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  • 1.
    Algotson, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Köö, Martina
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Många är kallade men få är utvalda: En diskursanalytisk studie om mäns identitetsskapande utifrån kropp och snopp2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that the penis haven’t had a central role in the social psychological field in aspect to men’s identity, although the male body has gotten more attention in media and the society as a whole, is the starting point for this study. We wanted to find out how Swedish males in the age of 20-30 years constructed their identities from their bodies and penises. The eight interviews that were conducted in a semi-structural way were analyzed by using parts of three different discursive analysis approaches, and also in aspect to Goffmans dramaturgical perspective and his theory about stigma, as well as Butlers performative idea about gender and Connells theory concerning the hegemonic masculinity. The analysis showed that the men constructed their identities in regards to what they thought was the prevailing ideals in society regarding the male body. All of the men talked about the importance of being fit, a bodily condition they strived to gain. The men used different discursive resources in their talk about the body and in their talk about the penis. Function was the main theme when it came to the penis and what it was used for, and it was in very few social interactions that the penis had a central role in the construction of the men’s identity.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Irene
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Werle, Frida
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    En kvalitativ analys av jämställdhetsplaner i offentlig verksamhet: - Vad säger de egentligen?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background People who are discriminated have an increased risk for poor mental and physical health. The discrimination law regulates discrimination, and in it it's written that gender is one of the discrimination foundations. A gender equal society makes gender differences in life expectancy smaller, and there are more self reported health inconveniences in countries who are not gender equal. Sweden's labour market is characterized by gender segregation, and there's a correlation between gender segregation at work and illness for both genders. In the discrimination law it's written that every workplace with at least 25 employees are obligated to have a plan for gender equality.

    Aim The aim is to describe plans of gender equality of workplaces in the public area with a base in the Swedish discrimination law

    Method The plans for gender equality have been analysed with deductive qualitative content analyzis. Six plans from different employers in the public area have been collected in a medium big municipality in Sweden.

    Result Most of the plans follow the directions in the discrimination law. Employees shall be able to combine family life with working life and no one should be harassed because of gender. No one should be discriminated in the process of job seeking, but some affirmative action can occur if one of the genders are underrepresented. There should be no irrelevant salary differences.

    Discussion There may be other policy documents which regulate the gender equality work at some of the workplaces, and therefore there could be some missing parts in the plans. Social support and group identification are factors of protection against discrimination, and should be given more space in the plans. Affirmative actions can be discrimination of the gender who is not prioritized and this could be solved with an elimination of the society based gender roles. In order for gender equality to have a positive effect on public health, men should adopt traditional female roles.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Den som inte hoppar är ett gnagarsvin: En studie om identitetsskapande och grupprocesser inom supporterkulturen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, the overall aim is to study group processes and identity formation within the fan culture. The questions the essay intends to answer consists of the importance of fanship for the individual's identity, the creation and maintenance of groups of fans, and fan groups possible impact on the individual's moral attitudes. The essay uses a qualitative approach based on interviews and a shorter observation. The essay´s theoretical framework consists of the identity theories of Erving Goffman and George Herbert Mead, Randall Collins's theory of "Interaction Ritual Chains" and Howard S. Becker's labeling theory. The essay shows that the fanship is of great importance for the fans identity making. One of the main reasons is that the involvement with the fan culture began at a young age, and that the fellowship of this culture since then has been of great importance in their upbringing. Furthermore, the essay shows that fan groups are created by a common interest and commitment for a team, and that this group is maintained through collective rituals and acts within the group. The peer pressure and state of mind that occurs when these acts are performed, is to some extent affecting the fans moral attitude, even if you cannot fully pass on the moral responsibility for your actions on the group. In addition to this the essay also identifies a new concept to explain identity- and group processes, as well as the group's influence on individual moral behavior. This term we have chosen to call ”level of cultural traditions”.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Press i utredande samtal med barn1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool children (N = 32; boys and girls 3 and 5 year old) were interviewed, first in a neutral manner and then with some press. The resulats showed changed patterns of responding when press was used. 

  • 5.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Laboration: personbedömningar av ungdomar inom socialtjänsten1997Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Mer om tankefel vid utredningsarbete i fallet Thomas Quick2014Other (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Terapeutpåverkan, arbetskonflikt, minnesfenomen och gruppsykologiska processer som uppkomstbetingelser för multipla påståenden om sexuella ofredanden - ett gruppfall2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to clarify investigative problems in a preliminary inquiry with allegations of sexual molestations by a male leader in a leisure activity against several  girls in a group. Many investigative errors, cognitive biases and threats to validity are pointed out. The first statement of sexual abuse is pronounced by the supervisor of a therapist and is suggested to a young woman who is her patient as explanation of her symtoms. Allegations of sexual molestations are spread in a group of girls to some of the girls but other girls contradict the allegations.  

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Wiesel, Hanna
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Den onda föräldern: attributionsmönster i sociala utredningar1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how attributions are used in persecutory child protection investigations. Three conclusions are.  1. Atrtributions are used to construct the image of evil parents, 2. Persecutory strategies are used against the evil parents., 3. Attributions are used as instruments in persecutory strategies.

  • 9.
    Heidgren, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Bedömningarna som motiverade psykiatrisk tvångsvård av barn och ungdomar2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to review how the assessment of compulsory psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents in Sweden, was motivated by the year 2002-07-01 - 2003-06-30. Through a qualitative approach, a content analysis of records was made with the purpose to help provide a transparent description of the material. The essay is based on records that were previously collected from all child- and adolescent psychiatry clinics in Sweden, which resulted in 142 patients aged 10-18 years and 159 records. The results from this paper, was then analyzed based on six ethical categories that justified the compulsory psychiatric treatment. The results shows that the justification of compulsory psychiatric care is usually evidenced by multi-justifications and that it’s seldom that there is arguments against the compulsory psychiatric treatment in the assessment decision. Persuasive arguments are used to clarify that there is no alternative care then compulsory psychiatric treatment.

  • 10.
    Hugelius, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Karlskoga Hospital, Orebro County Council, Karlskoga, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Örtenwall, Per
    Sahlgrenska Akademin, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Facebook Enables Disaster Research Studies: The Use of Social Media to Recruit Participants in a Post-Disaster Setting2017In: PLOS Currents, ISSN 2157-3999, E-ISSN 2157-3999, Vol. 9, article id ecurrents.dis.f4a444e1f182776bdf567893761f86b8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Disaster research entails several methodological challenges, given the context of a disaster. This article aims to describe and evaluate the use of Facebook as a tool to recruit participants for a self-selected Internet sample using a web-based survey in a post-disaster setting in the Philippines after the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the country in November 2013.

    METHOD: An invitation to a web-based survey about health was posted on several Facebook pages during a ten-day period.

    RESULTS: In total, 443 individuals who had survived the Haiyan typhoon participated in the study. The demographics of the study sample were similar to the general demographics in the Philippines, considering gender, age distribution and level of education.

    DISCUSSION: The study showed that the use of social media to recruit participants for disaster research could limit several of the practical and ethical challenges connected to disaster research. However, the method demands access to the Internet and requires several strategic considerations, particularly concerning non-probability sample biases and generalization as well as an active approach from the researcher.

  • 11.
    Jansson, Felix
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kvibäck, Pauline
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Introduktionen - en interaktiv process: En kvalitativ studie av en introduktionsprocess för nyanställda på ett fastighetsbolag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to examine the experiences of an introduction process of newcomers through an integrative perspective, by two guiding questions: How does the examined organization socialize newcomers? How is the organizational socialization experienced by the employees? Most Swedish corporations engage in some form of workplace introduction and this introduction should give the newcomer an understanding of his work and its relation to the organizations other business practices. Earlier studies have mostly focused on the effects of socialization tactics but few on the experience. This study, based on qualitative interviews with a regional manager, newcomers and established employees shows that the studied organization socializes its newcomers through many socialization tactics where the newcomers’ personality and previous knowledge allows to direct the socialization process. The introduction is perceived by the interviewed parties to happen most intensively at specific events; the first impression, the welcoming, while performing work and during the breaks. The newcomers and the established employees both perceived the social aspect as central to the introduction and the work execution secondary. It’s very important according to both parties that it creates a dialog about both work and private life for a successful introduction.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Olsson, Monica
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Lärares personbedömningar av elever2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main pupose is to study how teachers make judgements about their pupils. Differences between the sexes and between individuals were found. 

  • 13.
    Kumpula, Mira
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Rantamäki, Helena
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Vesterbacka, Sirkka
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Diskursrestriktioner och maktstrategier mot socialarbetare1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discourse restrictions are rules or norms that restrict what and when some subjects can be discussed. A study based on literature, a small survey and eight interviews with social workers shows that different discourse restrictions, power strategies and persecutory strategies are sometimes used against social workers. Different kinds of discourse within the social services are discussed. 

  • 14.
    Källmèn, Fredrika
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Olgemar, Marie-Louice
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Lean Production och Psykosocial arbetsmiljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon which has been the subject of this study is the psychosocial work environment. The phenomenon has been investigated with a focus on the manufacturing industry and the organizational form Lean production. The study aims to obtain a deeper understanding of how employees in this specific context are experiencing the psychosocial work environment. The questions which the study intends to answer are:

    - What is a good psychosocial work environment according to the employees in the

    organization?

    - How do employees experience the psychosocial work environment in the organization?

    The study was conducted with an inductive approach. The theory based on the empirical material which was found to be suitable as an explanatory model was Aaron Antonovsky's theory of KASAM. We have also used Anders Hansson's development of KASAM which relates to the theory from a working life perspective. This, along with the concepts of Lean production and team, has helped us to interpret and explain the results obtained by the study.

    The study shows that employees in the organization generally have a high degree of KASAM. The social relations are described as the most essential ones and are mainly what constitutes the sense of meaningfulness, KASAM's motivating factor. The company's organizational characteristics, and the work resulting from Lean brings along opportunities to a high degree of intelligibility and thus also for manageability. At the same time, the vulnerability that follows as a result of the Lean production concept might bring experiences of stress and frustration.

  • 15.
    Lyngen, Caroline
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Svensson, Anna-Clara
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Situationsanpassat ledarskap - en studie om vad i situationen som påverkar ledarskapets utformning:  2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to examine what it is in the situation that affects which leadership that is applied on the members of the organization. Our questions that we have explored were; What is it in the situation that influences the leadership applied on an individual or staff group? What similarities and differences have emerged by Hersey and Blanchards situational leadership model?

    Further, we used qualitative semi-structured interviews at the interview procedures with three managers and three employees. Hersey and Blanchards situational leadership model and Goffmans theory in the book "The presentation of self in everyday life" have been used as a foundation and inspiration in this study.

    We have found that circumstances like the size of the staff group along with the organizations financials and the resources affect the leadership behavior and how well it is matched with the employees. The function of the leaders position in the context, and the purpose of the situation influences how the leadership is formed. The organizations interests and goals are also affecting what leadership that is applied, which we found that Hersey and Blanchard do not express in the situational leadership model. Another difference that we found in relation to the model is that the employees overall experienced the leadership as well adapted, even thought that they have not been designed according to what Hersey and Blanchard advocates.

  • 16.
    Melberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Frida
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Självskadebeteende: En studie om identitet och självuppfattning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to illustrate the phenomenon of self-harm from a social psychological and sociological perspective. The purpose is furthermore to examine the role social relationships play in the individuals´ self- imagine and what role does identification play for anyone who harm themselves? We want to examine in what way social relationships are important and how they function for individuals who harm themselves, both once they have started to harm themselves, and if the relationships in any part caused the cutting to begin with.

    Questions:

    How do individuals shape their identity based on self- harm? Which self-image do individuals have who self-harm? Is there anything in the person's previous social relationships that have caused them to begin to hurt themselves?

    Method:

    In this paper we have analyzed five autobiographies. We have used open coding from grounded theory as analytical method and subject positions based on discourse analysis.

    Theory:

    We have used the Cooley concepts looking glass self, Foucault's theory of power, Giddens' concept of ontological security and existential anxiety.

    Results and Analysis:

    We found six different categories that we thought were central. These were negative self-image, guilt, lack of family support, negative experiences of others' views, the protective identity as self- harmer and insecure social relationships in school.

    Conclusion:

    The self-harming is a very complex behavior. In this paper we have found that social relationship has a major influence on if a person begins to develop self-harm. The negative social impact on social relations in childhood plays a particularly important role and affects the individual's identity and self-image. Identity was both linked to the development of a negative self-image and difficulty to stop harm themselves when upset, it was the thing they identified with and which gave them security.

  • 17.
    Melin, Magnus
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Ruuth, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Att bryta nacken av skammen: En studie om kvinnliga alkoholister och skam2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explain how shame can be experienced by women with the stigmatizing illness of alcoholism. Another aim is to illustrate how this shame can be affected in social interaction with others and by other circumstances. The following questions will be highlighted in this essay: How can shame be experienced by female alcoholics? What can affect shame in interaction with other people, from the view of female alcoholics? What other circumstances can affect the shame, from the view of female alcoholics?This study features interviews with women who have successfully gone through the process of rehabilitation from the illness of alcoholism, have a long going and stable sobriety and arecurrently part of the work force. The study also features interviews with therapists specializing in the field of addiction recovery and have considerable experience in their fieldof working with women suffering from alcoholism.The subject matters shame and stigma form the theoretical/analytical tools for this research. Various researchers’ views and explanations concerning stigma are from Erving Goffman and Howard Becker, and concerning shame the views and explanations are from Tomas J. Scheff and Suzanne M. Retzinger. However, the theoretical standpoint of this study is Brené Brown’s Shame Resilience Theory.The results that can be drawn from this study are that shame is experienced as deep and difficult during the time when the alcoholic is active, but shame can decrease considerably with recovery. Interactions with other people were shown to be essential in affecting shame. The response of other people decided whether shame decreased or increased.

  • 18.
    Mårtensson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Nygren, Jesper
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Chefer och personalansvarigas upplevelser av svåra samtal2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to shed light on how managers and human resources managers in different organizations experiencing difficult conversations in work-related situations. We wish to complement previous research in the area difficult conversation with a wider social psychological approach as analysis tools. Using qualitative methods in form of seven semi-structured interviews, we reach an understanding of how managers and human resource managers are experiencing difficult conversations in work-related situations. The questions we answer in this study are:

    • How do managers and human resources managers in different organizations experience difficult conversations?
    • Which aspects of the conversation contribute the experience of a conversation as difficult or not?

    The conclusions to be drawn from this study are that the interviewed managers and human resource managers believe that difficult conversations exist at work. In conclusion, the respondents perceive the conversations as intrusive of the personal sphere are the most difficult. For example, substance abuse problems, poor hygiene and diseases are difficult topics. All managers and human resource managers stress the importance of preparation before conversations. In summary, the respondents work more as a professional role and using the facts, then they feel safer in the service of non positive news. Empathy is considered important for the conversations. Everyday topics that are perceived ease, may prove difficult because they are unprepared for the situation, which can create difficulties.

  • 19.
    Nordmark, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Nyholm, Sofie
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Örebro University, Department of Social and Political Sciences.
    Grupptänkande: Ett hot mot beslutsfattandet på ett socialkontor1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based upon recordings of work group meetings at a social welfare office  it is shown that groupthink occurs. Other decision phenomena also occurred. 

  • 20.
    Nordström, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    C-mig: En kvalitativ studie om tonåringars identitetsskapande på Facebook2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this work is to understand and point out how significant Facebook is for teenager´s identity-construction. Through interviews with six teenagers, three boys and three girls in the age of sixteen and seventeen, I investigated how teenagers use Facebook and what purpose these interviewees put out to be members at Facebook.

    The interview-material then was analyzed from selected sociological/social psychology theories and also previous research. The study showed that the interviewees self-presentations for the sake of their awareness was more characterized of reflexivity than spontaneity. Because of their broad audience they choose to not write or publish too private information about themselves on Facebook. Despite a reflexive approach the identity-construction on Facebook could be affected of other people in a negative direction. The study also showed that the teenagers had conflicting emotions about being members at Facebook.

  • 21.
    Redmalm, David
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Christian Abrahamsson, Fredrik Palm, Sverre Wide (red.): Sociologik [Sociologic]: tio essäer om socialitet och tänkande [Ten essays on sociality and thinking]2011In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 75-78Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Redmalm, David
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    In-your-face-ethics: phenomenology of the face and social psychological animal studies2011In: Undisciplined animals: invitations to animal studies / [ed] Pär Segerdahl, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011, 1, p. 73-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I show how nonhuman animals can challenge anthropocentric theoretical reflection by their mere gaze. According to the central social psychological thought figure, humans become the individual beings they are in the eyes of others. What happens when those others are nonhuman animals? Instead I show that many social philosophers focusing on the encounter face-to-face have a peculiar fascination for nonhuman animals; it is as if nonhuman animals quietly call attention to themselves as soon as philosophers begin their meditations. In the essay, I especially focus on Emmanuel Lévinas phenomenology of the face. For Lévninas, the meeting face to face is prior to all other forms of sociality. When another being respond to your existence, you become someone in the very invitation to speak. The invitation to speak entails a responsibility to respond and confirm the existence of the other, and therefore, ethics is intimately intertwined with the process of perceiving a notion of self and the meeting face-to-face. While Lévinas argues that we never can decide in advance who has a face and who has not, and that human beings may be bereaved of their faces, Lévinas is not ready to grant a face to a nonhuman animal. This has raised a discussion whether Lévinas is indeed consistent with his own thinking. I show that Lévinas position in relation to nonhuman animals does not follow from his discussion of the phenomenology of the face, but from the things he associate with the word ‘animal’, and from how he uses it to define the human subject.  I suggest that studies of social life cannot define in advance what an ‘other’ is, since the moment where we discover a new face and challenge our notion of ourselves is an integral part of social existence. Since an important aspect of Lévinas face is that it is always prior to the I, then we can never dismiss a possible face in advance. This becomes crucial in relation to nonhuman animals, since they regularly are bereaved of their faces with reference to their animality, even though many people interact face-to-face with nonhuman animals. Consequently, in order not to risk neglecting meaningful interaction, social scientists need an open stance toward possible faces, and they should start by letting nonhuman animals into social science studies in general, and social psychological studies in particular.

  • 23.
    Redmalm, David
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Meet a can of meat: on Lévinasiane ethics and non-human faces2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I show how nonhuman animals can challenge anthropocentric theoretical reflection only by their gaze. According to the central social psychological thought figure, humans become the individual beings they are in the eyes of others. What happens when those others are nonhuman animals? Instead I show that many social philosophers focusing on the encounter face-to-face have a peculiar fascination for nonhuman animals; it is as if nonhuman animals quietly call attention to themselves as soon as philosophers begin their meditations. In the paper, I especially focus on Emmanuel Lévinas phenomenology of the face. For Lévninas, the meeting face to face is prior to all other forms of sociality. When another being respond to your existence, you become someone in the very invitation to speak. The invitation to speak entails a responsibility to respond and confirm the existence of the other, and therefore, ethics is intimately intertwined with the process of perceiving a notion of self and the meeting face-to-face. While Lévinas argues that we never can decide in advance who has a face and who has not, and that human beings may be bereaved of their faces, Lévinas is not ready to grant a face to a nonhuman animal. This has raised a discussion whether Lévinas is indeed consistent with his own thinking. I show that Lévinas position in relation to nonhuman animals does not follow from his discussion of the phenomenology of the face, but from the things he associate with the word ‘animal’, and from how he uses it to define the human subject.  I suggest that studies of social life cannot define in advance what an ‘other’ is, since the moment where we discover a new face and challenge our notion of ourselves is an integral part of social existence. Since an important aspect of Lévinas face is that it is always prior to the I, then we can never dismiss a possible face in advance. This becomes crucial in relation to nonhuman animals, since they regularly are bereaved of their faces with reference to their animality, even though many people interact face-to-face with nonhuman animals. Consequently, in order not to risk neglecting meaningful interaction, social scientists need an open stance toward possible faces, and they should start by letting nonhuman animals into social science studies in general, and social psychological studies in particular.

  • 24.
    Russo, Silvia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Manzi, Claudia
    Catholic University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Roccato, Michele
    University of Torino, Torino, Italy.
    Self-concept clarity buffers the impact of societal threat to safety on right-wing authoritarianism2017In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 157, no 4, p. 513-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to societal threat can elicit an increase in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In this study, using a quasi-experimental vignette design (Italian community sample, N = 86), we tested the moderating role of self-concept clarity (SCC). A moderated regression showed that manipulated societal threat to safety fostered RWA only among low SCC scorers. It is concluded that SCC is an important resource for individuals facing threat conditions.

  • 25.
    Welin, Sofie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Wickholm, Caroline
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Rätt "man" på rätt plats: En studie om chefskap och ledarskap i en human-service organisation och villkoren för att vara man på en kvinnodominerad arbetsplats2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the conditions for both managers and their leadership in a human service-organization and the conditions that exist for men in a predominantly female workplace, partly to investigate employees' perceptions of male managers and their leadership in a predominantly female workplace.

    The following issues are addressed in our study:

     

    • What are the conditions for managers and their leadership in a human service organization?
    • What are the conditions for men in a predominantly female workplace?
    • What perceptions and experiences do the employees have of male managers and their leadership in a predominantly female workplace?

     

    To answer the question and issues, we used a qualitative method using semistructured interviews. The interviews were conducted in a nursing home with the operations manager and five employees in various positions. Our theoretical starting points is based on theories and previous research about human service-organizations, leadership and men in minority.

    The results of our study show that there are good opportunities for men who are in managerial position in a predominantly female workplace. The operations manager meets the requirements for being a manager in a human service-organization, which means personnel and overall economic responsibility. It was revealed in the study that the operations manager exerts both a relationship-oriented and task-related leadership, which is demanded for both be able to handle the staff in the form of autonomous groups while focus on organizational goals, policies and guidelines. The employees are positive about the leadership which created favorable conditions for the operational manager to exercise effective leadership. Male managers deemed to create a balance in female-dominated workplaces. Employees also appreciate male managers more than female managers because in their past experiences they had a better relationship with male managers.

    Keywords: Autonomous groups, human service-organization, men in minority, relationship-oriented and task-related leadership

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