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  • 1.
    Chang, Zheng
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    The effects of childhood ADHD symptoms on early-onset substance use: a Swedish twin study2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 319-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has documented that children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of substance use problems. Few studies, however, have focused on early-onset substance use. This study therefore investigated how the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) are associated with early-onset substance use, the role of persistent ADHD for the association, and to what extent the association is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Twins (1,480 pairs) in the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development were followed from childhood to adolescence. ADHD symptoms were measured at age 8-9 and age 13-14 via parent-report, whereas substance use was assessed at age 13-14 via self-report. Results revealed that hyperactive/impulsive symptoms predicted early-onset "sometimes" tobacco use (adjusted odds ratios, 1.12, for one symptom count), controlling for inattentive symptoms and conduct problem behaviors. There is no independent effect of inattentive symptoms on early-onset substance use. Children with persistent hyperactivity/impulsivity (defined as scoring above the 75th percentile at both time points) had a pronounced risk of both early-onset tobacco and alcohol use (adjusted odds ratios from 1.86 to 3.35, compared to the reference group). The associations between hyperactivity/impulsivity and early-onset substance use were primarily influenced by genetic factors. Our results indicated that hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not inattention, is an important early predictor for early-onset substance use, and a shared genetic susceptibility is suggested to explain this association.

  • 2.
    Glatz, Terese
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Parents’ reactions to youths’ hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems2011In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1125-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention problems(HIA) in children and adolescents are stressful for parents. In this study, we used theories of parents’ perceived power and attributions for youths’ behaviors to develop a model to understand parents’ reactions to their youths’ HIA. We followed 706 youths (376 boys and 330 girls, aged 10–12 years at T1) and their parents in a community-based project over 5 years. Measures of youths’ HIA, youths’ unresponsiveness to correction, parents’ feelings of powerlessness, parental monitoring, and parents’ negative behaviors toward their youths, were used. HIA in youths predicted increases in parents’ perceptions that their youths were unresponsive to correction, which in turn prompted parents to feel more powerless over time. Further, parents’ feelings of powerlessness were associated with increases in negative parenting behaviors over time. These results indicate a movement to more negative parenting practices over time as a result of youths’ HIA.

  • 3.
    Högström, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Viveca
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Two-Year Findings from a National Effectiveness Trial: Effectiveness of Behavioral and Non-Behavioral Parenting Programs2017In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 527-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term follow-up studies of selective parent training (PT) programs are scarce, particularly in the case of effectiveness trials conducted within regular care settings. This study evaluated the 2-year effects of 4 programs: Comet, Incredible Years, Cope, and Connect and differences in the rate of change among programs were investigated using Latent Growth Modeling (LGM). Participants were parents who had sought help at 30 local service sector units (e.g., child psychiatric clinics and social services centers) for major problems in managing their children's externalizing behavior. Parents of 749 children (63 % boys) with moderate levels of externalizing behavior, aged 3-12, were randomized to one of the 4 PT programs. Assessments included parent-reported measures of child externalizing, hyperactivity and inattention, as well as parenting practices, sense of competence, and parents' stress and depressive symptoms. At 2-year follow-up, there were no differences in any of the child outcomes among the programs. All programs had reduced externalizing behaviors with large effect sizes (d = 1.21 to d = 1.32), and negative parenting practices with moderate to large effect sizes (d = 0.49 to d = 0.83). LGM analyses showed that the 2 behavioral programs, Comet and Incredible Years, produced more rapid reductions in externalizing behavior during the course of the intervention than the non-behavioral program, Connect. Connect, however, was the only program where children continued to improve after the intervention. Overall, the results indicate that the 4 programs were equally effective in a clinical setting, despite differences in their theoretical origin.

  • 4. Kimonis, Eva R.
    et al.
    Frick, Paul J.
    Munoz, Luna C.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Aucoin, Katherine J.
    Can a laboratory measure of emotional processing enhance the statistical prediction of aggression and delinquency in detained adolescents with callous-unemotional traits?2007In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 773-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the combination of the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits and emotional deficits to distressing stimuli, assessed by a computerized dot-probe task, enhanced the statistical prediction of aggression and delinquency in a sample of 88 detained and predominantly African-American (68%) adolescents (M age = 15.57; SD = 1.28). Overall, self-reported CU traits were associated with self-report measures of aggression and delinquency, but not with official records of arrests. However, there was an interaction between CU traits and emotional deficits for predicting self-reported aggression, self-reported violent delinquency, and a record of violent arrests. Youth high on CU traits and who showed a deficit in their responses to visual depictions of distress showed the highest levels of aggression and violent delinquency.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Viding, Essi
    Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Rijsdijk, Fruhling V
    Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom.
    Plomin, Robert
    Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, United Kingdom.
    Relationships between parental negativity and childhood antisocial behavior over time: a bidirectional effects model in a longitudinal genetically informative design2008In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 633-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the direction and etiology underlying the relationships between parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior using a bidirectional effects model in a longitudinal genetically informative design. We analyzed parent reports of parental negativity and early childhood antisocial behavior in 6,230 pairs of twins at 4 and 7 years of age. Results from a cross-lagged twin model contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the bidirectional processes involved in parental negativity and childhood antisocial behavior. Specifically, the findings of this study suggest that the association between parenting and child antisocial behavior is best explained by both parent-driven and child-driven effects. We found support for the notion that parent's negative feelings towards their children environmentally mediate the risk for child antisocial behavior. We also found evidence of genetically mediated child effects; in which genetically influenced antisocial behavior evoke parental negativity towards the child.

  • 6.
    Martínez-Ferrer, Belén
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University Pablo Olavide, Seville, Spain.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    A Mutual Hostility Explanation for the Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Depressive Mood in Adolescence2017In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 1399-1412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different interpersonal experiences are related to delinquency and depressive mood. In many studies, delinquency has been associated with exposing others to hostility, while depressive mood has been associated with being a victim of others' hostility. In this study, we proposed that adolescents with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood may be both perpetrators and victims in their relations with parents at home, peers and teachers at school, and other people encountered in leisure time. We studied a normative sample of 1452 mid-adolescents (50.61% boys and 49.38% girls). Cluster analyses found a group with a co-occurrence of high delinquency and high depressive mood. Adolescents in this cluster group were highest on being exposed to hostility, exposing others to hostility, and being involved in mutually hostile interactions with others in different everyday contexts. The findings were especially strong when we examined being a victim and a perpetrator across contexts. The results were similar for boys and girls. We conclude that the co-occurrence of high delinquency and depressive mood among some adolescents is intimately linked to the mutually hostile interactions that these adolescents experience in their everyday interpersonal contexts.

  • 7.
    Muñoz, Luna C.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Frick, Paul J.
    Kimonis, Eva R.
    Aucoin, Katherine J.
    Types of aggression, responsiveness to provocation, and callous-unemotional traits in detained adolescents2008In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 15-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated differences in the behavioral and psychophysiological responses to provocation and in the level of callous-unemotional traits in boys exhibiting different patterns of aggression. Eighty-five boys (ages 13-18) in a juvenile detention center played a competitive computer task against a hypothetical peer who provided low and high levels of provocation. Youth high on both self-reported reactive and proactive aggression showed different behavioral responses to provocation than youth high on only reactive aggression. Specifically, the combined group showed high levels of aggressive responses without any provocation, whereas the group high on reactive aggression showed an increase in aggressive responding to low provocation. Further, results revealed a trend for the combined group to show lower levels of skin conductance reactivity to low provocation if they were also high on callous-unemotional traits.

  • 8.
    Salihovic, Selma
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
    Vilnius University, Vilnius, Litauen.
    Directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behavior2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 957-969Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Selfhout, Maarten
    et al.
    Utrecht university.
    Branje, S.
    Meeus, W.
    Developmental trajectories of perceived friendship intimacy, constructive problem solving, and depression from early to late adolescence2009In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 251-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined friendship types in developmental trajectories of perceived closeness and balanced relatedness. In addition, differences between friendship types in the development of constructive problem solving and depression were examined. Questionnaire data of five annual waves were used from two adolescent cohorts (cohort 1: M = 12.41 years; cohort 2: M = 16.37 years). Growth Mixture Modeling revealed two developmental trajectories in cognitive representations of perceived friendship intimacy: interdependent and disengaged friendships. Adolescents in interdependent friendships were characterized by high perceived closeness and balanced relatedness across adolescence. Furthermore, adolescents in disengaged friendships had lower levels of and smaller increases in constructive problem solving. Girls in disengaged friendships showed smaller increases in balanced relatedness and higher levels of depression than boys in disengaged friendships and adolescents in interdependent friendships.

  • 10.
    Selfhout, Maarten H. W.
    et al.
    Utrecht university.
    Branje, Susan J. T.
    Meeus, Wim H. J.
    The development of delinquency and perceived friendship quality in adolescent best friendship dyads2008In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 471-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines both the unique and the combined role of best friends' delinquency and perceived friendship quality in the development of adolescent delinquency. Questionnaire data were gathered from 435 Dutch adolescent best friends (mean age at first wave = 12.97) over a period of 5 years with annual assessments. Results showed that mean levels of delinquency and perceived friendship quality increased over time. Adolescent best friends were highly similar in both mean levels and changes in delinquency over time. For boys, similarity in mean level delinquency between best friends was higher than for girls. In addition, only for boys, friends' delinquency is associated with increases in adolescent delinquency over time, and adolescents' delinquency is associated with increases in friends' delinquency over time. No bidirectional longitudinal associations were found between perceived friendship quality and adolescent delinquency. No interaction effects between friendship quality and friends' delinquency on adolescent delinquency were found. Thus, findings were more in support of the differential association theory than of the social control theory.

  • 11.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Zheng, Mo
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    Raine, Adrian
    Departments of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Los Angeles, United States .
    Baker, Laura A.
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.
    A common genetic factor explains the covariation among ADHD ODD and CD symptoms in 9-10 year old boys and girls2009In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies examining the covariation among Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) have yielded inconsistent results. Some studies have concluded that the covariation among these symptoms is due to common genetic influences, whereas others have found a common environmental overlap. The present study investigated the genetic and environmental correlations among these three childhood disorders, based on a sample of 1,219 twins, age 9-10 years. A latent externalizing behavior factor was found to explain the covariance among ADHD, ODD and CD symptoms. Genetic influences explained more than half of the variance in this externalizing factor in both boys and girls. There were also unique genetic and environmental influences in each set of symptoms, suggesting some etiological independence of the three disorders. Our findings have implications for molecular genetic studies trying to identify susceptibility genes for these disorders.

  • 12.
    van Zalk, Maarten
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships2013In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 627-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472) friendship network of adolescents (49.2 % girls; M (age) = 13.31 at first measurement) across three annual measurements. Selection and influence processes regarding tolerance and xenophobia were distinguished with longitudinal social network analyses, controlling for effects of age, gender, and immigrant background. Findings showed that friends' tolerance predicted increases in adolescents' tolerance and friends' xenophobia predicted increases in adolescents' xenophobia. Moreover, friends' tolerance predicted a lower likelihood of adolescents' xenophobia increasing. The current results suggest that interventions should distinguish between tolerance and xenophobia, as these appear to represent two separate dimensions that are each influenced in specific ways by friends' tolerance and xenophobia.

  • 13.
    Van Zalk, M.H.W.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Callous-Unemotional Traits in Adolescents: Cross-Influence Processes in FriendshipIn: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Socialization of social anxiety in adolescent crowds2011In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1239-1249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers' social anxiety, more in some peer crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed Radical), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M-age=13.36) at three timepoints, the results show that adolescents affiliating with the Radical crowd tended to select peers from the same crowd group. Being a member of a crowd in itself did not predict socialization of social anxiety, but adolescents in the Radical crowd were more influenced by their peers' social anxiety than adolescents who did not affiliate with the Radical crowd group. The results suggest that through a bidirectional process, adolescents affiliating with Radical crowds may narrow their peer relationship ties in time, and in turn socialize each other's social anxiety.

  • 15.
    Younan, Diana
    et al.
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Dornsife College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Franklin, Meredith
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Lurmann, Fred
    Sonoma Technology, Inc., Petaluma CA, USA.
    Li, Lianfa
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Wu, Jun
    Irvine College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine CA, USA.
    Berhane, Kiros
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Baker, Laura A.
    Dornsife College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan
    Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles CA, USA.
    Longitudinal Analysis of Particulate Air Pollutants and Adolescent Delinquent Behavior in Southern California2018In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1283-1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal experiments and cross-sectional human studies have linked particulate matter (PM) with increased behavioral problems. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether the trajectories of delinquent behavior are affected by PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) exposures before and during adolescence. We used the parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist at age 9-18 with repeated measures every ~2-3 years (up to 4 behavioral assessments) on 682 children from the Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior Study conducted in a multi-ethnic cohort of twins born in 1990-1995. Based on prospectively-collected residential addresses and a spatiotemporal model of ambient air concentrations in Southern California, monthly PM2.5 estimates were aggregated to represent long-term (1-, 2-, 3-year average) exposures preceding baseline and cumulative average exposure until the last assessment. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to examine the association between PM2.5 exposure and individual trajectories of delinquent behavior, adjusting for within-family/within-individual correlations and potential confounders. We also examined whether psychosocial factors modified this association. The results sμggest that PM2.5 exposure at baseline and cumulative exposure during follow-up was significantly associated (p < 0.05) with increased delinquent behavior. The estimated effect sizes (per interquartile increase of PM2.5 by 3.12-5.18 μg/m3) were equivalent to the difference in delinquency scores between adolescents who are 3.5-4 years apart in age. The adverse effect was stronger in families with unfavorable parent-to-child relationships, increased parental stress or maternal depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings sμggest long-term PM2.5 exposure may increase delinquent behavior of urban-dwelling adolescents, with the resulting neurotoxic effect aggravated by psychosocial adversities.

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