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  • 1.
    Berglez, Peter
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    What is Global Journalism?: Theoretical and empirical conceptualisations2008In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 845-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I argue that the emergence of transnational crises and threats such as the Muhammad cartoons controversy, the avian flu epidemic and climate change, calls for new ways of analysing news. The point of departure is that news media content seems to be becoming more and more deterritorialised, involving complex relations and flows across national borders and continents. In a globalising world, news on politics, ecological processes, agriculture etc. could thus become endowed with a global outlook on social reality, something which has by tradition only been associated with financial news. Even if it seems difficult to estimate more exactly the extent to which everyday news media content has become global, the indications are that it has become harder to categorise news texts as either solely domestic or foreign news. This, in turn, argues for the potential usefulness of the concept of global journalism, which transgresses and transcends the traditional domestic-foreign dichotomy. In news media and journalism studies, the concept of global journalism is under theoretical development, and still in need of a more stringent definition. The purpose of this article is therefore to theoretically define global journalism as a distinctive news style in order to facilitate empirical analyses of it, preferably news text analyses. The suggestion is that this news style rests on a distinct epistemology (the global outlook) when it comes to the representation of space, power and identity.

  • 2.
    Ekström, Mats
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Conversation analysis in journalism studies2007In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 964-973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article considers the role of conversational analysis in the study of journalism. The author argues that conversation is inherent to the very being of journalism, whether it be conversational exchange in broadcast journalism or the conversation engaged in by print journalists in their news gathering activities. The article offers a brief history of the field of conversational analysis. Of particular interest in conversational analysis for journalistic study is the role of institutional interaction. The author discusses the role of communication and conversation in news legitimacy.

  • 3.
    Ekström, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Göran
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Wikström, Patrik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Biased interrogations?: a multi-methodological approach on bias in election campaign interviews2013In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 423-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study, based on Swedish data from three elections (2002, 2006 and 2010) and on a revised version of Clayman's and Heritage's conceptualization of aggressive questioning, examines bias in election campaign interviews with leading political figures. In the first part of the study, the prevalence of partisan bias is explored, and this analysis confirms that such bias does not exist. Informed by Conversation Analysis, a limited number of interviews from the 2006 election are investigated in the second part. This analysis also involves questions scripted by journalists, and it compares both quantitatively and qualitatively the differences between the manuscripts and live interaction. The results question the assumption that bias is solely related to journalistic values and actions. The level of aggressiveness in the interviews is also dependent on how the politicians manage the interview questions.

  • 4.
    Ekström, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Larsson, Larsåke
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Journalism and local politics: A study of scrutiny and accountability in Swedish journalism2006In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 292-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political accountability is defined as an important aspect of scrutiny. By analysing newspapers at three different points in time (1961, 1981 and 2001), this study suggests that the kind of scrutiny often mentioned in the literature, characterised by thorough investigations and disclosures of political wrongdoings, barely exists in the local press. By identifying other forms of scrutiny more closely related to ordinary news reporting, the study shows that one-third of the 1500 articles analysed display some degree of scrutiny. The local press plays an important role in communicating information and critique concerning the ways in which local authority service provision works and how political responsibilities are fulfilled. This study indicates that this role has been strengthened during the second half of the 20th century.

  • 5.
    Ekström, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kroon Lundell, Åsa
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Beyond the broadcast interview: specialized forms of interviewing in the making of television news2011In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 172-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a mixed-method approach, this article aims at exploring the specialized forms of interviewing that are used as resources in television broadcast news production. Interviews are analyzed as functionally specialized forms of interaction (cf. Heritage, 1985) with various functions in different phases of the news production. We assume that interviews are organized and carried out as communicative activities oriented towards specific tasks, identities and contexts of interaction. In contrast to established definitions of the archetypical on air news interview, we argue that broadcast interviewing is only partially produced for an “overhearing audience” (ibid.). Taking into account the entire process of producing and presenting news, journalism harbours a multitude of interviewing practices and activities which remain invisible if only the taped and transcribed broadcast talk is analyzed. Our study clearly indicates that news interviews contain more diversified and hybrid activities of communication than has been described in previous research.

  • 6.
    Kroon Lundell, Åsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Ekström, Mats
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    The complex visual gendering of political women in the press2008In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 891-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present an analysis of how gendering is “being done” in press visuals of women in politics. In short, we will argue that women professionals working within the area of politics are gendered and type-cast in more complex ways than previous research has yet shown. In a qualitative analysis of visuals from three different political scandals in Sweden involving prominent political women, we analyse the diversified ways of portraying women in visuals that do not simply reproduce the idea that the gendering of women uncritically correlates with concepts like sexualization, objectification, passivity and otherness. As on-lookers of a professional woman in politics caught in a pressing situation in a photograph, we will argue that at times we may be invited to see her as both an Other and a person with whom we can identify ourselves with. Or a woman may be positioned as an object with a focus on appearance, but not by emphasizing her femininity and sexuality but by doing exactly the reverse. We will also discuss the complexity that is related to the various contextual factors that come into play when press photographers and editors communicatively “work” at accomplishing specific gendered visual “preferred readings”.

  • 7.
    Kroon Lundell, Åsa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Göran
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Interviews as communicative resources in news and current affairs broadcasts2010In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 20-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we quantitatively establish the centrality and importance of interviews in news and current affairs broadcasts. We show how segments of interviews (from soundbites to longer recorded or live question-and-answer interactions) are deployed as communicative resources in the construction and presentation of news in various ways. The data allows for a cross-national comparison in between the UK and Sweden that point to differences in practice between the  countries. We argue that our findings may be used to critically examine various conceptualisations of broadcast interviews in general and political interviews in particular. We also show how journalists outnumber politicians as interviewees in the news, a finding that is in need of further exploration from a range of perspectives We also believe that our study provides solid ground on which to base future critical studies of the authority of journalism, dialogical and soundbite journalism, and the alleged fragmentisation of news.

  • 8.
    Krzyzanowski, Michal
    Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, UK.
    Europe in Crisis: Discourses on Crisis-Events in the European Press 1956-20062009In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 18-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a diachronic, empirically founded and qualitative approach to the examination of constructions of a European Public Sphere in Europe's national news media. By focusing on transnational press-reporting of a set of selected Crisis Events in post-war European history (in the period 1956-2006), different discursive representations of "Europe" (and Europe-related normative notions such as, e. g., "European values") are studied to show the diversity and heterogeneity of their nationally specific perceptions. Similar discursive patterns and commonalities in discourses across Europe are highlighted, as are the evolving ways of (re-)constructing the tension between the transnational and the national, in the specifically European context. Within the latter, Europe changes its role in news-media discourse over time-from being an adversary or source of problems for the nation, to becoming the "bearer" of common values for all (or at least several) European nation-states.

  • 9.
    Larsson, Larsåke
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Journalists and politicians: a relationship requiring manoeuvring space2002In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to deepen our knowledge of the relationship between journalists and local politicians/officials. The study's primary conclusion is that there is a large degree of interplay between these groups, an observation that reinforces the findings of previous journalistic research. The findings are also in line with recent public relations research arguing that the journalist-politician relationship is governed by certain variables - particularly trust and mutual control - as well as recognising the importance of professional norms. Actors on both sides require manoeuvring space in which they can create and maintain a balance of power in the relationship. The interplay between the two groups results in four types of local journalism - documentation, promotional, watchdog and collaborative journalism.

  • 10.
    van Leuven, Sarah
    et al.
    Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Berglez, Peter
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Global Journalism between Dream and Reality: A Comparative Study of The Times, Le Monde and De Standaard2016In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 667-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global journalism is a practice that differs from traditional foreign correspondence. Instead of only covering distant events, it actively interconnects the local with the global. However, while some researchers claim that its practice has been incorporated into everyday news production as a natural response to the increasing interconnectedness of our globalized society, others see few empirical signs of its presence, and instead consider it to be a utopian vision for less “national provincialism” among the world's media. These contrasting views on the evidence for global journalism in the news call for more empirical research. The purpose of this study is thus to examine the prevalence of global journalism in mainstream news media. The article provides, first, an operationalization of global journalism and, second, a quantification of its presence or absence in the news output of three national newspapers, The Times, Le Monde and De Standaard, by means of a quantitative content analysis covering the period January to June 2013 (N = 850). According to our main results, a quarter of all articles include at least one building block of global journalism, and a fifth of all articles are centered on a global event and/or present a global outlook on the reported matter. Le Monde is the most “global” newspaper, as it exhibits the most examples of global journalism. However, the other two newspapers to a greater extent embed global outlooks in their domestic news sections, which might be viewed as an emerging way of producing globalized news discourse in a social reality with ever-more blurred distinctions between domestic and global reality.

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