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  • 1.
    Aadland, Katarina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Copingstrategier för att hantera stress och oro hos KBT- och övriga studenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How stress and anxiety are handled is vital to health. To develop knowledge about coping this study aims to investigate differences in the prevalence and correlation between problemfocused, emotionfocused and avoidanceoriented coping and also in defensive pessimism. A quantitative survey was conducted with 62 CBT-students and 87 other students from different courses. The results showed that CBT students use problemfocused coping more than other students, that other students use emotionfocused coping more than CBT-students and that older CBT-students use defensive pessimism less than younger CBT-students. A negative correlation was also found between problemfocused and emotionfocused coping and a positive correlation between emotionfocused coping and defensive pessimism. In summary, the study shows that there are correlations between, as well as age- and educational differences in the use of different coping strategies.

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  • 2.
    Abadei, Simon
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Zontho, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Transdiagnostiska riskfaktorer för kronisk smärta och social ångest hos ungdomar2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kronisk smärta och emotionell problematik verkar dela flera faktorer med varandra, men i den transdiagnostiska forskningen är det oklart vilka faktorer som är centrala i utvecklingen av olika problematiker. I den här studien har ruminering, oro och beteendemässigt undvikande undersökts som transdiagnostiska faktorer för kronisk smärta och social ångest. Studien bygger på data från Trestadsstudien, en longitudinell populationsstudie som sträckte sig mellan 2012–2018 i centrala Sverige. Stickprovet inkluderade ungdomar i årskurs 7–9 (N = 1453) från arton kommunala skolor. Syftet med studien var att utforska prevalensen av kronisk smärta, social ångest och samsjuklighet mellan problematikerna. Syftet var också att undersöka om kronisk smärta och social ångest är riskfaktorer för varandra och om eventuella samband kunde förklaras av mediation genom ruminering, oro eller beteendemässigt undvikande, samt om kön kunde moderera mediationerna. För att undersöka detta genomfördes logistiska regressionsanalyser och mediationsanalyser. Resultaten indikerar att prevalensen av kronisk smärta, social ångest och samsjukligheten ökade över tid, särskilt för tjejer. Analyserna antyder även att kronisk smärta och social ångest var signifikanta riskfaktorer för varandra två år senare (OR = 1.7 - 1.9). Även om detta stöder en transdiagnostisk syn kunde inte sambanden förklaras av mediationsanalyserna i någon stor utsträckning. Detta kan bero på metodologiska brister med konstrukten eller att det finns andra faktorer som bättre förklarar sambanden. Framtida forskning behöver undersöka effekten av andra transdiagnostiska faktorer och hur olika typer av transdiagnostiska faktorer samverkar med varandra för att leda till utveckling av kronisk smärta och social ångest.

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  • 3.
    Abdekhodaie, Ehsan
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Hatami, Javad
    Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Bahrami-Ehsan, Hadi
    Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Center for Health and Medical Psychology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    WordCommentsAnalyzer: A windows software tool for qualitative research2018In: F1000 Research, E-ISSN 2046-1402, Vol. 7, article id 536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of free software that provides a professional and smooth experience in text editing and markup for qualitative data analysis. Word processing software like Microsoft Word provides a good editing experience, allowing the researcher to effortlessly add comments to text portions. However, organizing the keywords and categories in the comments can become a more difficult task when the amount of data increases. We present WordCommentsAnalyzer, a software tool that is written in C# using .NET Framework and OpenXml, which helps a qualitative researcher to organize codes when using Microsoft Word as the primary text markup software. WordCommentsAnalyzer provides an effective user interface to count codes, to organize codes in a code hierarchy, and to see various data extracts belonging to each code. It also offers basic visualization tools. We illustrate how to use this software by conducting a preliminary content analysis on Tweets with the #successfulaging hashtag. We also demonstrate that the software has satisfactory performance on a large dataset of Iranian journals abstracts. We hope this open-source software will facilitate qualitative data analysis by researchers who are interested in using Word for this purpose.

  • 4.
    Abdessadki, Fadila
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Blivande adoptivföräldrars upplevelser under adoptivprocessen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Abdullahi, Amina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Förlossningsrädsla och skillnader i nedstämdhet, ångest, sömn och livstillfredsställelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Abdulwahid, Mohammad
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Olsson, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Association of Physical Activity and DepressiveSymptoms, and the Role of Emotion Regulation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given increases in depressive symptoms among Swedish adolescents, we investigated theassociation between physical activity and depressive symptoms, and the role of emotionalregulation plays in these associations. In a longitudinal study, the sample was gathered fromthree mid-sized cities in Sweden. The participants were adolescents aged 13 to 19 years with atotal sample size of 2973 participants. Our research questions were: Is physical activityrelated to depressive symptoms? What is the direction of this association? Does emotiondysregulation mediate the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms?We analyzed the data using hierarchical regressions, testing indirect effects. The resultsshowed that there was an association between emotion dysregulation and depressivesymptoms. However, there was no association between physical activity and depressivesymptoms nor a mediating effect in either direction.

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  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ramström, Linnéa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Normer och värderingar inom vänskap2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What kind of norms and values determine a good friendship? In aqualitative study three men and three women aged 20-30 years oldwere interviewed. The respondents who were recruited through aconvenience sampling were asked to answer questions concerningtheir view about friendship. After analyzing the interview protocol,three common themes were identified: trust acceptance and intimacy.Friendship showed to be a significant part when it came to people andtheir wellbeing. The study also showed that men and women haddifferent expectations for what that friendship will entail and thesedifferences were based on norms and values. It seems that norms andvalues are developed through the existing culture in society and inover time.

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  • 8.
    Acar, Jelda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Salomonsson, Linn
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Trygghet, stöd och effektiva vårdprocesser– finns det en relation mellan nätverk, samverkan, ej fungerande samverkan och vårdtid påsvenska rättspsykiatriska kliniker?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship betweennetwork, cooperation, non-functioning cooperation and length of stayfor patients treated in forensic psychiatry in Sweden. Forensicpsychiatric care aims to rehabilitate and reduce the risk ofreoffending. Previous research has shown that network andcooperation can affect the length of care. The analysis included 316patients registered between 2014-2015 for forensic psychiatric care.Data from the quality registry RättspsyK generated four variables;length of care, network, cooperation and non-functioning cooperation.The study population was divided into short and long care time groupsbased on the median length of care in forensic psychiatry. Fisher'sexact test showed that the result lacked statistical significance and isnot in line with previous research. There is reason to assume from thisstudy's findings that the relationship between networks, cooperationand length of care is more complex than previous studies have shown.

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    Trygghet, stöd och effektiva vårdprocesser – finns det en relation mellan nätverk, samverkan, ej fungerande samverkan och vårdtid på svenska rättspsykiatriska kliniker?
  • 9.
    Acar, Jelda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Salomonsson, Linn
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Trygghet, stöd och effektiva vårdprocesser– finns det en relation mellan nätverk, samverkan, ej fungerande samverkan och vårdtid påsvenska rättspsykiatriska kliniker?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka relationen mellannätverk, samverkan, ej fungerande samverkan och vårdtid för patienter som vårdats på rättspsykiatriska kliniker i Sverige. Rättspsykiatriska vården syftar till rehabilitering och minskning av risken för återfall i brott. Tidigare forskning har visat att nätverk och samverkan kan påverka vårdtidens längd. I analysen ingick 316 patienter som registrerats mellan år 2014-2015 för rättspsykiatrisk vård. Data från kvalitetsregistret RättspsyK genererade fyra variabler för studien att analysera; vårdtid, nätverk, samverkan och ej fungerande samverkan. Studiepopulationen delades in i grupper omkort och lång vårdtid. Vårdtiden baseras på medianvårdtiden på rättspsykiatrin. Fishers exakta test visade emellertid att resultatetsaknade statistisk signifikans och går inte i linje med tidigare forskning. Trots att sociala kontakter enligt tidigare forskning är betydelsefull för återhämtningsprocessen finns det anledning att från denna studies resultat anta att relationen mellan nätverk, samverkan och vårdtid är mer komplext än vad studier tidigare visat.

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    Trygghet, stöd och effektiva vårdprocesser– finns det en relation mellan nätverk, samverkan, ej fungerande samverkan och vårdtid påsvenska rättspsykiatriska kliniker?
  • 10.
    Adami, Melodi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Skagerkvist, Elin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vägen tillbaka till mitt barn - En kvalitativ studie om hur mammor som under gerillakrig separerats från sina spädbarn, upplever återföreningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Vägen tillbaka till mitt barn
  • 11.
    Adamsson, Madelen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Dahlgren, Leah
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Anhörigstöd: Kvalitativ utvärdering av samverkan mellan Lindesbergs kommun och frivilliga verksamheter2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Adan, Farhiya
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Schibort, Olivia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Privacy invasions and their association with poor parent-adolescent relationship2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine whether privacy invasions are associatedwith poor parent-adolescent relationship. We also examined if therewere differences between mothers and fathers in the frequency oftheir invasions, as well as the intent of those invasions. Lastly, welooked at associations between privacy invasions and parentadolescentrelationships and if these were modified by parent oradolescent gender. We hypothesized that intentional and frequentprivacy invasions would have a stronger association with poorparent-adolescent relationship than accidental and infrequentinvasions of privacy. The data for this study was selected from alarger database. Participants consisted of 78 adolescents, 39 girlsand 39 boys. Data were collected through questionnaires that bothadolescent and parent answered separately. The adolescents filledout the questionnaires at school in different classrooms. Weconcluded that frequent privacy invasions had a significantassociation with poor parent-adolescent relationship for mothers,but not fathers. Furthermore, the interaction between the frequencyof privacy invasions and the intent was significant for mattering tomothers. However, no significant relations were found for fathers.

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  • 13.
    Adner, Greta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Wall, Evelina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Affektens betydelse för kognitivt välbefinnande: en jämförelse mellan infertila kvinnor i Sverige och Iran: en jämförelse mellan infertila kvinnor i Sverige och Iran2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined cultural differences in the cognitive and emotional aspects of subjective well-being, more specifically the levels of positive, negative and balance affect and how these affect cognitive well-being. It involves 212 infertile women in the individualistic country Sweden and the collectivistic country Iran. Analyses of correlation, stepwise and linear regression as well as One-Way ANOVA were used to answer the research questions. The results showed no cultural difference in cognitive well-being, and Swedish women reported higher levels of affect while the Iranian to a higher extent experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously. Balance affect was the best predictor for well-being in both samples.

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  • 14. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Applying Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology to women's miscarriage experience2010In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 3, p. 75-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about measuring the feelings and impressions of women regarding their experience of miscarriage. According to the existential philosopher Heidegger life experiences such as the experience of a woman having a miscarriage can be interpreted and explained only in the context of the totality of the women's experiences in the past, the present, and the future. Thirteen in-depth interviews with women about their experiences of miscarriage were interpreted with respect to Heidegger's "Being and Time". By using his interpretive phenomenology the essence of the miscarriage experience was explored and defined. The women's feelings and impressions were influenced by past experiences of miscarriage, pregnancy, and births. Present conditions in the women's lives contributing to the experience include their relationships, working situation, and living conditions. Each woman's future prospects and hopes have been structurally altered with regard to their aspirations for their terminated pregnancy. The impact of miscarriage in a woman's life was found to be more important than caregiver providers and society have previously attributed to in terms of scale. The results of the interviews reveal that the women believed that only women who had experienced their own miscarriages were able to fully understand this complex womanly experience and its effects on the woman who had miscarried.

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  • 15.
    Adolfsson, Moa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Widmark, Nina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The impact of pain information on pain intensity An experimental study on violation of expectations and conflicting information2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that there are several components involved in how we perceive pain, e.g. social and psychological factors such as expectations of pain. A cold pressor experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of negative/positive information on pain perception. We also investigated if a cognitive conflict created by disconfirming information of a pain expectation influences the pain experience. 106 participants (49 men and 57 women) got to hold their hand in 5°C water for 1 minute. The main outcome variable was self-reported pain during the cold pressor test. The results show that participants receiving negative information perceived more pain than the group receiving positive information. There was no significant difference in pain perception between those who were confirmed or disconfirmed in an expectation, nor was there a difference in cognitive conflict between the two groups. This is a first attempt to explore pain and cognitive conflict and can work as an inspiration for further investigation.

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  • 16.
    Adérn, Lena-Marie
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Karlsson, Erika
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Upplevd optimism i relation till olika aspekter av beredskapsarbete i svenska kommuner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska kommuner står inför hot och kriser vilket ställer krav på god beredskap. Tidigare studier har visat att dispositional optimism är betydelsefullt vid personlig beredskap. Dock är optimism i förhållande till beredskapsarbete till viss del outforskat gällande svenska förhållanden och kommunala aktörer. Studien syftar till att studera relationen mellan optimism och olika aspekter av beredskapsarbetet i svenska kommuner. Datamaterialet grundas på en enkätstudie om syn på risk och beredskap i svenska kommuner och Life Orientation Test. Enkäten besvarades av kommunala chefer och medarbetare. Studien visar på ett positivt samband mellan optimism och motivation för beredskapsarbete. Optimism är även relaterat till bedömning av olika aspekter av beredskapsarbete. Vissa skillnader framkom mellan undergrupper, exempelvis mellan män och kvinnor.

    Nyckelord. Beredskap, Optimism, Motivation, Svenska kommuner.

  • 17.
    Afsaneh, Hayat Roshanai
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnel, Janeslätt
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Disability and Habilitation, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Suzanne, White
    State University of New York Downstate Medical Centre, Brooklyn NY, USA.
    Lidström-Holmqvist, Kajsa
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Centre.
    Time management skills in relation to general self-efficacy and parental sense of competence in individuals with and without cognitive disabilities2019In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 1655981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate to what extent time management skills are associated with general self-efficacy and parental sense of competence, and if there are any differences between individuals with and without cognitive disabilities in these aspects.

    Material and Methods: The study had a comparative cross-sectional design. Totally 86 individuals with cognitive disabilities (of whom 31 were parents), and 154 without disabilities (of whom 68 were parents) were included (N = 240). The Swedish versions of the Assessment of Time Management Skills (including time management, organisation & planning, and regulation of emotion subscales), General Self-Efficacy, and Parental Sense of Competence scale (including satisfaction, efficacy, and interest subscales) were used to collect data.

    Results: There were significant differences (p < .001) between individuals with and without cognitive disabilities in all three subscales of Assessment of Time Management Skills and in General Self-Efficacy. Overall, individuals with a cognitive disability scored lower than persons without cognitive disabilities. A significant difference was observed between parents in all three subscales of time management skills after controlling for age and education (p < .0005). Parents with cognitive disabilities, compared to parents without cognitive disability, scored significantly lower in all measured scales, except for the interest subscale. In parents with a cognitive disability, there was a significant correlation between all three subscales of Time Management Skills and satisfaction. Among parents without a cognitive disability there was a significant correlation between time management; and organisation & planning subscales; and efficacy, and between General Self-Efficacy and time management.

    Conclusions: Poor time management, planning and organisational skills, as well as a deficit in regulation of emotions may have a negative impact on general self-efficacy and parental sense of competence.

  • 18.
    Ageborg, Emma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Thorsén, Camilla
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    22 juli 2011, kommer du ihåg den dagen?: Könsskillnader i uppskattning av självförtroende - och event minne för terrorattacken på Utøya, Norge2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Aghajani, Moji
    et al.
    Amsterdam UMC/VUMC, the Netherlands; Leiden University Medical Center, Curium, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, the Netherlands.
    Klapwijk, Eduard T.
    Leiden University Medical Center, Curium, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, the Netherlands; Leiden University, the Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, the Netherlands; Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.
    Leiden University Medical Center, Curium, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, the Netherlands.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Leiden University Medical Center, Curium, the Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, the Netherlands; Örebro University, Sweden; Ghent University, Belgium.
    Neural processing of socioemotional content in conduct-disordered offenders with limited prosocial emotions2021In: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0278-5846, E-ISSN 1878-4216, Vol. 105, article id 110045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Reflecting evidence on Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of empathy and guilt, shallow affect), the DSM-5 added a categorical CU-based specifier for Conduct Disorder (CD), labeled 'with Limited Prosocial Emotions' (LPE). Theory and prior work suggest that CD youths with and without LPE will likely differ in neural processing of negative socioemotional content. This proposition, however, is mainly derived from studies employing related, yet distinct, operationalizations of CU traits (e.g., dimensional measure/median split/top quartile), thus precluding direct examination of LPE-specific neurocognitive deficits.

    METHODS: Employing a DSM-5 informed LPE proxy, neural processing of recognizing and resonating negative socioemotional content (angry and fearful faces) was therefore examined here among CD offenders with LPE (CD/LPE+; N = 19), relative to CD offenders without LPE (CD/LPE-; N = 31) and healthy controls (HC; N = 31).

    RESULTS: Relative to HC and CD/LPE- youths and according to a linearly increasing trend (CD/LPE- < HC < CD/LPE+), CD/LPE+ youths exhibited hyperactivity within dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventromedial prefrontal regions during both emotion recognition and resonance. During emotion resonance, CD/LPE+ youths additionally showed increased activity within the posterior cingulate and precuneal cortices in comparison to HC and CD/LPE- youths, which again followed a linearly increasing trend (CD/LPE- < HC < CD/LPE+). These effects moreover seemed specific to the LPE specifier, when compared to a commonly employed method for CU-based grouping in CD (i.e., median split on CU scores).

    CONCLUSIONS: These data cautiously suggest that CD/LPE+ youths may exhibit an over-reliance on cortical neurocognitive systems when explicitly processing negative socioemotional information, which could have adverse downstream effects on relevant socioemotional functions. The findings thus seem to provide novel, yet preliminary, clues on the neurocognitive profile of CD/LPE+, and additionally highlight the potential scientific utility of the LPE specifier.

  • 20.
    Agrell, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Beskrivningar av pojkar och flickor i sociala utredningar i LVU-ärenden1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in descriptions of boys and girls are studied in 26 child protection cases. There are several differences, i.e. boys are described as aggressive and girls as worried. 

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  • 21. Ahlborg, Tone
    et al.
    Rudeblad, Kristina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Linnér, Sarah
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sensual and sexual marital contentment in parents of small children: a follow-up study when the first child is four years old2008In: Journal of Sex Research, ISSN 0022-4499, E-ISSN 1559-8519, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 295-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This follow-up study explored parents' (N=452) intimate relationships when their firstborn child was 6 months old and then 4 years later. The measurement used was a modified version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, DAS. The present results show that most parents responding were content sensually at 6 months postpartum in 2002 and 4 years later, in 2006. More parents had changed from being sensually content in 2002 to discontent in 2006, than the contrary, however, and the sexual contentment remained low. The average sexual frequency was low both at 6 months and at 4 years for both parents with and without additional children. Experiencing tiredness as a hindrance to having sex was perceived as a greater problem among those parents without additional children. Prospective regression analyses indicated that sexuality was significantly related to both sensual and sexual contentment 4 years later. Sexuality was also one of the most significant covariates in the cross-sectional regression analysis for sensual contentment. Since sexuality plays a central role in partner well-being, it may be an important target for helping parents with small children.

  • 22.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    "Lätta" skador - svåra konsekvenser2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23. Ahlgren, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Vad fungerar i Sverige?: Om svenska utvärderingar av insatser till ungdomar som begår brott2010In: Ungdomar som begår brott: vilka insatser fungerar? / [ed] Henrik Andershed, Anna-Karin Andershed, Kerstin Söderholm Carpelan, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2010, 1, p. 126-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ahlin, Linnea
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Mård, Annelie
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Information som stressreducering vid organisationsförändring: En undersökning inom försvarsmakten - Högkvarteret i Stockholm2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During organizational changes the employees go through stressful events where information plays a big part in creating understanding of the situation. The purpose with this essay is to examine if the amount information the individual receives during organizational change can help to prevent stress. The result of the quantitative study shows that there is no significant relationship between the amount of received information and perceived level of stress. Information does not, referring to this study, reduce the perceived level of stress. Although it seems that information, referring to previous theories and to this study, can be categorized into three different types: information regarding the background of the organizational changes, information concerning the changes as whole and finally information about the individuals role in the new organization. The last mentioned appears to be important.

  • 25.
    Ahlin, Mia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vad hände med Gud? Upplevelsen av att lämna Jehovas Vittnen utifrån ett religionsperspektiv2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Ahlman, Kristina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Det alternativa livet på landsbygden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The “alternative life” can be described as a counter movement to the urban society, increased consummation and a stressful lifestyle. The aim of this qualitative study is to examine the alternative life on the countryside. Six informants were interviewed about their experiences and views about the alternative life. The data is transcribed and analyzed with an inductive, thematic approach. The informants want to live with more simplicity, intimate with their basic needs, live close to nature, reducing less important things in life, challenging themselves and having more time for things they find meaningful. The informants experience more quality in life and presence in the moment through reduction. The main reasons for the informants to live an “alternative life” are the combination of individual factors and a desire to live more environmentally friendly. The results have been analyzed from behavioral theory, existential psychology and Antovskys “Sense of Coherence”. 

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    Det alternativa livet på landsbygden
  • 27.
    Ahlstrand, Linnea
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Tham, David
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Att vänja sig vid smärta: En behandlingsstudie av patienter med långvarig smärta2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Current research has shown that psychological factors play an important role in the experience of chronic pain. This study examined the effects of a CBT treatment containing interoceptive exposure and relaxation for patients with chronic pain. The study used a single-subject design where six patients underwent a six week long individual treatment. The variables the study examined were changes concerning degree of acceptance, pain intensity, changes concerning pain related anxiety, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing and function. Participation in the treatment was associated with increased acceptance, improved function, reduced pain intensity, reduced pain related anxiety, less catastrophizing and reduced kinesiophobia. The study indicates that this treatment can lead to positive changes with pain patients in both cognitive and emotional components as well as behavioral components.

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  • 28.
    Ahmad, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sved, Vanessa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    COVID-19-related anxiety predicted by three different psychological behaviors; Health anxiety, Disgust sensitivity and Intolerance of uncertainty2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether three different psychological predictors; Health anxiety (SHAI), Disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and intolerance of uncertainty (IUS-12) could predict COVID-19-related anxiety in students at Orebro University, Sweden. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between the three psychological behaviors and pandemic-related anxiety. An online survey, consisting of both standardized and non-standardized questionnaires, was constructed. The survey was completed by 199 participants, aged between 19-48 (M = 25.14 and SD = 5.35) from Orebro University, Sweden through Limesurvey. A correlation revealed that Health anxiety and Disgust sensitivity were significantly correlated with COVID-19-related anxiety. The regression analysis revealed that there was a significance between the three psychological behaviors and COVID-19-related anxiety. In conclusion, Health anxiety, Disgust sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty, could indeed be associated with COVID-19-related anxiety in the students.

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  • 29.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Deliberate self harm and adolescent´s subjective group identification; do alternative groups of adolescents engage in more self harming behaviors than others?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    In presence of risk, what protective factors keep preschool children from displaying conduct problems?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children that are expressing or are exposed to risk factors experience an elevated risk of developing later psychosocial maladjustment, such as conduct problems. However, all children exposed to risk do not express conduct problems, but develop normally. The aim of the present study was to examine potential protective factors among children exposed to risk, that separate children expressing conduct problem behavior from those who do not. In the study, preschool teachers and parents of 298 three- to five-year-old children participated. Risk factors of the individual, conduct problem behavior, and relationship oriented protective factors were examined. The results indicate that positive peer relationships are important for preschool children´s psychosocial development, while family factors, such as parent's disciplinary style, seem less important.

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  • 31.
    Al Azawei, Shaimah Jasem
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The roles that cultural identity and type of school plays for ethnic harassment om immigrant youths2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the roles that the cultural background and type of schools play for being exposed to ethnic harassment as an immigrant. I use data from a longitudinal study called the Seven Schools Project at Örebro University. The participants were 1602 youths, 760 boys and 838 girls, and these participants were between 13-16 years of age (grades 7 through 9 in the Swedish comprehensive schools). The most important finding in this study was that the association between cultural identity and being exposed to ethnic harassment depended on the type of school the immigrants attended to. In schools with few immigrants, immigrant youths seemed to differentiate between their original cultural identity and a Swedish identity, and in these schools exposure to ethnic harassment was higher if the youths adopted a traditional cultural identity. In schools with many immigrants, by contrast, youths did not seem to differentiate between the original cultural and a Swedish identity. In these schools, it did not matter what cultural identity the students had -  they were both related to higher ethnic harassment. Finally, I found no differences between the genders with regard to exposure to ethnic harassment.

  • 32.
    Al jaderi, Maryam
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Ungdomars sociala relationer på internet och i verkligheten2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Al Khatib, Linn
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Al Rubaye, Omaima
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psykopatiska personlighetsdrag och antisocialt beteende bland unga pojkar och flickor: Är sambandet oberoende av ungas sociala förmåga och föräldrars socioekonomisk status?2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of psychopathic personality traits among youths and how it related to antisocial behaviour and whether the relationships remained independent of youth’s social skills and parental SES. The study consisted of 1731 participant, where 912 of them were boys, and 819 were girls at age 11-13 with mean age 12,2. The psychopathic personality traits consist of three different dimensions; Grandiose-Deceitful, Callous-Unemotional, and Impulsivity-Need for Stimulation. The results showed that the psychopathic dimensions were significantly higher among boys than girls. We also examined the relationship between the psychopathic dimensions and conduct problems for the total sample, which showed a high positive significant correlation. These correlations were tested for both genders separately, which showed indications of boys having a higher correlation than girls. Furthermore, the result indicated that the relationship remained between psychopathic dimensions and conduct problems in controlling for social skills respective socioeconomic status for the total sample and separately for boys and girls. The conclusion drawn that psychopathic personality traits and conduct problem were related to each other. This relationship was independent of young’s level of social skills and parental level of SES. Discussions of practical implications and directives for future research are provided.

  • 34.
    Alaie, Sara
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Hellström Larsson, Tyra
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Frånvarande fäder och dess döttrars relationer till män2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnans framtida relationer präglas av hennes tidigare relationer till modernoch fadern. Om kvinnan uppfostrats frånvarande av en fader påverkar dettahennes upplevelse av män. För att skapa en förståelse kring hur fadernsfrånvaro påverkar dotterns upplevelse av män senare i livet lyderforskningsfrågan: Hur upplever vuxna kvinnor, som är uppfostrade utan fäder,relationer till män? En kvalitativ intervjuundersökning genomfördes med femdeltagare. Deltagarna var mellan 18-39 år gamla. Intervjuer genomfördesmed stöd av en semistrukturerad intervjuguide bestående av 17 öppna frågorsom möjliggjorde följdfrågor. Data analyserades genom tematisk analys.Huvudresultatet som framkom visade att samtliga kvinnor upplevde att enuppväxt utan en närvarande far hade påverkat deras upplevelser av mänsenare i livet. För vidare forskning kan det vara av intresse att undersöka ombarnet upplever en saknad på grund av att föräldern som varit frånvarandespecifikt varit en man eller om könet är en oberoende faktor.

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    Frånvarande fäder och dess döttrars relationer till män
  • 35.
    Alarcon, Soledad
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hallberg, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Upplevelsen av ADHD-problematik: En jämförande studie om ungdomars och föräldrars perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a well-known problem in adolescents. This study compares parents’ experiences of adolescents ADHD problems and adolescents own perceptions of themselves and their parents' reactions. Existing data from a research project were used where the participants were young people from 7

    th grade to 1 year of high school. The results showed that parents who give high estimates of their adolescents ADHD symptoms differ greatly from other parents both concerning the adolescent’s behavior and their own behavior. Adolescents differ in experienced of own behavior where adolescents with ADHD problems had difficulties. They differed, however not in the experiences of their parents' behaviors. The study found that parents and adolescents have different perspectives and that ADHD-related problems do not seem to be crucial to how adolescents experience their parents.

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  • 36.
    Albinsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Koro, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Självskada (NSSI) och externaliserade problem2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt att självskadebeteende är ett internaliserat problem är syftet med studien att i en ungdomspopulation undersöka om självskadebeteende även är länkat till externaliserade problem. Vi undersöker även om självskadebeteende hänger samman med att i olika miljöer utsättas och utsätta andra för negativa beteenden. Studien använder redan insamlade data i forskningsprojekt kallat - “Sju Skolor”: Center for Developmental Research (CDR). Data samlades in från 1478 högstadieelever. I studien fann vi samband mellan självskadebeteende (NSSI) och utåtagerande problem (kriminalitet, drickande, etc.). Vi fann också att ungdomar med självskadebeteende utmärks av att de i sina vardagsmiljöer både är utsatta för negativa beteenden från andra och utsätter andra för negativa beteenden. Detta är en viktig upptäckt när det kommer till att behandla och förebygga självskadebeteende (NSSI) hos unga.

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  • 37.
    Alderholm, Jessika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Arvidsson, Linda
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Att växa genom lidande: posttraumatic growth och positiva förändringar efter en nära anhörigs suicid2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study is to capture experiencies of how life can change for the better after the struggle with the suicide of a close relative, focusing on posttraumatic growth and positive changes. The study contributes to the research area where trauma is considered a possible opportunity for growth within the traumatized individual. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six individuals all of whom have lost a close relative to suicide. The participants expressed PTG in the themes selfperception, interpersonal relationships, and philosophy of life. Positive changes that emerged were: changes in personality, changed priorities, the ability to interact with people on a deeper level, renewed perspectives on death, values time spent with family more, deeper sense of happiness and gratitude, and new possibilities. The result shows that something good can come out of a trauma as severe as this one.

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  • 38.
    Alderhorn, Eric
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Boutz, Lisa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hur känner jag för miljön? Känslor, värderingar ioch miljövänligt beteende2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Algeblad, Linnéa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Hanna
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Upplevelser av KBT-behandling för social ångest och insomni: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patienters upplevelser av behandling är ett outforskat område och kvalitativ metod kan vara användbart för att nå en fördjupad förståelse för subjektiva upplevelser och förändringsprocesser i psykologisk behandling. Samsjuklighet mellan social ångest och insomni är relativt vanligt och kan ha implikationer för behandlingsutfall, men behandling av samsjukliga tillstånd är tämligen outforskat. Kognitiv beteendeterapi för tillstånden var för sig har visat sig ha god effekt. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur patienter beskriver sina upplevelser av att ha gått i KBT för social ångest och insomni genom två behandlingssekvenser i följd, en för vardera tillstånd. Insamlad intervjudata från sju deltagare som genomgått behandling analyserades kvalitativt genom tematisk analys. Analysen resulterade i fyra huvudteman: Innehållsrik behandling, Samarbete och stöd, Krävande, men värt det samt Förändring i mitt liv. Dessa sammanfattas i ett kärntema: Innehållsrik och tuff behandling med resultat som var mödan värt. Resultatet tyder på att behandlingarna upplevts som hjälpsamma och samtidigt utmanande. Att hitta nya hjälpsamma sätt att hantera sina besvär, att utveckla ett nytt förhållningssätt till sig själv och svårigheterna samt stöd och hjälp från psykologen upplevdes vara en bidragande orsak till förbättring. Kliniska rekommendationer diskuteras. Studien bidrar med kunskap om hur patienter upplever psykologisk behandling.

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    Upplevelser av KBT-behandling för social ångest och insomni: en kvalitativ intervjustudie
  • 40.
    Al-hadad, Sahar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    El-Mir, Jasmin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Det ambivalenta förhållandet i ett självskadebeteende2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Ali, Jasmin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Larsson, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Ethnic Victimization as a Potential Explanation for Poor School Adjustment among Immigrant Youth2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 42.
    Aljaderi, Maryam
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Koso, Selma
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Do girls experience that forums in communities have a positive effect on thier self images?2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Al-Khalili, L
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Integrative Physiology, Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Krämer, D
    Department of Surgical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wretenberg, Per
    Örebro University Hospital. Department of Surgical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Krook, A
    Department of Surgical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Dept. of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human skeletal muscle cell differentiation is associated with changes in myogenic markers and enhanced insulin-mediated MAPK and PKB phosphorylation2004In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 180, no 4, p. 395-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We hypothesized that myogenic differentiation of HSMC would yield a more insulin responsive phenotype.

    METHODS: We assessed expression of several proteins involved in insulin action or myogenesis during differentiation of primary human skeletal muscle cultures (HSMC).

    RESULTS: Differentiation increased creatine kinase activity and expression of desmin and myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)2C. No change in expression was observed for big mitogen-activated protein kinase (BMK1/ERK5), MEF2A, insulin receptor (IR), hexokinase II, and IR substrates 1 and 2, while expression of glycogen synthase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 MAP kinase) and the insulin responsive aminopeptidase increased after differentiation. In contrast to protein kinase B (PKB)a, expression of (PKB)b increased, with differentiation. Both basal and insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity increased with differentiation. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of PKB and ERK1/2 MAP kinase increased after differentiation.

    CONCLUSION: Components of the insulin-signalling machinery are expressed in myoblast and myotube HSMC; however, insulin responsiveness to PKB and ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation increases with differentiation.

  • 44.
    Allegrini, Andrea G
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Evans, Brittany E
    Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    de Rooij, Susanne
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Huizink, Anja C
    Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Gene × Environment contributions to autonomic stress reactivity in youth2019In: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 293-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysregulated physiological stress reactivity has been suggested to impact the development of children and adolescents with important health consequences throughout the life span. Both environmental adversity and genetic predispositions can lead to physiological imbalances in stress systems, which in turn lead to developmental differences. We investigated genetic and environmental contributions to autonomic nervous system reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Furthermore, we tested whether these effects were consistent with the differential susceptibility framework. Composite measures of adverse life events combined with socioeconomic status were constructed. Effects of these adversity scores in interaction with a polygenic score summarizing six genetic variants, which were hypothesized to work as susceptibility factors, were tested on autonomic nervous system measures as indexed by heart rate and heart rate variability. Results showed that carriers of more genetic variants and exposed to high adversity manifested enhanced heart rate variability reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to carriers of fewer genetic variants. Conversely, the stress procedure elicited a more moderate response in these individuals compared to carriers of fewer variants when adversity was low.

  • 45.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tornell, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Medveten närvaro och beteendeterapi vid behandling av primär insomni: Effekter på sömn, uppmärksamhet, oro och ruminering2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People with insomnia attend to sleep-related stimuli during the day and night. The activity is called monitoring. In mindfulness (MN) attention plays a central part, and by practicing MN the ability to direct attention can be improved. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of MN and behavioral therapy (BT) when treating people with primary insomnia who tend to monitor sleep-related cues. The effect on sleep and monitoring was examined, as well as the secondary effect on worry and rumination. A single-subject design with a constructive strategy was used. Two different treatments were implemented and half of the participants were given BT and the other half BT+MN. Together the results showed that sleep, monitoring and worry improved, but independent of MN. A suggestion for future research is to extend the current design to further explore the effect of MN within the treatment of insomnia.

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    Medveten närvaro och beteendeterapi vid behandling av primär insomni: Effekter på sömn, uppmärksamhet, oro och ruminering
  • 46.
    Almcrantz, Caroline
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Norrsjö, Josefine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Om drömmar, hallucinationer och emotioner: Samvarierar emotionellt tillstånd dagtid med upplevelser nattetid?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Om drömmar, hallucinationer och emotioner
  • 47.
    Almosawi (tidigare efternamn: Tawhid Mosawi), Tawhid (tidigare förnamn: Nora)
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Emotionell intelligens och autobiografiskt minne:: Jämförelse av individers könsskillnader, åldersgruppsskillnader, kön och ålder interaktionseffekter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to test whether there were age differences, gender differences, and if the age and gender had interaction effect on each other when it comes to groups’ emotional intelligence and autobiographical memories. The participants were male (n = 106), women (n = 231) students at Örebro University who were from 18 to 45 years (n = 299). The students responded to emotional intelligence, short version of the Andrew et al. (2010) and Waldfogel (1948) autobiographical memories test. There were no gender differences and age differences in overall emotional intelligence, but there was an interaction between gender and age meaning that gender and age had effects on each other when it comes to students' emotional intelligences. There were gender differences in the overall autobiographical memories meaning that women reported several autobiographical memories than men in the study, but there were no age differences. Age and gender had no effects on each other in terms of autobiographical memories. There were no differences in autobiographical memories among those who reported low, medium and high emotional intelligence. There were no differences in emotional intelligence between those who reported low, medium and high autobiographical memories.

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  • 48.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Children's health and developmental delay: positive functioning in every-day life2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this thesis was to gain understanding of what patterns of child and environment characteristics that promote and sustain health and positive functioning of children with and without developmental delay or disabilities. The focus was on promotion of strengths and competencies rather than on prevention of risk factors, with an emphasis on children’s functioning in every-day life. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted on representative samples of children. In Study I, participation in school activities were used as an outcome of positive functioning of children with disabilities. The findings indicated that autonomy, locus of control, child-peer interaction, and availability of activities were most influential in relation to participation in a pattern of child and environment factors. No significant difference was found across groups in type and degree of disability. Study II was conducted to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. The interviews revealed that children perceived health in a multidimensional perspective, well represented by the health dimensions of ICF. The children largely related consequences of health to engagement. In Study III, engagement was used as an outcome of children’s interaction with their natural environment. The focus was to describe how children with and without developmental delay, divided into homogenous groups according to a pattern of child-environment interaction factors, engaged in developmentally appropriate behavior in their preschool and home environment. Groups of children with different patterns showed similar outcomes of engagement. Children with developmental delay were represented across groups, implying that developmental delay was less of a factor by itself influencing level of engagement. Study IV was longitudinal and the aim was to identify pathways of children’s engagement over time of children with and without developmental delay. Child-peer interaction seemed to promote high level engagement, while developmental delay only showed to be influential of low level engagement over time if combined with behavior problems. Children without developmental delay or behavior problems were met with greater teacher responsiveness, and at the same time teacher responsiveness predicted stable patterns of high level engagement or change to higher level engagement over time. The general finding in this thesis supported a both a multidimensional perspective of health and positive functioning, in where developmental delay and disability is viewed as a function of child and environmental characteristics. The results are discussed in a systemic perspective, in where the role of the delay or disability, as of other factors related to health and positive functioning in the whole child-environment system is determined by a multitude of factors. The dynamic character of children’s development makes it difficult to predict children’s future functioning, from isolated factors such as disability or developmental delay. Thus, a disability or developmental delay only becomes a risk factor of health, when combined with other risk factors that decrease the functioning of children in their every-day life.

    List of papers
    1. Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Blackwell, 2005
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3103 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2005.00460.x (DOI)000228361800010 ()2-s2.0-18144383231 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. 'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health
    2006 (English)In: Pediatric Rehabilitation, ISSN 1363-8491, E-ISSN 1464-5270, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 275-284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Health is today viewed as a multi-dimensional concept partly conceptualized independent from not being ill. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. Interviews were conducted with 68 children (4–5 years), within their pre-school setting, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. A multi-dimensional perspective represented by the health dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used in a manifest deductive content analysis. The children's statements were categorized and placed under one of the four health dimensions, body, activity, participation and environment. A latent content analysis was applied to identify underlying themes in the manifest categories. The results revealed that young children perceive health as a multi-dimensional construct, largely related to being engaged, i.e. to be able to perform wanted activities and participate in a supportive every-day context. This implies that improvements of child engagement should be emphasized in health promotion and to a greater extent be the central focus of health interventions for young children.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Taylor & Francis, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3104 (URN)10.1080/13638490500521303 (DOI)2-s2.0-33750090084 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2023-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of process characteristics capturing the essence of children's experiences in their natural environment and their possible association with health and well-being operationalized as engagement for young children with and without developmental delay. Data were gathered from 1035 children between 1 and 3 years in community-based preschools. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires concerning interaction, activity, and engagement, as well as demographic and biopsychosocial information. A cluster analysis was conducted to find homogenous patterns related to engagement. Five distinct patterns were identified, all related to different levels of engagement. Several factors, within both the child and the environment, were associated with high levels of engagement. Interaction skills and availability of activities appear to be strong predictors of high-level engagement, regardless whether or not the child has been identified as developmentally delayed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malden, MA: Blackwel, 2006
    National Category
    Social Sciences Social Work Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3105 (URN)10.1111/j.1741-1130.2006.00054.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Pathways of engagement for young children with and without developmental delay
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pathways of engagement for young children with and without developmental delay
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3106 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-08-25 Created: 2006-08-25 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Patterns of engagement in young children with and without developmental delay2006In: Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1741-1122, E-ISSN 1741-1130, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of process characteristics capturing the essence of children's experiences in their natural environment and their possible association with health and well-being operationalized as engagement for young children with and without developmental delay. Data were gathered from 1035 children between 1 and 3 years in community-based preschools. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires concerning interaction, activity, and engagement, as well as demographic and biopsychosocial information. A cluster analysis was conducted to find homogenous patterns related to engagement. Five distinct patterns were identified, all related to different levels of engagement. Several factors, within both the child and the environment, were associated with high levels of engagement. Interaction skills and availability of activities appear to be strong predictors of high-level engagement, regardless whether or not the child has been identified as developmentally delayed.

  • 50.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor.

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