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  • 1. Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Applying Heidegger's interpretive phenomenology to women's miscarriage experience2010In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 3, p. 75-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much has been written about measuring the feelings and impressions of women regarding their experience of miscarriage. According to the existential philosopher Heidegger life experiences such as the experience of a woman having a miscarriage can be interpreted and explained only in the context of the totality of the women's experiences in the past, the present, and the future. Thirteen in-depth interviews with women about their experiences of miscarriage were interpreted with respect to Heidegger's "Being and Time". By using his interpretive phenomenology the essence of the miscarriage experience was explored and defined. The women's feelings and impressions were influenced by past experiences of miscarriage, pregnancy, and births. Present conditions in the women's lives contributing to the experience include their relationships, working situation, and living conditions. Each woman's future prospects and hopes have been structurally altered with regard to their aspirations for their terminated pregnancy. The impact of miscarriage in a woman's life was found to be more important than caregiver providers and society have previously attributed to in terms of scale. The results of the interviews reveal that the women believed that only women who had experienced their own miscarriages were able to fully understand this complex womanly experience and its effects on the woman who had miscarried.

  • 2.
    Alphonse, Nshimiyimana
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Development of Violent Behavior and Adolescents’ Appraisal and Coping Strategies related to Inter-parental Violence2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present review focuses on understanding the explanatory mechanisms behind the use of violence within intimate relationships, highlighting the consequences of adolescents’ exposure to Inter-parental violence and gauging the role of their (adolescents) appraisal and coping strategies. The theories reviewed stress the significant impact of close figures’ behaviors on the developing child and adolescent trough observational and imitational processes, secure and insecure attachment patterns and related internal working models as well as trough building own understanding of the world and human interrelations. The review revealed also that adolescents’ exposure to Inter-parental violence constituted an unequivocal risk factor leading to a range of consequences categorized as internalizing and externalizing problems. It however indicates that the outcome behaviors are not a result of a linear process because there is range of mediating factors that explain the association between adolescents’ exposure to Inter-parental violence and outcome behaviors. Finally, appraisal of Inter-parental violence was identified as a central mechanism that impacts both the magnitude of the consequences of exposure and the adolescents’ conception and execution of coping strategies.

  • 3.
    Amer, Ahmed
    et al.
    University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kakooza-Mwesige, A.
    Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jarl, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Tumwine, J. K.
    Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda; Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
    Forssberg, H.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, A.-C.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hermansson, Liselotte
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The Ugandan version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI-UG). Part II: Psychometric properties2018In: Child Care Health and Development, ISSN 0305-1862, E-ISSN 1365-2214, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 562-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) has been recommended as a gold standard in paediatric rehabilitation. A Ugandan version of PEDI (PEDI-UG) has been developed by culturally adapting and translating the original PEDI. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the PEDI-UG in Ugandan children by testing the instrument's rating scale functioning, internal structure, and test-retest reliability.

    Methods: Two hundred forty-nine Ugandan children (125 girls) aged 6 months to 7.5 years (Mean = 3.4, SD = 1.9) with typical development were tested using the PEDI-UG. Forty-nine children were tested twice to assess test-retest reliability. Validity was investigated by Rasch analysis and reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Results: The PEDI-UG domains showed good unidimensionality based on principal component analysis of residuals. Most activities (95%) showed acceptable fit to the Rasch model. Six misfit items were deleted from the Functional Skills scales and one from the Caregiver Assistance scales. The category steps on the Caregiver Assistance scales' rating scale were reversed but functioned well when changed from a 6-point to 4-point rating scale. The reliability was excellent; intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87-0.92 for the domains of the Functional Skills scales and 0.86-0.88 for the domains of the Caregiver Assistance scales.

    Conclusion: The PEDI-UG has good to excellent psychometric properties and provides a valid measure of the functional performance of typically developing children from the age of 6 months to 7.5 years in Uganda. Further analysis of all items, including misfit and deleted items, in children with functional disability is recommended.

  • 4.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Girls at risk in their own right2012In: Girls at risk: Swedish longitudinal research on adjustment / [ed] Andershed, Anna-Karin, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2012, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Organizer of the symposium "Early development of problematic personality traits and early school adjustment - Results from the Swedish prospective longitudinal SOFIA-study".2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, HenrikÖrebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Att studera människors utveckling : resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA1965-20132013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Improving evidence-based social work practice with youths exhibiting conduct problems through structured assessment2016In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 887-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key task in evidence-based case management of youth is the assessment of research-based risk and protective factors. In the present study we compare assessments of social workers using a structured assessment instrument with assessments of social workers not using such an instrument. Assessments of the exact same case—a vignette about a 14-year-old boy—conducted by 30 social workers using a structured assessment instrument and 30 social workers not using such an instrument were compared. The 60 assessments were also rated by independent researchers and senior social services managers, blind to whether an instrument had been used in the assessments or not. As hypothesized, using a structured assessment instrument resulted in the identification of a greater number of research-based risk and protective factors, and the assessments were rated as better in terms of general adequacy, quality, accuracy and potential treatment effectiveness, than when an instrument was not used. The present study demonstrates that social workers’ assessments of youth become more evidence-based, adequate and potentially more treatment effective when a structured assessment instrument is used as compared to when it is not.

  • 8.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The SOFIA-study: A prospective longitudinal study on social adjustment2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SOFIA-study is a prospective longitudinal study of approximately 2,000 children in a mid-sized Swedish community. SOFIA is the acronym of Social and Physical Development, Interventions and Adaptation in Swedish, and the main focus of the study is on understanding developmen-tal trajectories of norm breaking, criminal behavior, and the risk and pro-tective factors for the various trajectories. The aim is to answer question such as Which risk factors are the most important in the development of norm breaking behavior? What protects children from a negative devel-opment? Which interventions are given to children with difficulties? The study was initiated in 2010 by professors H. Andershed and A-K. Ander-shed, and has since then assessed the participants in four data collection waves, in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2015. At base-line, the children were 3-5 years old, attending public preschools in the community. Questionnaires have been completed by caregivers, preschool and elementary school teachers, as well as principals and headmasters. The purpose has been to collect information both on the children – their behaviors and charac-teristics, the families – parent-child relationships, caregiver attributes, as well as preschool/school relationships, environment, and conditions. The papers presented in this panel are examples of papers using data from the SOFIA-study.

  • 9.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Predicting Antisocial Behavior Trajectories: A Gender Sensitive Approach2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental taxonomy proposed by Moffitt (1993, 2006) holds that there are two main trajectories of offending: a life-course-persistent (LCP) and an adolescent-limited (AL) pattern. A bulk of research, primarily for males, supports the LCP and AL conceptualization. Childhood risk factors behind the development of LCP and AL offending seem to be quite similar for males and females. If the model proposed by Moffitt is correct, however, possibilities to predict future antisocial behavior should differ between the sexes. Early childhood problems which predict future LCP are more common among males. Hence it should be possible early to forecast LCP trajectories for males, but not for females. Rather, what happens from childhood to early adolescence should be predictive of females' future antisocial behavior. We tested the possibility to predict middle adolescent normbreaking and adult criminality from late childhood and late childhood to early adolescence problem indicators, respectively, for the 1,000 males and females in the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adjustment (Magnusson et al., 1973). Analyses showed that male offending could be better and earlier predicted than female offending, but what happens in early adolescence mattered for later normbreaking and criminality for both females and males.

  • 10.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Risk and protective factors among preschool children for long-lasting psychosocial problems: what we know from research and how it can be used in practice2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Salekin, Randall T.
    University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa AL, United States.
    Lordos, Alexandros
    University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Kyranides, Melina Nicole
    Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Callous-Unemotional Traits Only Versus the Multidimensional Psychopathy Construct as Predictors of Various Antisocial Outcomes During Early Adolescence2018In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare callous-unemotional (CU) traits versus the multidimensional psychopathy construct in their ability to predict future and stable antisocial behavior. At baseline, a community sample of 996 Cypriot 12-year old adolescents (52% girls) completed measures that tap conduct problems (CP) and psychopathic traits, including CU. CP, aggression, and substance use were self-reported at 1-3 year follow-ups. Youths were assigned to six mutually exclusive groups based on their baseline levels of CP and psychopathic traits. Youth with CP scoring high on all three psychopathic traits dimensions (Psychopathic Personality + CP) showed the most robust and highest risk for future and stable CP, aggression, and substance use, followed by youth who were high on all three psychopathic traits dimensions but displayed no concurrent CP (Psychopathic Personality Only) and CP youth with low levels of psychopathic traits (CP Only). Youth with CP who merely manifested callous-unemotional traits (Callous-Unemotional + CP) were only at risk for future CP. The findings suggest that the CU traits-based approach for subtyping children with CP is less informative compared to a subtyping approach using various psychopathic traits dimensions in predicting future and stable forms of various antisocial outcomes. These findings and their consistency with prior work indicate the need for additional research to examine the various psychopathic traits dimensions rather than focusing solely on CU traits, especially for CP subtyping purposes.

  • 12.
    Andershed, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Frogner, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psychopathic personality works better than CU traits for predicting fearlessness and ADHD symptoms in children with conduct problems2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with early-onset conduct problems (CP) are at great risk for future behavior problems, and this risk seems to increase when CP co-occur with psychopathic traits. Even though studies are indicating that the entire psychopathic personality construct may be more useful in designating a meaningful subgroup of children with CP, research on psychopathic traits and CP in childhood have mainly focused on the role of callous unemo-tional (CU) traits. Prospective longitudinal data of 1,867 3- to 5-year-olds (47% girls) followed annually for two years was used to compare groups of children with different combinations of CP and psychopathic traits on fearlessness and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symp-toms. Children with CP and psychopathic personality had higher baseline and stable levels of fearlessness and ADHD symptoms than children with CP only or children with CP and concurrent CU traits. They were also more likely to display stable levels of the very risky combination of CP and ADHD symptoms. Results were similar for boys and girls. Findings indicate that there are reasons to consider other traits and behaviors as specifiers for subgroups of children with CP over and above CU traits, in order to optimize both diagnostic practice and treatment outcomes.

  • 13. Anna, Malmquist
    et al.
    Wurm, Matilda
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Föräldraskap2017In: HBTQ+: Psykologiska perspektiv och bemötande / [ed] Lundren, Tove; Malmquist, Anna; Wurm, Matilda, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, p. 227-244Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Anniko, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stuck on repeat: Adolescent stress and the role of repetitive negative thinking and cognitive avoidance2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and stress-related mental health problems such as anxiety and depressive symptoms are common in adolescents and seem to be increasing, especially in mid- to late-adolescent girls. Although adolescence, as a period of rapid growth and profound change, is often marked by an increase in normal stressors (e.g. conflicts with parents, fitting in with peers, increased academic demands), most adolescents do not develop more persis-tent problems with stress. To be able to develop effective preventive interventions there is a need to understand both what adolescents are ascribing their stress to, how different stressor domains relate to outcomes, and why some adolescents go on to develop stress-related mental health problems while others do not.          

    This dissertation aimed to answer some of these questions by investigating the role of cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) in the development of stress-related mental health problems (Study I & III). It also aimed to develop and validate a shortened version of a questionnaire designed to measure stressor load within different life domains in adolescence (Study II). Findings show that the shortened version of the Adolescents Stress Questionnaire seems to be a valid measure of stressor load within different domains in adolescence. School-related stressors were the most prevalent sources of stress, but social stressors seem to have a stronger link to increases in mental health symptoms. Also, adolescents who report higher levels of distress and stressor load tend to increase their engagement in cognitive avoidance and RNT over time which in turn predicts further increases in mental health symptoms. This suggests that cognitive avoidance and RNT may be important mechanisms in the development of stress-related mental health problems in adoles-cence.

    List of papers
    1. Investigating the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation in the development of adolescent emotional problems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation in the development of adolescent emotional problems
    2018 (English)In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has indicated that cognitive emotion regulation strategies contribute to the development and maintenance of emotional problems in adults and adolescents. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research with adolescent samples, hence knowledge of exactly how these strategies influence the development of emotional problems in adolescence is sparse. This study investigated maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation (cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking) as a potential mediator in the development of anxiety and depressed mood over time in adolescence. Self-reported depressed mood, anxiety, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies were assessed during school hours in a sample of Swedish 10th graders (N=149; 53% girls), with follow-up assessments one and two years later. Repetitive negative thinking and cognitive avoidance formed a unidimensional factor of cognitive emotion regulation. Cognitive emotion regulation was found to mediate the development of both anxiety and depressed mood over time, lending support to the previous findings that cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking might act as transdiagnostic mechanisms in the development of emotional symptoms in adolescence. This suggests that maladaptive forms of cognitive emotion regulation could be important targets in prevention and treatment of emotional problems in adolescence.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2018
    Keywords
    Emotion regulation, anxiety, depressed mood, adolescence, longitudinal design
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-65648 (URN)10.1080/19012276.2017.1323665 (DOI)000425787700002 ()2-s2.0-85019197348 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-12 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Development of a Shortened Version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S): construct validity and sex invariance in a large sample of Swedish adolescents
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a Shortened Version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S): construct validity and sex invariance in a large sample of Swedish adolescents
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, E-ISSN 2245-8875, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stressor experience is an important topic of research concerning adolescent health and ill-health. For this, valid and reliable measures of adolescent stress are needed. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire 2 was developed to tap into stressor domains specific for adolescence. Psychometric evaluations in Australian and European samples have indicated adequate psychometric properties. However, the ASQ-2 is quite extensive, which may render its use in large cohort studies, where several aspects of adolescent health are investigated, inconvenient and problematic.

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a short version of the ASQ-2 (ASQ-S) in terms of construct validity and factorial invariance across gender.

    Method: The ASQ-2 was translated into Swedish and items were retained from nine of the ten scales based on factor loadings. One scale (stress of emerging adult responsibilities) was removed entirely due to low internal consistency and variance explained. The remaining 27 items were piloted and then included in an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study involving the participation of all students in the 7th and 8th grade in public schools from three Swedish municipalities (N = 2768, 47.5 % girls, mean age 13.64 years). For this study data from the first and second wave was used.

    Results: A nine factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed a good fit to the data and invariance across sexes was supported. The nine scales correlated positively with depressive symptoms, anxiety and worry and negatively with self-esteem. Girls reported higher stress levels than boys in eight of the nine scales. Stressors related to peer pressure predicted reported levels of anxiety and worry one year later, whereas stressors related to romantic relationships predicted depressive symptoms.

    Conclusions: Overall this study suggests that the ASQ-S could be a valid measure of adolescent stressor experience and psychometrically equivalent to the full ASQ-2.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York, NY, USA: Exeley Inc., 2018
    Keywords
    Adolescents, stress measurement, psychometrics, sex invariance, emotional distress
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67064 (URN)10.21307/sjcapp-2018-001 (DOI)000438366500002 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Forskningsradet for Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap (FAS) 

    Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-08-16Bibliographically approved
    3. Stress-related Mental Health Problems in Adolescence: What are Adolescents Stressed About and Could Worry be a Potential Target in Prevention? A Longitudinal Investigation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress-related Mental Health Problems in Adolescence: What are Adolescents Stressed About and Could Worry be a Potential Target in Prevention? A Longitudinal Investigation
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67066 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Investigating the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation in the development of adolescent emotional problems2018In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has indicated that cognitive emotion regulation strategies contribute to the development and maintenance of emotional problems in adults and adolescents. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research with adolescent samples, hence knowledge of exactly how these strategies influence the development of emotional problems in adolescence is sparse. This study investigated maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation (cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking) as a potential mediator in the development of anxiety and depressed mood over time in adolescence. Self-reported depressed mood, anxiety, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies were assessed during school hours in a sample of Swedish 10th graders (N=149; 53% girls), with follow-up assessments one and two years later. Repetitive negative thinking and cognitive avoidance formed a unidimensional factor of cognitive emotion regulation. Cognitive emotion regulation was found to mediate the development of both anxiety and depressed mood over time, lending support to the previous findings that cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as cognitive avoidance and repetitive negative thinking might act as transdiagnostic mechanisms in the development of emotional symptoms in adolescence. This suggests that maladaptive forms of cognitive emotion regulation could be important targets in prevention and treatment of emotional problems in adolescence.

  • 16.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stress-related Mental Health Problems in Adolescence: What are Adolescents Stressed About and Could Worry be a Potential Target in Prevention? A Longitudinal Investigation Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Anniko, Malin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    van Wijk, Nikil Ph. L.
    Aquarius Analyses & Training (AA&T), Curaçao.
    Byrne, Don
    The Medical School, College of Medicine Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Psychology, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Development of a Shortened Version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S): construct validity and sex invariance in a large sample of Swedish adolescents2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, E-ISSN 2245-8875, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 4-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stressor experience is an important topic of research concerning adolescent health and ill-health. For this, valid and reliable measures of adolescent stress are needed. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire 2 was developed to tap into stressor domains specific for adolescence. Psychometric evaluations in Australian and European samples have indicated adequate psychometric properties. However, the ASQ-2 is quite extensive, which may render its use in large cohort studies, where several aspects of adolescent health are investigated, inconvenient and problematic.

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a short version of the ASQ-2 (ASQ-S) in terms of construct validity and factorial invariance across gender.

    Method: The ASQ-2 was translated into Swedish and items were retained from nine of the ten scales based on factor loadings. One scale (stress of emerging adult responsibilities) was removed entirely due to low internal consistency and variance explained. The remaining 27 items were piloted and then included in an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study involving the participation of all students in the 7th and 8th grade in public schools from three Swedish municipalities (N = 2768, 47.5 % girls, mean age 13.64 years). For this study data from the first and second wave was used.

    Results: A nine factor Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed a good fit to the data and invariance across sexes was supported. The nine scales correlated positively with depressive symptoms, anxiety and worry and negatively with self-esteem. Girls reported higher stress levels than boys in eight of the nine scales. Stressors related to peer pressure predicted reported levels of anxiety and worry one year later, whereas stressors related to romantic relationships predicted depressive symptoms.

    Conclusions: Overall this study suggests that the ASQ-S could be a valid measure of adolescent stressor experience and psychometrically equivalent to the full ASQ-2.

  • 18.
    Aramo-Immonen, Heli
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Pori, Finland.
    Kärkkäinen, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Jussila, Jari J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Joel-Edgar, Sian
    Computer Science, Bath University, Bath, UK.
    Huhtamäki, Jukka
    Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland.
    Visualizing informal learning behavior from conference participants' Twitter data with the Ostinato Model2016In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 55, p. 584-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network analysis is a valuable method for investigating and mapping the phenomena driving the social structure and sharing the findings with others. This article contributes to an emerging field of 'smart data' research on Twitter by presenting a case study of how community managers in Finland used this social media platform to construct an informal learning environment around an annually organized conference. In this empirical study we explore informal learning behavior in the project context, especially by analyzing and visualizing informal learning behavior from Twitter data using the Ostinato Model introduced in this paper. Ostinato is an iterative, user-centric, process-automated model for data-driven visual network analytics.

  • 19.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Perceptions of Physical Activity Participation Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Conceptual Model of Conditional Participation2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 1792-1802Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active compared to typically developing peers. The reasons for not being physically active are complex and depend on several factors, which have not been comprehensively described from the adolescent's perspective. Therefore, the aim was to describe how adolescents with an ASD perceive, experience and reflect on their participation in physical activity. Interviews with 24 adolescents diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, aged 12-16 years, were analysed with qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. They expressed a variety of reasons determining their willingness to participate, which were conceptualized as: Conditional participation in physical activities. The present study presents an alternative perspective on participation in physical activity, with impact on intervention design.

  • 20.
    Badinlou, Farzaneh
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The power of action and knowledge in episodic memory for school-aged children2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental and cognitive research suggests that there are age-related differ-ences in children’s episodic memory across school ages due to the development of knowledge, which in turn affects memory strategy use and information pro-cessing over time. However, there are controversial findings related to devel-opmental patterns and factors involved in children’s episodic memory function.

    This dissertation studies action memory, a form of episodic memory, across school ages to explore developmental differences and children’s memory per-formance as related to different encoding conditions, retrieval modes, materi-als, and events. In study I, the effects of different encoding conditions (i.e., verbal tasks, VTs; experimenter-performed tasks, EPTs; and subject-performed tasks, SPTs) and memory tests (i.e., recall and recognition) were examined across school ages. This study found that the developmental pattern of action memory was more pronounced for enacted encoding than verbal encoding, the most pronounced in recall test than in recognition test. In study II, the recall period of enactment effects and the effects of task difficulty were investigated as functions of age and encoding conditions in school-aged children. The results revealed that enacted encoding not only outperformed verbal encoding but also that the response speed increased over the recall period, the effect being more noticeable in older than younger children. Moreover, the level of task difficulty can be regarded as an important factor affecting the pattern of memory output among school-aged children. Study III explored the effect of children’s declarative knowledge on memory performance by presenting knowledge-based cues such as objects and semantic integration items. Providing cues related to children’s prior knowledge in the encoding and test phases improved memory performance, especially in older children. The overall results indicated clear-cut developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages. Episodic memory functions differed as functions of age, encoding, testing instructions, and type of event. SPTs and EPTs can improve memory function, this improvement was more pronounced in SPTs than in EPTs. The positive impact of action memory on memory performance is discussed in terms of the cognitive mechanism, memory strategies, and information processing involved.

    List of papers
    1. Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: Evidence from enacted events performed by self and others
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: Evidence from enacted events performed by self and others
    2017 (English)In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine action memory as a form of episodic memory among school-aged subjects. Most research on action memory has focused on memory changes in adult populations. This study explored the action memory of children over time. A total of 410 school-aged child participants, comprising 201 girls and 208 boys in four age groups (8, 10, 12, 14), were included in this study. We studied two forms of action encoding, subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and experimenter-performed tasks (EPTs), which were compared with one verbal encoding task as a control condition. At retrieval, we used three memory tests (free recall, cued recall, and recognition). We observed significant differences in memory performance in children aged 8-14 years with respect to free recall and cued recall but not recognition. The largest memory enhancement was observed for the SPTs in the 8-14-year-old participants under all test conditions. Participants performed equally well on the free recall of SPTs and EPTs, whereas they displayed better performances on the cued recall and recognition of SPTs compared to EPTs. The strategic nature of SPTs and the distinction between item-specific information and relational information are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2017
    Keywords
    Developmental differences, episodic memory, action memory, enactment effect, school-aged children
    National Category
    Psychology Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47908 (URN)10.1080/09658211.2015.1126607 (DOI)000392495000007 ()26711845 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84951871229 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-02-03 Created: 2016-02-03 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
    2. A study of retrieval processes in action memory for school-aged children: The impact of recall period and difficulty on action memory
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A study of retrieval processes in action memory for school-aged children: The impact of recall period and difficulty on action memory
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-67070 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
    3. Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The effect of object presentation and semantic integration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The effect of object presentation and semantic integration
    2018 (English)In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 186, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research into memory has found that declarative knowledge provides rich information about the world and improved memory performance. The present research investigates the effects of knowledge-based cues on memory for action events and on the enactment effect. Cued recall of action phrases was examined in four groups of 8-14-year-olds (410 children in total). The object cues (i.e., real vs. imaginary objects) and semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in three encoding conditions: verbal tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, and subject-performed tasks. Results indicate that enacted encoding has a recall advantage over verbal encoding regardless of the cue manipulations, though presenting objects and semantic-integrated items can moderate the enactment effect. In addition, providing further information about prior knowledge can directly influence memory performance across age groups. These results are discussed in relation to the effect of knowledge-based information in facilitating memory strategies and cognitive processing in school-aged children.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Action memory, Enactment effect, Knowledge-based cues, Objects, School-aged children, Semantic integration items
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66871 (URN)10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.011 (DOI)000432763600014 ()29705084 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046164462 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-05-21 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-06-11Bibliographically approved
  • 21.
    Badinlou, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Knopf, Monica
    Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.
    A study of retrieval processes in action memory for school-aged children: The impact of recall period and difficulty on action memoryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Badinlou, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Knopf, Monika
    Department of Psychology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The effect of object presentation and semantic integration2018In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 186, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into memory has found that declarative knowledge provides rich information about the world and improved memory performance. The present research investigates the effects of knowledge-based cues on memory for action events and on the enactment effect. Cued recall of action phrases was examined in four groups of 8-14-year-olds (410 children in total). The object cues (i.e., real vs. imaginary objects) and semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in three encoding conditions: verbal tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, and subject-performed tasks. Results indicate that enacted encoding has a recall advantage over verbal encoding regardless of the cue manipulations, though presenting objects and semantic-integrated items can moderate the enactment effect. In addition, providing further information about prior knowledge can directly influence memory performance across age groups. These results are discussed in relation to the effect of knowledge-based information in facilitating memory strategies and cognitive processing in school-aged children.

  • 23.
    Bauducco, Serena
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' sleep in a 24/7 society: Epidemiology and prevention2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep undergoes important changes during adolescence and many teenagers experience problems sleeping. These in turn affect adolescents´ academic, physical and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, there are some indications that sleep problems in this age group may be increasing, possibly as a consequence of societal changes, e.g., internet availability. Research on adolescents´ sleep is growing, but more epidemiological studies are needed to clarify the prevalence of poor sleep, long and short-term outcomes associated with it, and potential risk and protective factors to target in preventive interventions. The aim of this dissertation was to contribute to each of these goals; Study I investigated the longitudinal association between sleep problems, defined as symptoms of insomnia, and school absenteeism; Study II explored the prevalence of poor sleep, defined as sleep deficit, in an adolescent population and psychosocial and contextual factors associated with it, including emotional and behavioral problems, stress, sleep hygiene and technology use; finally, Study III evaluated the short-term effects of a novel universal school-based intervention to improve adolescents´ sleep health.

    The findings show that poor sleep was strongly related to adolescents´ functioning, including emotional and behavioral problems and school attendance, and that sleep deficit was prevalent in adolescents. This supports the need for prevention. Moreover, sleep deficit was associated with stress, technology use and arousal at bedtime, which may represent important barriers to sleep. A preventive intervention targeting these barriers to promote adolescents´ sleep health was successful with the individuals most at risk. However, it remains to be seen whether these changes will be maintained after the intervention and whether incidence of sleep problems will be lower relative to a control group. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

    List of papers
    1. Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sleep has important consequences for a person's daytime functioning. Numerous studies have shown that insomnia predicts work absenteeism and work disability in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in adolescents. This study aims to explore whether symptoms of insomnia in adolescents predict school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known psychological risk factors for absenteeism.

    Design: The study used a longitudinal design with 2 measurement points over 1 year.

    Setting: The students completed questionnaires during school hours at baseline and again at follow-up.

    Participants: Students in the 10th to 12th grades in a Swedish upper secondary school were followed prospectively for 1 year (age, 16-20 years; N = 353; 48.1% girls).

    Measurements and results: We used logistic regression analyses, controlling for the known effects of psychological factors, and arrived at a model elucidating the role of insomnia. That is, besides symptoms of insomnia, the model included previous absenteeism, alcohol intoxication, school-related social phobia, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, somatic symptoms, and bully victimization. Symptoms of insomnia predicted school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known risk factors for absenteeism. Adolescents reporting severe symptoms of insomnia were almost 3 times more likely than adolescents reporting no or low symptoms to report problematic absenteeism 1 year later. We did not find any gender difference.

    Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of sleep problems on adolescents' daytime functioning as measured by school absenteeism. Therefore, sleep may be an important target for preventive interventions with adolescents.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Sleep, Insomnia, School absenteeism, Adolescence, Longitudinal
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46656 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2015.07.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-84940890895 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2015-11-27 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sleep duration and patterns in adolescents: Correlates and the role of daily stressors
    2016 (English)In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 211-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The first aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep deficit in a large sample of adolescents. Second, the study aimed to assess whether short sleep duration in the sample was associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Lastly, the study aimed to investigate the association between daily stressors-bedtime activities and sleep duration.

    Design: Cross-sectional survey.

    Setting: The questionnaires were completed during school hours in 17 municipal junior high schools in Sweden.

    Participants: A total of 2767 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, 48% girls.

    Measurements and Results: Sleep measures included total sleep time (TST) for schooldays and weekends, obtained as combined measures of self-reported bed-time, wake-time, and sleep onset latency. We used the new National Sleep Foundation's guidelines to operationalize sleep duration. Overall 12% of younger adolescents (age 12-13 years) and 18% of older adolescents (14-16 years) slept less than recommended (TST < 7 hours). Adolescents reporting nonrecommended TST also reported more behavioral (ie, norm-breaking behaviors) and emotional problems (ie, depression, anxiety, and anger), with effects in the small-medium range. Finally, adolescents reporting bedtime arousal and use of information and communication technology in bed were more likely to report TST < 7 hours. Stress at home (for younger adolescents) and stress of school performance (for older adolescents) were also associated with TST less than 7 hours.

    Conclusions: The new National Sleep Foundation's recommendations were informative in this context. Future sleep interventions need to target barriers to good sleep practices, such as use of information and communication technology, stress, and worry that may contribute to arousal at bedtime.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    National Sleep Foundation (NSF); Sleep duration recommendations; Sleep deficit; Sleep patterns; Emotional and behavioral problems; Adolescent sleep; Daily stressors; Electronic media; Information and communication technology (ICT); Sleep hygiene; Bedtime arousal
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-51652 (URN)10.1016/j.sleh.2016.05.006 (DOI)000437210000011 ()2-s2.0-84977147448 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Tre Stads Studien
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
    Note

    Funding agency:

    Forskningsrådet för Arbetsliv och Socialvetenskap (FAS)

    Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved
    3. Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleep
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-59254 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
  • 24.
    Bauducco, Serena V.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Flink, Ida K.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Making room for sleep: The evaluation of a preventive school-based program to improve adolescents´ sleepManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Bauducco, Serena V.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Flink, Ida K.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Too tired for school?: the effects of insomnia on absenteeism in adolescence2015In: Sleep Health, ISSN 2352-7218, E-ISSN 2352-7226, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Sleep has important consequences for a person's daytime functioning. Numerous studies have shown that insomnia predicts work absenteeism and work disability in adults, but only a few studies have examined this association in adolescents. This study aims to explore whether symptoms of insomnia in adolescents predict school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known psychological risk factors for absenteeism.

    Design: The study used a longitudinal design with 2 measurement points over 1 year.

    Setting: The students completed questionnaires during school hours at baseline and again at follow-up.

    Participants: Students in the 10th to 12th grades in a Swedish upper secondary school were followed prospectively for 1 year (age, 16-20 years; N = 353; 48.1% girls).

    Measurements and results: We used logistic regression analyses, controlling for the known effects of psychological factors, and arrived at a model elucidating the role of insomnia. That is, besides symptoms of insomnia, the model included previous absenteeism, alcohol intoxication, school-related social phobia, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, somatic symptoms, and bully victimization. Symptoms of insomnia predicted school absenteeism 1 year later, over and above known risk factors for absenteeism. Adolescents reporting severe symptoms of insomnia were almost 3 times more likely than adolescents reporting no or low symptoms to report problematic absenteeism 1 year later. We did not find any gender difference.

    Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of sleep problems on adolescents' daytime functioning as measured by school absenteeism. Therefore, sleep may be an important target for preventive interventions with adolescents.

  • 26.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Cheah, Charissa S. L.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore County MD, USA.
    Coplan, Robert J.
    Carleton University, Ottawa ON, Canada.
    Processes and conditions underlying the link between shyness and school adjustment among Turkish children2017In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 218-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the underlying processes and conditions that contribute to the school adjustment of shy children in Turkey, where children's interpersonal relationships in social settings and academic achievement are highly emphasized. First, we examined the unique mediating roles of children's feelings of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and loneliness in the associations between shyness and indices of school outcomes (academic achievement and school liking/avoidance). Second, we explored the moderating role of children's peer acceptance in these associations. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 599; Mage  = 10.11 years, SD = 0.65; 48% girls) provided information on shyness, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, loneliness, and school liking/avoidance. Head teachers in each classroom reported on students' academic performance. The peer nomination method was used to assess children's peer relationships. Results revealed that when children displayed shy behaviours, they reported more depressive symptoms that were, in turn, associated with poorer academic performance, less school liking, and higher school avoidance. Moreover, shyness negatively predicted school liking at low levels of peer acceptance, suggesting that difficulties in peer relationships increased shy children's risk of school dissatisfaction. Overall, our findings support the importance of the interpersonal relationship context for children's adjustment within the Turkish cultural context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Shy children have difficulties initiating and maintaining social interactions, which put them at risk for a wide range of socio-emotional difficulties. Shy children have poor academic performance and experience school adjustment difficulties in North America. What does this study add? Shyness is an important risk factor for poorer academic performance and adjustment among children in Turkey. The association between shyness and difficulties at school is explained by children's experience of depressive symptoms. Difficulties with peer relationships increase shy children's risk of school dissatisfaction.

  • 27.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sun, Shuyan
    Baltimore County, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD, USA.
    Korol, Liliia
    National University of Ostroh Academy, Ostroh, Ukraine.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' Engagement in Ethnic Harassment: Prejudiced Beliefs in Social Networks and Classroom Ethnic Diversity2018In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1151-1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on ethnic victimization to date has done little to identify the reasons why adolescents victimize their peers due to their ethnic background. To address this limitation, we examined: (1) the extent to which prejudiced attitudes within adolescents' close and larger social networks determine their engagement in ethnic harassment, and (2) the extent to which classroom ethnic diversity plays a role in any such link. Our sample included 902 Swedish adolescents (M age  = 14.40, SD = .95; 50.3% girls). We found that Swedish adolescents who held negative attitudes toward immigrants or who were surrounded by prejudiced peers were more likely to be involved in ethnic harassment, particularly in classrooms with high ethnic diversity. Adolescents in classrooms with a high anti-immigrant climate were more likely to harass their immigrant peers. These findings suggest that prejudiced beliefs in youth social networks put young people at risk of engaging in ethnic harassment, particularly in ethnically diverse classrooms.

  • 28.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    What does make youth with negative attitudes towards immigrants bully their immigrant peers?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Why and when ethnic harassment is a risk for immigrant adolescents?: understanding the processes and conditions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigrant adolescents who experience ethnic devaluation are prone to having adjustment difficulties, including school dissatisfaction and low academic performance. However, it is unclear why and under what conditions experiencing ethnic harassment lead to school adjustment difficulties. This lack of understanding limits our ability of developing strategies to reduce negative consequences of ethnic harassment. To address this limitation, we examined the mediating roles of self-esteem and depressive symptoms in the association between ethnic harassment and immigrant youths’ school outcomes, including school satisfaction, perceived academic failure, and cutting classes. We also explored whether youths’ relationship with their teachers or democratic school environment buffer these processes.

    The data are part of a longitudinal study on youths’ experiences inside and outside of school and their relationships with their parents, peers, and teachers. The sample included 394 first- and second-generation immigrant youths (50% girls; M = 14.08, SD = .90).

    The findings suggested that immigrant youths who experienced ethnic harassment decreased in self-esteem, and so became less satisfied with school, and increased in expectations of academic failure. In addition, youths’ relationship with their teachers and their perception of school democracy moderated these mediation processes. When youths had low positive relationships with their teachers or perceived their school context as less democratic, being exposed to ethnic harassment leaded to a decrease in their self-esteem, and so they reported low school satisfaction and perceived themselves as not being successful in school. Contrary, youths’ self-esteem did not significantly decrease in the face of ethnic harassment when they had supportive relations with teachers or perceived the school as a democratic environment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the underlying processes and conditions when examining the effects of migration related risk factors in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding of immigrant youths’ school adjustment.

  • 30.
    Bergstrøm, Henriette
    et al.
    University of Derby, Derby, UK.
    Frogner, Louise
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psychopathic traits during early childhood: Stable over time or rapidly changing?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although research has shown psychopathic traits to be moderately to highly stable in late childhood and adolescence, little is known about stability in early childhood, specifically in preschool age. The current study was designed to fill this knowledge gap by assessing stability of psychopathic traits in a large community sample (n = 2,121) of three- to five-year-olds (47% girls) across a two-year time span. The sample displayed stable levels of Grandiose-Deceitful (GD), Callous-Unemotional (CU) and Impulsivity, Need for Stimulation (INS) traits. However, the degree of stability varieda cross these three traits dimensions, and by level of analysis, age, and gender. Rank-order stability ranged from low to very high, but effect sizes indicated less stability than on the mean level, where changes were detected but with small effect sizes, thus demonstrating high stability. This trend emerged for both genders, across development, and age. At an individual level, the great majority of the sample displayed stable levels of psychopathic traits to a large extent, with small gender and age differences. The current study is one of the first that investigates stability in children as young as three years old, and it highlights the possibility of measuring psychopathic traits in early childhood.

  • 31.
    Bezdjian, Serena
    et al.
    University of Southern California, Seaside California, USA; Department of Defense Center-Monterey Bay, Seaside California, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Wang, Pan
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Raine, Adrian
    Dept Criminol, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Dept Psychiat, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA; Dept Psychol, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Dept Psychol, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Motor Impulsivity During Childhood and Adolescence: A Longitudinal Biometric Analysis of the Go/No-Go Task in 9- to 18-Year-Old Twins2014In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 2549-2557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity fromchildhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motorimpulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 timepoints: ages 9–10, 11–13, 14–15, and 16–18 years. Significant genetic and nonshared environmentaleffects on motor impulsivity were found at each of the 4 waves of assessment with genetic factorsexplaining 22%–41% of the variance within each of the 4 waves. Phenotypically, children’s averageperformance improved across age (i.e., fewer no-go errors during later assessments). Multivariatebiometric analyses revealed that common genetic factors influenced 12%–40% of the variance in motorimpulsivity across development, whereas nonshared environmental factors common to all time pointscontributed to 2%–52% of the variance. Nonshared environmental influences specific to each time pointalso significantly influenced motor impulsivity. Overall, results demonstrated that although geneticfactors were critical to motor impulsivity across development, both common and specific nonsharedenvironmental factors played a strong role in the development of motor impulsivity across age.

  • 32.
    Bilevicute-Ljunger, Indre
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; ME/CFS-rehabilitation, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maroti, Daniel
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome do not score higher on the autism-spectrum quotient than healthy controls: comparison with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 428-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinically, there is an overlap of several symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including fatigue; brain “fog”; cognitive impairments; increased sensitivity to sound, light, and odour; increased pain and tenderness; and impaired emotional contact.

    Methods: Adults with CFS (n = 59) or ASD (n = 50) and healthy controls (HC; n = 53) were assessed with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a cross-sectional study. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare AQ scores among the groups. Univariate analysis of variance (ANCOVA) was used to identify if age, sex, or diagnostic group influenced the differences in scores.

    Results: Patients with ASD scored significantly higher on the AQ than the CFS group and the HC group. No differences in AQ scores were found between the CFS and HC groups. AQ results were influenced by the diagnostic group but not by age or sex, according to ANCOVA.    

    Conclusions: Despite clinical observations of symptom overlap between ASD and CFS, adult patients with CFS report few autistic traits in the self-report instrument, the AQ. The choice of instrument to assess autistic traits may influence the results.

  • 33.
    Billstam, Karl
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Holmqvist, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    En vandring genom sprit och droger2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsatts görs ett försök att finna vilka faktorer som kan verka viktiga i en behandling mot ett drogberoende. Den behandlingsform som undersökts är AA:s tolvstegsprogram och dess gemenskap. Undersökningen har en kvalitativ ansatts där vår studie är uppbyggd på intervjuer med sju informanter som har erfarenhet av och arbetar i AA:s tolvstegsprogram och gemenskap, mot sitt drogberoende. Vår studie visar på att erkännandet av sitt beroende, gemenskapen och tron är de faktorer som tycks vara av störst betydelse för våra deltagares tillfrisknande.

  • 34.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Importance of Genetic and Shared Environmental Factors for the Associations between Job Demands, Control, Support and Burnout2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e75387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment) into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14 516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.

  • 35.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; WorkWell, Research Unit for Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, Westonaria, South Africa.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Work-Home Interference and Burnout A Study Based on Swedish Twins2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 361-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study sets out to investigate the impact of work-home interference on burnout in women and men, while taking genetic and family environmental factors into account.

    Methods: A total of 4446 Swedish twins were included in the study. The effects of work-home conflict (WHC) and home-work conflict (HWC) on burnout between and within pairs were analyzed with co-twin control analyses.

    Results: Both WHC and HWC were significantly associated with burnout. Genetic factors may be involved in the association between HWC and burnout in women. Familial factors were not involved for WHC and burnout, neither for women nor for men.

    Conclusions: This study shows the importance to encounter WHC per se to prevent burnout. Because of genetic confounding in HWC and burnout in women, preventive efforts may also take into account individual characteristics.

  • 36.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Office type in relation to health, well-being, and job satisfaction among employees: Erratum2010In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 887-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports an error in "Office type in relation to health, well-being, and job satisfaction among employees" by Christina Bodin Danielsson and Lennart Bodin (Environment and Behavior, 2008[Sep], Vol 40[5], 636-668). In the original article, a symbol was missing from Table 7 on p. 654. In that table, an open circle ("o") should have been present to show that the odds ratio indicated low risk for having poor quality of sleep among those who worked in the flex office. The corrected table is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-12036-003). This article investigates the hypothesis that office type has an influence on workers' health status and job satisfaction and 469 employees in seven different types, defined by their unique setup of architectural and functional features, have rated their health status and job satisfaction. Multivariate regression models were used for analysis of these outcomes, with adjustment for age, gender, job rank, and line of business. Both health status and job satisfaction differed between the seven office types. Lowest health status was found in medium-sized and small open plan offices. Best health was among employees in cell offices and flex offices. Workers in these types of offices and in shared room offices also rated the highest job satisfaction. Lowest job satisfaction was in combi offices, followed by medium-sized open plan offices. The differences between employees could possibly be ascribed to variations in architectural and functional features of the office types. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 37.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    et al.
    The Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Architecture & Built Environment, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Intervention & Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wulff, Cornelia
    School of Health and Welfare (HVV), Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden; The Psychology Department, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theorell, Töres
    The Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The relation between office type and workplace conflict: A gender and noise perspective2015In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 42, p. 161-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory study aimed to investigate the impact of the office design on workplace conflicts, with a special attention to noise in the office. A gender perspective was applied. The sample consisted of 5229 employees from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health 2010 (SLOSH), working in different office types. In the multivariate analysis office type was used as the explanatory variable with adjustments for age, supervisory position and labour market sector. Analysis stratified for gender was used. Among women a significant impact of office type per se on workplace conflicts was found, but not among men. For women several office types differed significantly from the cell-office with regard to prevalence of conflicts during the past two years, but for men only the combi-office differed from the cell-office. Noise had an impact on workplace conflicts, but is not the only explanatory factor since the effect of office type remained also after adjustment for noise in multivariate analyses. Other environmental factors inherent in the office type might thus explain the occurrence of conflicts.

  • 38.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia; Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University & Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, UHL, County Council, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study2016In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 39.
    Bäck, Malin
    et al.
    Futurum, Academy for Health and Care, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Research and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Sanna Aila
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Interpersonal psychotherapy for eating disorders with co-morbid depression: A pilot study2017In: European Journal of Psychotherapy, ISSN 1364-2537, E-ISSN 1469-5901, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 378-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Patients with eating disorders (ED) often suffer from co-morbid depression, which may complicate the ED treatment. Previous studies have found that ED interventions seem to have limited capacity to reduce depressive symptoms. Several studies of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), have found that when patients have been treated for depression, co-morbid symptoms have diminished. As depression and EDs are commonly co-occurring conditions, this pilot study aimed to examine the effect of an IPT treatment for these conditions, with the focus on the depressive symptoms.

    Method: In this multi-centre study, 16 patients with EDs and co-occurring major depression received 16 weeks of depression-focused IPT.

    Results: Significant improvements with substantial effect sizes were found for both depression (d = 1.48) and ED (d =.93). Symptom reduction in the two syndromes were strongly correlated (r = .625, p = .004). Patients with a restrictive ED did not improve on either depression or ED symptoms.

    Conclusion: These findings point to the usefulness of IPT for concurrent depression and ED with a bingeing/purging symptomatology. Working with negative affect and problem-solving related to current interpersonal problems may alleviate general psychological distress among these patients.

  • 40.
    Capusan, A. J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Yao, S.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kuja-Halkola, R.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bulik, C. M.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA; Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Thornton, L. M.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Bendtsen, P.
    Department of Medical Specialist and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Motala, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, I.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Thorsell, A.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic and environmental aspects in the association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and binge-eating behavior in adults: a twin study2017In: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 47, no 16, p. 2866-2878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prior research demonstrated that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with binge-eating behavior, binge-eating disorder (BED), and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to investigate these associations in an adult twin population, and to determine the extent to which ADHD symptoms and binge-eating behavior share genetic and environmental factors.

    Methods: We used self-reports of current ADHD symptoms and lifetime binge-eating behavior and associated characteristics from a sample of over 18 000 adult twins aged 20-46 years, from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine the association between ADHD and lifetime binge-eating behavior, BED, and BN. Structural equation modeling was used in 13 773 female twins to determine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the association between ADHD symptoms and binge-eating behavior in female adult twins.

    Results: ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with lifetime binge-eating behavior, BED, and BN. The heritability estimate for current ADHD symptoms was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.44], and for lifetime binge-eating behavior 0.65 (95% CI 0.54-0.74). The genetic correlation was estimated as 0.35 (95% CI 0.25-0.46) and the covariance between ADHD and binge-eating behavior was primarily explained by genetic factors (91%). Non-shared environmental factors explained the remaining part of the covariance.

    Conclusions: The association between adult ADHD symptoms and binge-eating behavior in females is largely explained by shared genetic risk factors.

  • 41.
    Carstens, Johan K. P.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Lending an ear to pain: The impact of emotionally oriented communication on pain catastrophizingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Carstens Söderstrand, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Communication in the context of acute pain: Persuasion or validation?2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, the dominating theoretical framework for communication in the context of acute pain is reassurance. An inherent assumption of this framework is that the person in pain needs to have their fears and doubts removed and be educated, or persuaded, that the pain problem is not dan-gerous. This is then thought to lead to a shift in beliefs that later explain future beneficial outcomes

    In later years, another communication technique known as validation has started to gain traction in the pain field. This technique focuses on le-gitimizing the thoughts and emotions of pain patients and is instead thought to influence outcomes through better emotion regulation.

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to extend current knowledge on effective communication in the context of acute pain. In one observational study a variable supposedly sensitive to shifts in beliefs was observed in a cohort of acute pain patients over the course of the first three months after pain onset. Also, in two controlled experiments we explored the impact of validating communication on pain relevant variables while investigating if this effect was due to improved emotion regulation.

    Taken together, this dissertation indicates that validating communica-tion shows promise as a form of effective communication in the context of acute pain, in that it influences both pain catastrophizing and recall. The dissertation does not give support to either changes in beliefs nor emotion regulation being the mechanism of change for effective communication. Thus, this dissertation propose a new model of effective communication based both on previous research highlighting the effectiveness of infor-mation and the research presented in this dissertation, more focused on the role of psychological processes such as pain catastrophizing.

    List of papers
    1. When the wind goes out of the sail - declining recovery expectations in the first weeks of back pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When the wind goes out of the sail - declining recovery expectations in the first weeks of back pain
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Expectations for recovery are a known predictor for returning to work. Most studies seem to conclude that the higher the expectancy the better the outcome. However, the development of expectations over time is rarely researched and experimental studies show that realistic expectations rather than high expectancies are the most adaptive. This study aims to explore patterns of stability and change in expectations for recovery during the first weeks of a back-pain episode and how these patterns relate to other psychological variables and outcome.

    Methods The study included 496 volunteer patients seeking treatment for work-related, acute back pain. The participants were measured with self-report scales of depression, fear of pain, life impact of pain, catastrophizing and expectations for recovery at two time points. A follow-up focusing on recovery and return to work was conducted 3 months later. A cluster analysis was conducted, categorizing the data on the trajectories of recovery expectations.

    Results Cluster analysis revealed four clusters regarding the development of expectations for recovery during a 2-week period after pain onset. Three out of four clusters showed stability in their expectations as well as corresponding levels of proximal psychological factors. The fourth cluster showed increases in distress and a decrease in expectations for recovery. This cluster also has poor odds ratios for returning to work and recovery. Conclusion Decreases in expectancies for recovery seem as important as baseline values in terms of outcome, which has clinical and theoretical implications.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-33642 (URN)10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00357.x (DOI)000329303600013 ()
    Note

    Funding Agency: Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety; Scan/Design by Inger and Jens Brun Foundation

    Available from: 2014-02-07 Created: 2014-02-07 Last updated: 2018-06-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Lending an ear to pain: The impact of emotionally oriented communication on pain catastrophizing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lending an ear to pain: The impact of emotionally oriented communication on pain catastrophizing
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-66217 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Effects of validating communication on recall during a pain-task in healthy participants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of validating communication on recall during a pain-task in healthy participants
    2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 17, p. 118-125, article id S1877-8860(17)30143-XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recall of instructions and advice in a pain consultation is important, since it is a prerequisite for adherence to treatment recommendations. However, interference due to pain-related distress may result in poor recall. Whereas there are some indications that recall can be increased by empathic communication that reduces interference, this interesting possibility remains largely untested experimentally. The current experiment aimed at studying effects of empathic communication, and more specifically validation, on recall during a pain test and possible mediators and moderators of this effect.

    METHOD: Participants received either validating (N=25) or invalidating responses (N=25) from the experimenter during a pain provoking task, followed by self-report measures of interference (affect, situational pain catastrophizing) and recall (accurate and false memories of words).

    RESULTS: As expected, the validated group exhibited higher accurate recall and less false memories following the pain test as compared to the invalidated group. This was partly due to the effect of interference being counteracted by moderating the relationship between pain catastrophizing and recall.

    CONCLUSION: These novel results suggest that validating communication can counteract interference due to pain catastrophizing on recall, at least in a controlled experimental setting.

    IMPLICATIONS: Good communication by health professionals is of utmost importance for adherence to pain management. The current results expand our knowledge on the effects of pain communication by establishing and explaining a clear link between empathic communication and recall, highlighting the role of pain catastrophizing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Walter de Gruyter, 2017
    Keywords
    Validation; Communication; Memory recall; Pain catastrophizing; Affect
    National Category
    Applied Psychology Neurology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61698 (URN)10.1016/j.sjpain.2017.07.003 (DOI)000419851500017 ()28850364 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028312094 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2017-11-13 Created: 2017-11-13 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
  • 43.
    Cheah, Charissa S. L.
    et al.
    University of Maryland, College Park MD, USA.
    Leung, Christy Y. Y.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Chinese Malaysian Adolescents’ Social Cognitive Reasoning regarding Filial Piety Dilemmas2018In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 383-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the social-cognitive reasoning of 52 Chinese Malaysian preadolescents (9-12 years old; M = 11.02, SD = 0.94) and 68 adolescents (13-18 years old; M = 14.76, SD = 1.39) in resolving filial dilemmas within the personal and moral domain. Preadolescents deferred to parental authority, whereas adolescents endorsed filial obligation reasoning to justify compliance in the personal domain. Both appealed to filial obligation, pragmatic, or welfare and safety reasoning to justify compliance but fairness or rights reasoning to justify their noncompliance, for the moral issue. Distinctions between authoritarian and reciprocal filial piety reasoning were revealed. Findings demonstrated complex decision-making and cognitive reasoning processes among Chinese Malaysian adolescents as they negotiate their filial obligations and autonomy development.

  • 44.
    Cheng, Helen
    et al.
    University College London (UCL), London, UK.
    Treglown, Luke
    University College London (UCL), London, UK.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. University College London (UCL), London, UK.
    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.
    University of Crete, Rethymnon, Greece.
    Tsivrikos, Dimitrios
    University College London (UCL), London, UK.
    Furnham, Adrian
    University College London (UCL), London, UK; BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    The associations between personality traits, education, occupation and the occurrence of eczema in adulthood2017In: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 916-924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There were 5834 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at 11 years, educational qualifications at 33 years, the Big Five-Factor personality traits, occupational levels and eczema (measured at age 50 years). Results showed that eczema in childhood, educational achievement and occupational levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of reported eczema in adulthood. Emotionally Stable people (non-neurotic) were less likely to have eczema, but those with high Agreeableness and Openness more likely to have eczema. Childhood cognitive ability was significantly and positively associated with eczema in adulthood.

  • 45.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a General Population Sample of Emerging Adults2016In: Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1040-3590, E-ISSN 1939-134X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 449-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20–24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed.

  • 46.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hawes, Samuel W.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Bijttebier, Patricia
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Pardini, Dustin A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Psychometric Properties of the Original and Short Form of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in Detained Female Adolescents2016In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 679-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in 191 detained female adolescents (M = 15.76, SD = 1.02). Evidence supporting the validity of the ICU scores was generally weak, largely due to poor functioning of the Unemotional subscale. Results from confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated support for a recently proposed shortened version of the ICU consisting of two subscales (Callousness and Uncaring). Both subscales showed acceptable to good internal consistency. This short-form version also improved criterion validity, though some issues regarding its convergent validity need further consideration. In conclusion, this study suggests that a short-form version of the ICU that includes a subset of the original items may hold promise as an efficient and valid method for assessing CU traits.

  • 47.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Pardini, Dustin A.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center,Pittsburgh PA, USA.
    Psychopathic traits as predictors of future criminality, intimate partner aggression, and substance use in young adult men2015In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 547-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the prospective relation between Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) scores and various negative outcomes in a community sample of young men. Official criminal records and self-reported outcomes, including criminality, physical and relational aggression against intimate partners, and excessive substance use, were obtained on average 5.4 years (records) and 3.5 years (self-reports) after the YPI assessment. Results showed that psychopathic traits measured with the YPI (approximately at age 25) did not significantly contribute to the prediction of future official criminal charges and self-reported crime, physical aggression against intimate partners, and excessive alcohol and marijuana use, after controlling for several covariates. However, results also showed that men with higher scores on the YPI were more likely to commit future acts of relational aggression against their partner, even after controlling for prior relational aggression. This novel finding needs replication, though, and—for now—does not jeopardize the overall conclusion that psychopathic traits as measured with the YPI hardly predict over and above prior criminality and aggression. Altogether, the findings of the present study and their consistency with past research suggest that one should rethink the role of psychopathy measures for risk assessment purposes, at least when these measures do not index prior criminality.

  • 48.
    Colins, Olivier
    et al.
    Ghent University, Department of Special Education, Gent, Belgium.
    Broekaert, Eric
    Ghent University, Department of Special Education, Gent, Belgium.
    Vandevelde, Stijn
    Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
    Van Hove, Geert
    Ghent University, Department of Special Education, Gent, Belgium.
    Max Weber and Alfred Schutz: the theoretical and methodological background of the case-oriented quantification approach behind winMAX2008In: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 369-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The case-oriented quantification approach behind the software program winMAX is, according to its founder, Kuckartz, based on the methodological and theoretical work of Max Weber and Alfred Schutz. This claimed connection is not, however, explained in depth in the author's available scientific literature. This article clarifies the methodological and theoretical backgrounds to winMAX, with special focus on the influence of Weber and Schutz. It became clear that-in spite of similarities-Weber and Schutz differ in several respects, which raises objections to the claimed connection and puts practical application to the test. More in-depth information is therefore needed to apply Kuckartz's case-oriented quantification approach in social research with respect to its theoretical background.

  • 49.
    Colins, Olivier F
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The DSM-5 with limited prosocial emotions specifier for conduct disorder among detained girls2015In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 198-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new DSM-5 specifier 'with Limited Prosocial Emotions' (LPE) is expected to provide greater information about impairment of children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). This study examined the clinical utility of the LPE specifier symptom threshold among female adolescents being detained in Belgium (n = 191 girls; ages 12-17). Standardized questionnaires and a structured diagnostic interview were used to assess the LPE specifier, CD, and variables of interest. Approximately 62% (n = 118) of the girls met criteria for CD. Depending on the instrument that was used to assess the LPE specifier criteria, 26% to 37% of the girls with CD met criteria for the LPE specifier symptom threshold (CD + LPE). Overall, CD + LPE girls were not significantly different from CD-only girls regarding psychiatric morbidity (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, substance use disorder, major depression, and anxiety disorders). However, CD + LPE girls were more aggressive, rule-breaking, delinquent, and had higher levels of psychopathic traits than CD-only girls. This study supports the view that the LPE specifier identifies a group of seriously antisocial individuals, but could not replicate previous findings that the LPE specifier symptom threshold identifies CD individuals who exhibit more psychiatric morbidity than CD individuals who are without the specifier symptom threshold. These findings altogether suggest that the clinical usefulness of the DSM-5 specifier for the diagnosis of CD is restricted, at least in detained girls.

  • 50.
    Colins, Olivier F.
    et al.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Curium-Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Andershed, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Salekin, Randall T.
    Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, United States.
    Fanti, Kostas A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Comparing Different Approaches for Subtyping Children with Conduct Problems: Callous-Unemotional Traits Only Versus the Multidimensional Psychopathy Construct2018In: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, ISSN 0882-2689, E-ISSN 1573-3505, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare two youth psychopathy models (i.e., callous-unemotional versus multidimensional model) in their ability to predict future and stable conduct problems (CP). At baseline, mothers and fathers of 321 boys and 369 girls (ages 7-12) completed measures that tap callous-unemotional and other psychopathic traits. Parent-reported CP was collected at baseline and at 6- and 12 month follow-ups. Children were assigned to mutually exclusive groups based on their levels of CP and psychopathic traits. Children with CP who manifested callous-unemotional traits (Callous-Unemotional + CP) were occasionally at risk for future and stable CP. Yet, across gender, children with CP scoring high on all psychopathic trait dimensions (Psychopathic Personality + CP) showed the most robust and highest risk for future and stable CP. Also, Callous-Unemotional + CP children, and children who were only high in CP, often were at similar risk for future CP. The findings suggest that the callous-unemotional model is less sufficient than the multidimensional model in predicting future and stable CP. This can be concluded for both boys and girls and calls for more research reconsidering the multidimensional nature of psychopathy for CP subtyping purposes.

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