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  • 1.
    Abrego, Lisandro
    et al.
    International Monetary Fund, Washington DC, USA.
    Österholm, Pär
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    External Linkages and Economic Growth in Colombia: Insights from a Bayesian VAR Model2010In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 1788-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the sensitivity of Colombian GDP growth to the surrounding macroeconomic environment. We estimate a Bayesian VAR model with informative steady-state priors for the Colombian economy using quarterly data from 1995 to 2007. A variance decomposition shows that world GDP growth and government spending are the most important factors, explaining roughly 17 and 16 per cent of the variance in Colombian GDP growth respectively. The model, which is shown to forecast well out-of-sample, can also be used to analyse alternative scenarios. Generating both endogenous and conditional forecasts, we show that the impact on Colombian GDP growth of a substantial downturn in world GDP growth would be non-negligible but that the decline still would be mild by historical standards.

  • 2.
    Addison, Tony
    et al.
    WIDER/UNU.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Revenue mobilization in aid-dependent countries: current and future challengesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent financial crisis and other climate related shocks pose important challenges to fiscal policies in a number of developing countries. The best way for developing countries to respond to the tax challenges are essentially to broaden tax bases, reduce rates and improve tax administration. But equally important, the focus has also to be on economic policies that accelerate growth and expand the tax base. In many developing countries, poor public service delivery, financed with existing revenue, creates dissatisfied citizens which are unwilling to pay taxes. A legitimate and responsive state one that secures the rule of law and keeps corruption under control is important for better mobilisation of tax revenue. With regard to the mix of tax instruments trade taxes will continue to reduce its significance as an important source of revenue. This suggests that indirect taxes such as VAT and direct taxes will be of significant importance in the future. Many developing countries have very narrow tax bases, with large number of exemptions, often designed to protect the interests of powerful groups. In these circumstances broadening the base can have the advantages of raising revenue, improving economic efficiency and achieving greater redistribution. Over the long-term taxation can reduce developing countries’ dependence upon aid and increase its ownership of the development agenda and become accountable to its citizens. This would also reinforce the social contract between state, citizens and the private sector which was how efficient institutions evolved in the developed world.

  • 3.
    Addison, Tony
    et al.
    WIDER/UNU.
    Levin, Jörgen
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    The determinants of tax revenue in sub-Saharan AfricaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Per
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Stockholms trängselskatter och hur de påverkat räddningstjänstens körtider i Stockholms kommun2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Per
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Aktieindexobligationer: Värdering med hjälp av Monte Carlo-simulering2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6. Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Atithi Devo Bhava? (The Guest is Equivalent to God?)2015In: Observer Research Foundation Issue Brief, no 91, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Agarwal, Natasha
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, Dehli, India.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Getting more out of India's 'Tourist Visa on Arrival' scheme2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Government of India has extended the ‘Tourist Visa on Arrival’ scheme - now expected to be renamed 'Visa Online (ETA)' scheme - from five countries in 2010 to 44 countries in 2014. In this article, Natasha Agarwal and Magnus Lodefalk highlight some of the limitations in the design and implementation of the scheme, and make recommendations for maximising its economic benefit and effectiveness.

  • 8.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Multi-unit common value auctions: theory and experiments2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on auctions that involve more than one identical item for sale was,almost non-existing in the 90’s, but has since then been getting increasing attention. External incentives for this research have come from the US spectrum, sales, the European 3G mobile-phone auctions,  and Internet auctions. The policy relevance and the huge amount of money involved in many of them have helped the theory and experimental research advance. But in auctions where values are equal across bidders, common value auctions, that is, when the value depends on some outside parameter, equal to all bidders, the research is still embryonic.

    This thesis contributes to the topic with three studies. The first uses a Bayesian game to model a simple multi-unit common value auction, the task being to compare equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue from three auction formats; the discriminatory, the uniform and the Vickrey auction. The second study conducts an economic laboratory experiment on basis of the first study. The third study comprises an experiment on the multi-unit common value uniform auction and compares the dynamic and the static environments of this format.

    The most salient result in both experiments is that subjects overbid. They are victims of the winner’s curse and bid above the expected value, thus earning a negative profit. There is some learning, but most bidders continue to earn a negative profit also in later rounds. The competitive effect when participating in an auction seems to be stronger than the rationality concerns. In the first experiment, subjects in the Vickrey auction do somewhat better in small groups than subjects in the other auction types and, in the second experiment, subjects in the dynamic auction format perform much better than subjects in the static auction format; but still, they overbid.

    Due to this overbidding, the theoretical (but not the behavioral) prediction that the dynamic auction should render more revenue than the static fails inthe second experiment. Nonetheless, the higher revenue of the static auction comes at a cost; half of the auctions yield negative profits to the bidders, and the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in this format. Besides, only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.The bottom line is that the choice between the open and sealed-bid formats may be more important than the choice of price mechanism, especially in common value settings.

    List of papers
    1. Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of discrete multi-unit, common value auctions: a study of three sealed-bid mechanisms
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a discrete bidding model for both quantities and pricing. It has a two-unit demand environment where subjects bid for contracts with an unknown redemption value, common to all bidders. Prior to bidding, the bidders receive private signals of information on the (common) value. The value and the signals are drawn from a known discrete affiliated joint distribution. The relevant task for the paper is to compare the equilibrium strategies and the seller’s revenue of three auction formats. We find that, of the three auctionformats below with two players, the discriminatory auction always gives the largest revenue to the seller; both the uniform and the Vickrey auction have zero revenue equilibrium strategies that put them further down in the revenue ranking. In equilibrium, bidders bid the same amount on both items in the discriminatory auction; a phenomenon not noted in either of the other auction formats.

    Keywords
    Laboratory Experiment; Multi-Unit Auction; Common Value Auction
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26445 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechansims
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-unit common value auctions: a laboratory experiment with three sealed-bid mechansims
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses a discrete common value environment with independent (one-dimensional) private signals, where the seller offers two identical units and the buyers have (flat) demand for both. Each session is conducted with2, 3 or 4 buyers. Three auction formats are used: the discriminatory, uniformand Vickrey auctions which are all subjected to a variation in the number of bidders and to repeating bid rounds on each subject. The main findings are that there are no significant differences between the uniform and the discriminatory auction in collecting revenue, while the Vickrey auction comes out as inferior. More bidders in the auction result in a greater revenue and level out the performance across the mechanisms. Demand reduction is visible in the experiment, but it is not as prominent as anticipated. Moreover, subjects come closer to equilibrium play over time. Finally, the winner’s curse is less severe than what is reported for inexperienced bidders in other studies.

    Keywords
    Laboratory Experiment, Multi-Unit Auction, Common Value Auction
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26446 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi-unit common value auctions: an experimental comparison between the static and the dynamic uniform auction
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is still an open question whether the dynamic or the static format should be used in multi-unit settings, in a uniform price auction. The present study conducts an economic experiment in a common value environment, where it is found that it is more a question of whether the auctioneer wants to facilitate price discovery, and thereby lessen the otherwise pervasive overbidding, or if only the revenue is important. The experiment in the present paper provides evidence that the static format gives a significantly greater revenue than the dynamic auction, in both small and large group sizes. But a higher revenue comes at a cost; half of the auctions in the static format yield negative profits to the bidders, the winner’s curse is more severely widespread in the static auction, and only a minority of the bidders use the equilibrium bidding strategy.

    Keywords
    Laboratory Experiment, Multi-Unit Auction, Common Value Auction
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26447 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Ahlén, Jonathan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Hur empiriskt relevant är Taylor Rule idag?: En jämförelse av Sverige och USA.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Aklilu, Abenezer Zeleke
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment Inflow2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study finds out if components of GDP can explain FDI inflow better than GDP itself. The analysis is based on two equations. The first equation includes GDP as one of determinants of FDI inflow and the other one substitute GDP with consumption expenditure and government expenditure as determinants of FDI inflow. The equations are estimated for four groups of data. The first group includes 103 countries from around the world. Then the countries are divided into three groups: high income countries, middle income countries and low income countries. Along with other determinants of FDI inflow, consumption expenditure is found to be a significant determinant for middle income and low income countries. Government expenditure is found to be a significant determinant for global FDI inflow and high income countries FDI inflow. GDP is also found to be a significant determinant for global, middle income countries and low income countries FDI inflow. Comparing the results of estimations from the two equations shows that both equations have equivalent explanatory power. Thus a choice between the two equations depends on the purpose of the selector and the groups of countries studied by the selector.

  • 11.
    Alm, Anna
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Försäljning av bostadsrätter i Eriksberg: En studie om värdering av bostadsrätter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Alm, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Gustavsson, Annie
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Huspriser och finansiellt sparande2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Aläng, Martin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Konkurrensens effekt på betygssättning: En undersökning av slutbetyg på svenska gymnasier mellan 2000 och 2012.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Amir, Daban
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kenyas export till samtliga handelspartner - påverkande faktorer?: En empirisk analys på makronivå med tillämpning av gravitationsmodellen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier visar att ökad handel spelar en tydlig roll för ett lands ekonomiska tillväxt. Genom att träda in på den globala marknaden öppnas många möjligheter för ökad handel och nya arbetstillfällen. Utrikeshandeln är betydelsefull för små öppna ekonomier som till exempel Kenya och bör utgöra en stor del av landets BNP. I och med detta är det viktigt att studera vilka faktorer som påverkar ett lands utrikeshandel. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar Kenyas export. Analysen visar att handelspartnernas BNP har en betydande påverkan på Kenyas export. Det geografiska avståndet har en negativ påverkan på Kenyas utrikeshandel. De regionala handelsavtalen har som förväntat en positiv påverkan på exporten.

  • 15.
    Amjadi Torshizi, Golnaz
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Does dissimilarity in corruption matter more for imports of intermediate goods than consumer goods?: A Panel data Study within a North-South trade framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Andersen, Steffen
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Harrison, Glenn W.
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, United States; University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Lau, Morten I.
    Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark; Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.
    Rutström, Elisabet
    Georgia State University, Atlanta, United States; Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility, and Correlation Aversion2018In: International Economic Review, ISSN 0020-6598, E-ISSN 1468-2354, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 537-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable, then the latter two concepts are the inverse of each other. We review a theoretical specification with a long lineage in the literature on multi-attribute utility and use this theoretical structure to guide the design of a series of experiments that allow us to identify and estimate intertemporal correlation aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Le, Quyet
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lönebildningen för läkare i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Andersson, Axel
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Gestrinius, Erik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kommunspecifika faktorers påverkan på småhuspriser2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Andersson Eidelöf, Carl-Oscar
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Nilsson, Niklas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Högt pris hög kvalitet?: En empirisk analys av sambandet mellan pris och kvalitet på konsumentvaror2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 50-talet har flera empiriska studier bevisat att det finns positiva samband mellan prisoch kvalitet på flera konsumentvarumarknader i olika länder. Även om korrelationen mellanpris och kvalitet vanligtvis är relativt låg, använder konsumenterna ändå priset som entumregel för att bedöma kvaliteten. I uppsatsen visas det empiriska sambandet mellan pris ochbedömd kvalitet för ett antal konsumentprodukter i Sverige som konsumenttidningen Råd &Rön har kvalitetstestat år 2011. Analysen baseras i huvudsak på Spearmansrangkorrelationstest (rs). Resultaten i vår uppsats är i linje med tidigare studier. Det finns ettpositiv samband mellan pris och kvalitet för de flesta produkter (rs = 0,40). Vår studie visardock på stora variationer i korrelationen för enskilda produkttyper. Vissa produkter visade tilloch med negativa samband mellan pris och kvalitet. Våra resultat antyder även att de högstrespektive lägst prissatta produkterna inte behöver ha högst respektive lägst kvalitet. Våraresultat ger ett svagt stöd för konsumenter att använda högt pris som en indikator på högkvalitet för de flesta elektronikprodukter.

  • 20.
    Andersson Eidelöf, Carl-Oscar
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Viking, Tom
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Den verkliga kostnaden för aktiv förvaltning: En kvantitativ studie om fonders aktiva kostnad inom premiepensionen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har länge pågått en debatt huruvida aktiv förvaltning kan prestera bättre än marknaden och därmed göra skäl för en högre avgift än den för passiv förvaltning. Studien är relevant då majoriteten av Sveriges befolkning fondsparar genom premiepensionen. Uppsatsen är av kvantitativ karaktär och utvärderar 40 svenska aktivt förvaltade aktiefonder inom premiepensionen under perioden oktober 2010 – september 2013. Närmare bestämt undersöks hur aktiva fonderna egentligen är samt den verkliga kostnaden för den aktiva förvaltningen.

     

    Metoden är uppbyggd som så att fonderna delas upp i en aktiv del och en passiv del, varvid kostnader samt prestationer allokeras mellan dessa delar. Alfa (prestationen) för fonderna är estimerat med OLS-metoden. Kostnaden för aktiv del ställs i förhållande till prestationen för aktiv del för att se om den högre avgift för aktiv förvaltning medför är rättfärdigad.

    Resultatet visar överlag att fonderna har en hög korrelation med index, i synnerhet storbolagsfonderna (R2 = 95 procent). 25 procent av fonderna har presterat bättre än marknaden, men enbart 5 procent påvisade en god prestation i förhållande till sin avgift. Majoriteten av fonderna (87,5 procent) presterade inte tillräckligt bra för att kunna rättfärdiga den högre avgift de tar ut för att aktivt förvalta fonden.

     

    Slutsatsen är att det i de flesta fall inte lönar sig med aktiv förvaltning inom premiepensionen, då majoriteten av fonderna inte lyckats prestera bättre än index eller täcka de aktiva förvaltningskostnaderna.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data2017In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    The Characteristics and Performance of Family Firms: Exploiting information on ownership, governance and kinship using total population data2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms, and the economic implications of these differences have generated significant academic debate. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data, as this requires information on owners, their kinship and involvement in firm governance, which is rarely available. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data that offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We then apply it to data from Statistics Sweden concerning firm ownership, governance and kinship over the years 2004-2010. Next, we use Swedish data to estimate these firms’ economic contribution to total employment and gross domestic product (GDP) and compare them to private domiciled non-family firms in terms of their characteristics and economic performance. We find that the family firm is the prevalent organizational form, contributing to over one-third of all employment and GDP. Family firms are common across industries and sizes, ranging from the smallest producers to the largest multinational firms. However, their characteristics differ across sizes and legal forms, thereby indicating that the seemingly contradictory findings among previous studies on family firms may be due to unobserved heterogeneity. We furthermore find that they are smaller than private non-family firms in employment and sales and carry higher solidity, although they are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size, however. We conclude that the term ‘family firm’ contains great diversity and call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. SCB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Characteristics of Family Firms: Exploiting Information on Ownership, Kinship and Governance Using Total Population Data2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 539-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family firms are often considered characteristically different from non-family firms. However, our understanding of family firms suffers from an inability to identify them in total population data; information is rarely available regarding owners, their kinship, and their involvement in firm governance. We present a method for identifying domiciled family firms using register data; this method offers greater accuracy than previous methods. We apply this method to Swedish data concerning firm ownership, governance, and kinship from 2004 to 2010. We find that the family firm is a significant organizational form, contributing over one third of all employment and gross domestic product (GDP). Family firms are common in most industries and range in size. Furthermore, we find that, compared to private non-family firms, family firms have fewer total assets, employment, and sales and carry higher solidity, although family firms are more profitable. These differences diminish with firm size. We conclude that the term “family firm” includes a large variety of firms, and we call for increased attention to their heterogeneity.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse Capitole, Toulouse, France.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    The Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Transport Studies, KTH, Sweden .
    Economic Analysis and Investment Priorities in Sweden's Transport Sector2018In: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2194-5888, E-ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 120-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning as a planning tool within Sweden's national road administration some 50 years ago, benefit-cost analysis (BCA) has come to be a pillar of the national transport policy because of subsequent strategic choices made by the national parliament. These choices made it necessary to widen the analysis of costs to include also externalities and a foregone conclusion was that efficient investment priorities should be made based on BCA. But no one asked whether the political decision makers or the BCA models were up to that task. This paper reviews the institutional framework and practice of BCA in Sweden for transport infrastructure investment, and considers design issues that have been and still are debated, such as whether the discount rate should include a risk term and how to account for the marginal cost of public funds. A main concern with BCA results is the underestimation of construction costs, making transport sector projects look better than they are. Several ex post analyses have established that a higher NPV ratio increases the probability of being included in the investment program proposal prepared by the agency. The requirement to let projects undergo BCA seems to make planners trim project proposals by trying to reduce investment costs without significantly reducing benefits. This relationship is weaker among profitable projects. Moreover, there is no correlation between rate of return and the probability of being included in the final program, which is established on political grounds.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Transport Economics, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method: An analysis of willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk2008In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 481-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non-near-proportionality of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment in which their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study asking them about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias

  • 26.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Toulouse School of Economics, Toulouse, France.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Scale sensitivity and question order in the contingent valuation method2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1746-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect on respondents’ willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk by the order of the questions in a stated preference study. Using answers from an experiment conducted on a Swedish sample where respondents’ cognitive ability was measured and where they participated in a contingent valuation survey, it was found that scale sensitivity is strongest when respondents are asked about a smaller risk reduction first (‘bottom-up’ approach). This contradicts some previous evidence in the literature. It was also found that the respondents’ cognitive ability is more important for showing scale sensitivity when respondents are asked about a larger risk reduction first (‘top-down’ approach), also reinforcing the result that a ‘bottom-up’ approach is more consistent with answers in line with theoretical predictions for a larger proportion of respondents.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Jacob
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lantz, Malin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Har det varit fördelaktigt att valutasäkra?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Gamerov, Lukas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kombinatörer: Vad påverkar individer som väljer att kombinera anställning med eget företagande2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Andersson, Linda
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Fiscal flows and financial markets: to what extent do they provide risk sharing within Sweden?2008In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 1003-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the amount of risk sharing that takes place between regions in Sweden. It is found that the capital market is the largest source of risk sharing of an exogenous change in gross regional product in Sweden. Still, roughly 20% of a change in regional output is smoothed among the regions through the fiscal system. There is also some evidence that there are regional differences in the sense that regions located in the south rely more on the capital market as a source of insurance against shocks in output, while the tax and transfer systems provide a larger extent of risk sharing for regions located in the north.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Linda
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Net taxes, income stabilization and regional job flows in Sweden2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to empirically analyze the relationship between job flows and regional income stabilization provided by the national tax and transfer systems. The analysis is based on an administrative panel data set containing all sectors in 20 Swedish regions for the time period 1989-2000. Controlling for unobserved regional effects we find that a high net tax-income ratio tends to decrease the rate of jobs that are created and increase the rate of job destruction, increasing the overall rate of job reallocation in the regions. In an attempt to separate out the part of the national tax-transfer system that is aimed at stabilizing the income path over time we find that only job creation is affected, i.e., regions where the income path is more stable tend to have a lower rate of intra-industry job creation.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Henriksen, Anna
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    What determines local expenditures on mental health care in Sweden really?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the determinants of local expenditures on mental health care in Sweden. We use a unique dataset that identifies the localities’ expenditures explicitly directed towards mental health care. Based on these data we find that there is increasing returns to scale in the provision of local mental health services in terms of population. However, it appears as if local policy variables, local earnings potential (economic opportunities), geographical area or other indicators that have been put forward in the debate, cannot explain the large variation in local expenditures on mental health care in Sweden.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Offshoring and relative labor demand in Swedish firms2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyze relative employment effects in Sweden due to offshoring. In contrast to most previous studies in this field, our analysis is based on firm level data. More specifically the dataset contains Swedish manufacturing firms, 1997-2002. In addition we have access to actual firm level import data on intermediate goods and services, respectively. The results show that the relative demand for high skilled labor is positively affected by service offshoring and offshoring of goods to Asia, but negatively affected by offshoring to high income countries. The relative demand for medium skilled labor is negatively affected by offshoring of goods to Eastern Europe, but positively affected by offshoring to high income countries. In contrast to expectations, the results show that the relative demand for low skilled labor is positively affected by offshoring of goods to Eastern Europe. However, these results are related to very small elasticities, which in turn translates into a small number of jobs affected.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Savsin, Selen
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Firm level effects of offshoring of goods and services on relative labor demandManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on firm level data for the Swedish manufacturing sector the objective of this paper is to analyze relative labor demand effects due to offshoring. Actual firm-level trade data allow us to distinguish between goods and service offshoring, as well as sourcing country. Overall, our results give no support to the fears that offshoring of goods or services lead to out-location of high-skilled activity in Swedish firms. Rather, this paper finds robust evidence that the aggregate effects from offshoring lead to increasing relative demand of high-skilled labor, mainly due to serviceoffshoring to middle income countries.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Savsin, Selen
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Firm-level effects of offshoring of materials and services on relative labor demand2016In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 152, no 2, p. 321-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on firm-level data over the period 1997-2002 for the Swedish manufacturing sector the objective of this paper is to analyze relative labor demand effects due to offshoring, separating between materials and services offshoring and also geographical location of trade partner. Overall, our results give no support to the fears that offshoring of materials or services lead to out-location of high-skilled activity in Swedish firms. Rather, this paper finds evidence that the aggregate effects from offshoring lead to increasing relative demand of high-skilled labor, mainly due to services offshoring to middle income countries.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Savsin, Selen
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Labour Demand, Offshoring and Inshoring: Evidence from Swedish Firm-level Data2017In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 240-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper was to analyse effects on firm–level relative demand for skilled labour due to imports of intermediates (offshoring) and exports of intermediates (inshoring). The study is based on a data set of Swedish manufacturing firms, 1997–2002, using trade flows in intermediate goods and services, respectively. Descriptive data show that goods inshoring is much larger than goods offshoring, while the reverse is true for services. There is, however, a strong increase in services inshoring over the study period. Controlling for potential endogeneity in offshoring and inshoring, our results indicate that there is a positive effect of services offshoring on the skill composition of workers in Swedish firms, while no such causality can be established from inshoring.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi, Umeå universitet.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi, Umeå universitet.
    Regional effects of military base closures: the case of Sweden2007In: Defence and Peace Economics, ISSN 1024-2694, E-ISSN 1476-8267, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate regional effects of military base closures in Sweden during the last decades. Our analysis is based on a regional growth model, where two equations are estimated; one equation describing the average income growth rate and one equation describing the net migration rate. The data set is a panel of 31 Swedish municipalities covering the period 1983-1998. Our main finding is that a closure of a military base has not had any significant impact on the subsequent average income growth rate nor the net migration rate in the affected municipalities. One potential explanation for these results relates to the labor market and the composition of the labor force.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Värja, Emelie
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Composition of Local Government Expenditure and Growth: Empirical Evidence from SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Feinestam, Anders
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Hur samvarierar lärartäthet med studieresultat?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Andersson, Michael K.
    et al.
    Sveriges Riksbank.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Bayesian forecast combination for VAR models2008In: Bayesian Econometrics / [ed] Siddhartha Chib, William Griffiths, Gary Koop, Dek Terrell, Bingley: Emerald , 2008, p. 501-524Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Michael K.
    et al.
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sune
    Department of Economic Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bootstrapping Error Component Models2001In: Computational statistics (Zeitschrift), ISSN 0943-4062, E-ISSN 1613-9658, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 221-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes several resampling algorithms suitable for error component models and evaluates them in the context of bootstrap testing. In short, all the algorithms work well and lead to tests with correct or close to correct size. There is thus little or no reason not to use the bootstrap with error component models.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Grundinkomst och proportionell skatt: Beräkning av en grundinkomstnivå som motsvarar inkomstspridningen i Sverige2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Joseph, Shaji
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Are biogas buses socially beneficial?: A cost-benefit analysis from Örebro - a medium-sized Swedish city2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Andersson, Josefine
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Värdering och svar: Skillnader mellan öppna och binära frågor vid en contingent valuation-studie på ekologiska varor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid användning av metoden contingent valuation erhålls ofta olika resultat beroende på sättet respondenterna frågas på. Tidigare studier har visat att binära frågor leder till en högre estimering av betalningsviljan än öppna frågor, samt att skillnaden mellan dem är lägre vid användning av privata varor än vid kollektiva varor. Uppsatsens undersökning är ett steg för att förbättra förståelsen inom detta område. Syftet är att undersöka om de estimerade betalningsviljorna, härledda från uppsatsens experiment, inte skiljer sig signifikant åt då man använder sig av öppna och binära frågor vid utvalda privata varor. Resultat av t-test, där de binära svaren är justerade från anomalier, visar att de estimerade betalningsviljorna inte skiljer sig signifikant åt för sju av uppsatsens varor. Resultatet visar vidare att de estimerade betalningsviljorna skiljer sig signifikant åt för fem av uppsatsens varor. Vid dessa är den estimerade betalningsviljan högre vid de öppna frågorna. Detta anses bero på problem med bias.

  • 44.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Arbetsförmåga och sjukskrivning: är deltidssjukskrivning en framgångsrik metod?2011In: Perspektiv på offentlig verksamhet i utveckling: tolv kapitel om demokrati, styrning och effektivitet / [ed] Ann-Sofie Hellberg, Martin Karlsson, Hannu Larsson, Erik Lundberg, Monika Persson, Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2011, p. 61-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Behovet av nya och förbättrade statistiska mått som kompletterar makroekonomisk statistik med indikatorer som har ett mer direkt inverkan på människors liv2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Does Part-Time Sick Leave Help Individuals with Mental Disorders Recover Lost Work Capacity?2014In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 344-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to answer the question whether combining sick leave with some hours of work can help employees diagnosed with a mental disorder (MD) increase their probability of returning to work. Given the available data, this paper analyzes the impact of part-time sick leave (PTSL) on the probability of fully recovering lost work capacity for employees diagnosed with an MD.

    Methods: The effects of PTSL on the probability of fully recovering lost work capacity are estimated by a discrete choice one-factor model using data on a nationally representative sample extracted from the register of the National Agency of Social Insurance in Sweden and supplemented with information from questionnaires. All individuals in the sample were 20-64 years old and started a sickness spell of at least 15 days between 1 and 16 February 2001. We selected all employed individuals diagnosed with an MD, with a final sample of 629 individuals.

    Results: The results show that PTSL is associated with a low likelihood of full recovery, yet the timing of the assignment is important. PTSL's effect is relatively low (0.015) when it is assigned in the beginning of the spell but relatively high (0.387), and statistically significant, when assigned after 60 days of full-time sick leave (FTSL). This suggests efficiency improvements from assigning employees with an MD diagnosis, when possible, to PTSL.

    Conclusions: The employment gains will be enhanced if employees with an MD diagnosis are encouraged to return to work part-time after 60 days or more of FTSL.

  • 47.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Does self-assessed health status contribute to life satisfaction in Romania2002In: The European Journal of Health Economics: Fourth European conference on health economics: Book of Abstracts, 2002, Vol. 3 suppl, p. 43-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a complement to the objective standard of living measures (such as income and wealth), subjective indicators (such as people’s general life satisfaction and specific domain satisfaction) have been used to measure individuals’ well-being. By using surveys, self-reports on life satisfaction have been collected and analyses have involved different countries and time periods. Most of the applications have analysed the relationship between subjective well-being and demographic factors. Using a Romanian survey among 2500 individuals we analyse how self-assessed health status contributes to overall happiness during transition to market economy. More exactly,we estimate the general life satisfaction in Romania taking into account individual satisfactions with respect to own health, but also to housing, job and financial situation, ands ervices offered mainly by public sector (health care, transportation, environment). They answer the questions about their general or specific domain satisfaction choosing one of the following response categories: not at all satisfied, not quite satisfied, quite satisfied, very satisfied, which correspond to numerical categories that scale from 1 to 4. Therefore, we apply an ordered probit model approach with individual random effects and fixed time effects,and the results indicatet hat health satisfaction contributes to life satisfaction in several ways both through demographic variables such as age, gender and marital status, but also directly even though we control for indirect influences.

  • 48.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Emotional health during childhood and adult life-satisfaction2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Department of Economics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    First Exits from the Swedish Labor Market Due to Disability2008In: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 227-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of disability exits has been increasing in recent years, raising questions both about the well being of affected individuals, and about how to finance the related disability pensions. Using a longitudinal database owned by the Swedish National Social Insurance Board, this study analyzes the risk to exit into disability at a certain age, assuming that people remained in the labor force until that age. The estimates show that it was more than 7% higher for each 100 days of sickness, but was lower with each additional sickness spell. It was also higher for increments of 1% in the regional unemployment rate. These results suggest that more resources should be allocated for prevention, improving working conditions and designing the tasks of each job so as avoid overuse of employees working capacity.<P>(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

  • 50.
    Andrén, Daniela
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    "Half empty or half full"?: The importance of the definition of part-time sick leave in evaluating its effects2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the impact of the definition of part-time sick leave (PTSL) when analyzing the effect of PTSL on employees’ probability to fully recover lost work capacity. Using a random sample of 3,607 employees, we estimate an econometric model that aims to answer the hypothetical question of what happens to an employee who has lost his/her work capacity if he/she instead of continuing to be sicklisted full time starts working some hours. The estimated treatment parameters vary across definitions, yet all results show that, regardless of the timing of the intervention, PTSL had a positive effect on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity one year after the spell started. Moreover, the most attractive definition shows the highest impact: About 48% of those with a reduced degree of sick leave from full time to part time during the spell were recovered about one year after the spell started, and only about 6% of them would have been better off had they remained on full-time.

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