No differences were found in β-oxidation of 3H-palmytic acid between fibroblasts from patients compared to healthy controls. Excess of carnitine did not shown any effect on β-oxidation of 3H-palmytic acid either

    The results showed that the patients’ fibroblasts did not have a decreased β-oxidation capacity and no significant difference when treated with carnitine compared to the matched healthy controls. This study cannot link the patient’s symptoms with an aberrant carnitine transport over cell membrane or any defect in β-oxidation of fatty acid metabolism.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Örebro University, Department of Clinical Medicine.
    Effect of interleukin-1beta on tyrosine uptake in fibroblasts of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A repeated finding in schizophrenic patients is an aberrant tyrosine transport, shown in fibroblast cell model. Altered levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) are indicated in schizophrenic patients and IL-1β has shown to have inhibitory effect on amino acid transport systems. Based on these findings, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of IL-1β on tyrosine uptake in fibroblasts of schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. Fibroblast cell lines from schizophrenic patients (n=10) and healthy controls (n=10) were treated with IL-1β and uptake of 14C (U)-L-tyrosine was measured using the cluster tray method. Fibroblasts untreated with IL-1β were used as controls. Treatment with IL-1β significantly inhibited the tyrosine uptake in fibroblasts of schizophrenic patients and controls. No difference in uptake levels between fibroblasts of schizophrenic patients and controls was found. This study provides one potential explanation for the aberrant tyrosine transport seen in patients with schizophrenia and thus combines the immunological and neuropharmacological factors implicated in the pathophysiology/etiology of schizophrenia.

  • 39.
    Khalaf, Hazem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Palm, Eleonor
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Cellular Response Mechanisms in Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection2017In: Periodontitis: A Useful Reference / [ed] Pachiappan Arjunan, InTech, 2017, p. 45-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathogenicity of the periodontal biofilm is highly dependent on a few key species, of which Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered to be one of the most important pathogens. P. gingivalis expresses a broad range of virulence factors, of these cysteine proteases (gingipains) are of special importance both for the bacterial survival/proliferation and for the pathological outcome. Several cell types, for example, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts, reside in the periodontium and are part of the innate host response, as well as platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages. These cells recognize and respond to P. gingivalis and its components through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), for example, Toll-like receptors and protease-activated receptors. Ligation of PRRs induces downstream-signaling pathways modifying the activity of transcription factors that regulates the expression of genes linked to inflammation. This is followed by the release of inflammatory mediators, for example, cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Periodontal disease is today considered to play a significant role in various systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanisms by which P. gingivalis and its virulence factors interact with host immune cells and contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontitis and CVD are far from completely understood.

  • 40.
    Khor, Mei
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, Malaysia.
    Davey, Gareth
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Zhao, Xiang
    Research Centre for Languages and Cultures, School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, China.
    Why Do People Feed Free-roaming Cats? The Role of Anticipated Regret in an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior in Malaysia2018In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 101-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-roaming cats are common in residential and public areas in Malaysia and approach people for food. However, the psychological determinants of public feeding are unknown. This study investigated public perceptions of feeding free-roaming cats, based on an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB). It consisted of qualitative belief-elicitation interviews with 25 participants, followed by a quantitative survey of 167 participants, representative of the country’s population. The majority (87.2%) of the sample had fed free-roaming cats. The mean intention score (4.88 out of 7) indicated the public was likely, and would make an effort, to feed free-roaming cats in the future. The public’s benevolence toward animals largely explained the findings, based on generally positive attitudes and perceptions of moderate social credence and capability and confidence, underpinned by affective and cognitive beliefs. An important finding was the role of anticipated regret in predicting and explaining intentions, which contributed variance over and above that explained by the TPB constructs. The extended framework is explained by the influence of anticipated regret on the perceived evaluation of potential TPB outcomes, which in turn leads to the behavior becoming less volitional. Therefore, future TPB studies of people’s interactions with animals, such as free-roaming cats, should take account of affective and emotional antecedents of behavior, such as anticipated regret, to improve explanatory power. The study also has implications for managing public feeding of free-roaming cats, such as drawing on and strengthening the Malaysian public’s positive attitudes and emotional concern to redirect current feeding practices toward more constructive animal welfare initiatives. Such humane approaches align with the public’s sensitivity toward animal welfare and the historical development of cat population control from lethal methods to humane non-lethal methods to ensure adequate care.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Why Do People Feed Free-roaming Cats? The Role of Anticipated Regret in an Extended Theory of Planned Behavior in Malaysia
  • 41.
    Kvist, Ola F. T.
    et al.
    Department of Paediatric Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Luiza Dallora, Ana
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ola
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Flodmark, Carl-Erik
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lunds University, Lund, Sweden.
    Diaz, Sandra
    Department of Paediatric Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Radiology, Lunds University, Lund, Sweden.
    A Cross-Sectional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Factors Influencing Growth Plate Closure in Adolescents and Young Adults2021In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, no 4, p. 1249-1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To assess growth plate fusion by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and evaluate the correlation with sex, age, pubertal development, physical activity and BMI.

    METHODS: Wrist, knee and ankle of 958 healthy subjects aged 14.0-21.5 years old were examined using MRI and graded by two radiologists. Correlations of growth plate fusion score with age, pubertal development, physical activity and BMI was assessed.

    RESULTS: Complete growth plate fusion occurred in 75, 85, 97, 98, 98% and 90, 97, 95, 97, 98% (radius, femur, proximal- and distal tibia and calcaneus) in 17-year-old females and 19-year-old males, respectively. Complete fusion occurs approximately 2 years earlier in girls than in boys. Pubertal development correlated with growth plate fusion score (rho= 0.514-0.598 for the different growth plate sites) but regular physical activity did not. BMI also correlated with growth plate fusion (rho= 0.186-0.384). Stratified logistic regression showed increased odds ratio (OR F: 2.65- 8.71; M: 1.71- 4.03) for growth plate fusion of obese or overweight compared normal weight subjects. Inter-observer agreement was high (Κ= 0.87-0.94).

    CONCLUSION: Growth plate fusion can be assessed by MRI and occurs in an ascending order, from the foot to the wrist, and is significantly influenced by sex, pubertal development and BMI, but not by physical activity.

  • 42.
    Loncarevic, Semir
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Milanovic, A
    Department of Food Hygiene, Veterinary Faculty, Sarajevo, Bosnia.
    Caklovica, F
    Department of Food Hygiene, Veterinary Faculty, Sarajevo, Bosnia.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Occurrence of Listeria species in an abattoir for cattle and pigs in Bosnia and Hercegovina1994In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altogether 496 samples of meat, lymph nodes, process water and swabs from different places in the abattoir were examined for the presence of Listeria spp. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 31 (6%) and other Listeria spp. from 65 (13%) samples L. monocytogenes was isolated from 2 of 10 beef meat samples, 4 of 50 pig meat samples and 1 of 21 lymph nodes of pigs. No Listeria bacteria were isolated from lymph nodes of cattle. The highest percentage of Listeria was recovered from the unclean sections (cattle 22% and pigs 27%) and the highest frequency was observed during the winter months.

  • 43.
    Loncarevic, Semir
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Occurrence of Listeria species in broilers pre- and post-chilling in chlorinated water at the two slaughterhouses1994In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, E-ISSN 1751-0147, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altogether 323 pooled samples of neck skins from 1615 broilers from 2 processing plants (A and B) were examined for the presence of Listeria species. The broilers were sampled pre-chilling - after leaving the final rinser but before entering the chiller with chlorinated water - and post-chilling - immediately upon leaving the chiller. Free available chlorine in the chilling water varied from 2 to 15 ppm in plant A and was about 10 ppm in plant B. Listeria monocytogenes was only isolated from broilers in plant A sampled post-chilling (58% of 62 samples). L. innocua was isolated from 19% and 39% of broilers sampled pre-chilling in plants A and B, respectively. Post-chilling, L. innocua was isolated from 3% and 6% of samples from plants A and B, respectively.

  • 44.
    Lopez-Valladares, Gloria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Than, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Listeriosis in South American camelids: a review2013In: Journal of Camel Practice and Research, ISSN 0971-6777, E-ISSN 2277-8934, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 129-132Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the present study was to review the general aspects of Listeria and the clinical manifestation of the disease listeriosis in humans and domestic ruminants, with emphasis on clinical signs in South American camelids. Camelids are susceptible to infection by Listeria; however, it appears that the prevalence of listeriosis in camelids is low, given that few cases have been reported. The species Listeria monocytogenes is associated with all reported cases. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of listeriosis in vicunas (Vicugna vicugna) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe).

    The clinical manifestations of listeriosis in llamas and alpacas are similar to in domestic ruminants and humans, namely meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, septicaemia, abortion, otitis media/interna and polyarthritis. Listerial mastitis and gastroenteritis has not yet been described in camelids. Despite reported cases, there is no specific mention of listeriosis associated with shedding of bacteria in faeces or milk. The occurrence of listeriosis in camelids needs to be confirmed and clinical signs defined.

  • 45.
    Lundberg, Å
    et al.
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyman, A-K
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Aspán, A
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Unnerstad, H Ericsson
    National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Sweden.
    Waller, K Persson
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health2016In: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 2102-2117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis are common causes of bovine mastitis. To study these pathogens in early lactation, a 12-mo longitudinal, observational study was carried out in 13 herds with suboptimal udder health. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of these pathogens and to identify if presence of the 3 pathogens, and of genotypes within the pathogens, differed with respect to herd, season, and parity. Quarter milk samples, collected at calving and 4 d in milk (DIM), were cultured for the 3 pathogens. Genotyping of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates was performed using spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. For each of the 3 pathogens, cows with an udder infection at calving or 4 DIM were allocated to 1 of 4 infection types: cleared (pathogen present only at calving), persistent (pathogen present in the same quarter at calving and 4 DIM), new (pathogen present only at 4 DIM), or cleared/new (pathogen present in 1 quarter at calving and in another quarter at 4 DIM). Associations between season or parity and overall occurrence of pathogens or infection types were determined using univariable mixed-effect logistic-regression models and the Fisher's exact test, respectively. The most commonly occurring pathogen was Staph. aureus, followed by Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. Persistent infections were the most common infection type among Staph. aureus-infected cows, whereas cleared infections were the most common among Strep. dysgalactiae- and Strep. uberis-positive cows. The proportion of cows with persistent Staph. aureus infections and the proportion of cows having a Strep. uberis infection at calving or 4 DIM were higher in the multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Infections with Strep. dysgalactiae were less common during the early housing season than during the late housing or pasture seasons, whereas persistent Strep. uberis infections were less common during the pasture season than during the late housing season. The relative occurrence of the 3 pathogens, infection types of each pathogen, and genotype diversity of each pathogen throughout the year or in different seasons and parities varied among the herds, indicating that underlying factors predisposing for udder infections at calving differ between herds. Genotyping of bacterial isolates gave important insight into how such infection patterns differed within and between herds. These findings emphasize the need to choose preventive strategies for each individual herd.

  • 46.
    Läikkö, Tina
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala; Meat and Fish Hygiene Unit, Helsinki, Finland.
    Båverud, Viveca
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala.
    Fridén, S.
    Vännäs District Veterinary Station, Mariahällan, Vännäs.
    Grip Hansson, A.
    ännäs District Veterinary Station, Mariahällan, Vännäs.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala.
    Canine tinsillitis associated with Listeria monocytogenes2004In: The Veterinary Record, ISSN 0042-4900, E-ISSN 2042-7670, Vol. 154, no 23, p. 732-732Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Lönn, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. PEAS Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Shahzad, Faisal
    PEAS Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Uhlin, Fredrik
    Department of Nephrology UHL, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Medicine and Health Science, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Torbjörn
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Almroth, Gabriel
    Department of Nephrology UHL, County Council of Östergötland, Department of Medicine and Health Science, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nayeri, Fariba
    PEAS Institute, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
    High concentration but low biological activity of hepatocyte growth factor in patients with chronic renal failure2012In: Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, ISSN 2156-8456, E-ISSN 2156-8502, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 516-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a renotropic, antifibrotic and regenerative factor with cytoprotective effects that is produced by mesenchymal cells and shows high affinity to components of extra cellular matrix, such as heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HS-PG), in healthy. Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) suffer from a chronic inflammatory disorder. In order to assess the underlying mechanisms for development of CRF we aimed to assess the amounts and affinity of HGF in this patient group. Elisa, western blot and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) were used to study HGF in blood samples, as well as in isolated neutrophils, in CRF patients compared to healthy controls. Patients with CRF showed higher HGF levels in serum (P < 0.0001), but decreased affinity to HSPG (P < 0.0001), compared to healthy controls. Addition of protease inhibitors decreased the difference between patients with CRF compared to healthy individuals. HGF with potent regenerative function during injury lacks affinity to HSPG in patients with CRF that may depend on production of proteases from activated immune cells. This information might be used to highlight underlying mechanisms for chronicity and leading to new strategies for treatment of chronic injuries.

  • 48. Mollbrink, Johanna
    et al.
    Danielsson-Tham (Intervjuobjekt), Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Livet efter Stutis: livmedelshygien2015In: Bladmagen, ISSN 0282-3926, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 16-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Physical activity assessed by accelerometry in children2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity (PA) is likely to constitute an important aspect of health-related behaviour in growing children. However, the knowledge on levels and patterns of PA in children is limited, due to the difficulty of precisely measuring this complex behaviour in normal daily living. Information on variables that significantly contributes to the variability in PA patterns is warranted as it may inform strategies for promoting physically active lifestyles in school-age youth. The overall purpose of the present studies was to increase the knowledge about the use of accelerometry when assessing PA in children, and examine sources of variability in objectively assessed PA behaviour in children. The study samples included 1954 nine- and 15-year-old children from four geographical locations in Europe (Norway, Denmark, Estonia and Portugal), and additionally 16 Swedish seven-year-old boys and girls. PA was assessed by the MTI accelerometer during free-living conditions, including both weekdays and weekend days. A part of the PA assessment was conducted using different time sampling intervals (epochs). Predictions of estimates of daily energy expenditure from accelerometer output were calculated using previously published equations. Potential correlates of PA behaviour were assessed by self-report. The main findings were; a) the epoch setting had a significant effect when interpreting time spent at higher intensities of PA in young children, b) predicted energy expenditure differed substantially between equations, c) between- and within-day differences in overall levels of PA, time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and time spent sedentary differed between age, gender and geographical location, d) outdoor play and sports participation were differentially associated with objectively measured PA in 9- and 15-year-old children. It is concluded that the sporadic nature of children’s physical activity require very short epoch settings for detecting high intensity PA, and that different published equations for estimations of daily energy expenditure cannot be used interchangeably. The interpretations of average energy expenditure from available equations should be made with caution. Based on a large sample of children of different ages, weekend days and leisure time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health enhancing PA. Further, significant correlates of PA behaviour dependent on age group are presented, which should be considered when planning interventions for promoting PA in school-age youth.

    List of papers
    1. Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements
    2002 (English)In: Pediatric Exercise Science, ISSN 0899-8493, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate (a) the effect of five different time sampling intervals (epoch settings) on different intensity levels when assessing physical activity with an accelerometer (CSA, WAM 7164), and (b) whether the placement of the monitor (on the hip and back) would affect the outcome. Sixteen children (aged 7 yrs) were monitored for four consecutive days. A significant main epoch effect was found for time spent at very high (p < 01) and high (p < 01) intensity activities. No significant difference between the two placements regarding total amount of physical activity (cnts times mm super (-1)) or different intensity levels was observed. In conclusion, different time sampling intervals, but not placement, should be carefully considered when assessing physical activity.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2875 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2020-01-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of equations for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometer counts in children
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several prediction equations developed to convert body movement measured by accelerometry into energy expenditure have been published. The aim of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between three different prediction equations, when applied to data on physical activity in a large sample of children. We examined 1321 children (663 boys, 658 girls; mean age 9.6+/-0.4 years) from four different countries. Physical activity was measured by the MTI accelerometer. One equation, derived from doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements, was compared with one treadmill-based (TM) and one room calorimeter-based (CAL) equation (mixture of activities). Predicted physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) was the main outcome variable. In comparison with DLW-predicted PAEE, both laboratory-derived equations significantly (P<0.001) overestimated PAEE by 17% and 83%, respectively, when based on a 24-h prediction, while the TM equation significantly (P<0.001) underestimated PAEE by 46%, when based on awake time only. In contrast, the CAL equation agreed better with the DLW equation under the awake time assumption. Predicted PAEE differ substantially between equations, depending on time-frame assumptions, and interpretations of average levels of PAEE in children from available equations should be made with caution. Further development of equations applicable to free-living scenarios is needed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Blackwell, 2008
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2876 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00694.x (DOI)000259355000013 ()2-s2.0-52249107116 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between- and within-day variability in physical activity and inactivity in 9- and 15-year-old European children
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    2009 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To examine differences in levels of physical activity (PA), time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary between and within days in children from four European countries, 1954 9 - and 15-year-olds were included. PA was measured during 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days using the manufacturing technology-incorporated (MTI) accelerometer. Average count per minute, time spent sedentary, time spent at MVPA and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were calculated. Data were compared between weekdays and weekend days and between school time and leisure-time. Although not entirely consistent across countries, overall PA, time spent sedentary and the proportion of children accumulating > or =60 min of MVPA were higher during weekdays compared with weekend days. Differences in overall PA between school time and leisure-time were highly inconsistent between countries. Few children (4-31%) accumulated > or =60 min of MVPA either during school time or during leisure-time. Differences in activity patterns between weekdays and weekend days are explained by less accumulated time in MVPA during weekend days. Weekend days and leisure-time during weekdays seem appropriate targets when promoting PA in order to increase the proportion of children achieving current recommendations on health-enhancing PA.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science; Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2877 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00762.x (DOI)000262901500003 ()18248534 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-59149094073 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-01-17 Created: 2008-01-17 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)
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    2009 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children.

    Methods

    A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status.

    Results

    In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01), while participation in sport clubs was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01) in 15-year-olds. No associations with percent time sedentary were observed in either age group.

    Conclusion

    Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: BioMed Central, 2009
    Keywords
    assessment, accelerometer, children, health behaviours
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science; Biomedicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2878 (URN)10.1186/1471-2458-9-322 (DOI)000270675100001 ()19735565 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70349311819 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-06-03 Created: 2009-05-25 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Ninyio, Nathaniel
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.
    Lian Ho, Kok
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Rahman Omar, Abdul
    Laboratory of Vaccine and Biomolecules, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Siang Tan, Weng
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang,Malaysia; Laboratory of Vaccine and Biomolecules, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Iqbal, Munir
    The Pirbright Institute, Woking, 0NF, England.
    Razak Mariatulqabtiah, Abdul
    Laboratory of Vaccine and Biomolecules, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Virus-like Particle Vaccines: A Prospective Panacea Against an Avian Influenza Panzootic2020In: Vaccines, E-ISSN 2076-393X, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 694Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epizootics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) have resulted in the deaths of millions of birds leading to huge financial losses to the poultry industry worldwide. The roles of migratory wild birds in the harbouring, mutation, and transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), and the lack of broad-spectrum prophylactic vaccines present imminent threats of a global panzootic. To prevent this, control measures that include effective AIV surveillance programmes, treatment regimens, and universal vaccines are being developed and analysed for their effectiveness. We reviewed the epidemiology of AIVs with regards to past avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in birds. The AIV surveillance programmes in wild and domestic birds, as well as their roles in AI control were also evaluated. We discussed the limitations of the currently used AI vaccines, which necessitated the development of a universal vaccine. We evaluated the current development of AI vaccines based upon virus-like particles (VLPs), particularly those displaying the matrix-2 ectodomain (M2e) peptide. Finally, we highlighted the prospects of these VLP vaccines as universal vaccines with the potential of preventing an AI panzootic

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