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  • 1.
    Dufner, Michael
    et al.
    Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany; International Max Planck Research School LIFE, Freie Universität Berlin/Humboldt Universität, Berlin, Germany.
    Denissen, Jaap J. A.
    Humboldt-University, Berlin, Germany.
    van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Matthes, Benjamin
    Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Meeus, Wim H. J.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    van Aken, Marcel A. G.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sedikides, Constantine
    University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Positive intelligence illusions: on the relation between intellectual self-enhancement and psychological adjustment2012In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 537-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between self-enhancement and psychological adjustment has been debated for over 2 decades. This controversy is partly due to the variety of approaches implicated in the assessment of mainly self-enhancement but also psychological adjustment. We adopted a face-valid approach by statistically removing actual intellectual ability variance from self-rated intellectual ability variance. Study 1 (N?=?2,048), a concurrent Internet investigation, provided initial insight into the relation between intellectual self-enhancement and psychological adjustment. Study 2 (N?=?238), a longitudinal round-robin investigation, allowed a closer examination of the dynamic processes underlying this relation. Self-enhancement was positively linked to multiple indicators of intrapersonal and interpersonal adjustment, and predicted rank-order increases in adjustment over time. The links between intellectual self-enhancement and intrapersonal adjustment were mediated by self-esteem. Finally, the interpersonal costs and benefits of self-enhancement systematically varied depending on methodology.

  • 2.
    Selfhout, Maarten
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Branje, Susan
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Denissen, Jaap
    Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany.
    van Aken, Marcel
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Meeus, Wim
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Emerging late adolescent friendship networks and Big Five personality traits: a social network approach2010In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 509-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study focuses on the emergence of friendship networks among just-acquainted individuals, investigating the effects of Big Five personality traits on friendship selection processes. Sociometric nominations and self-ratings on personality traits were gathered from 205 late adolescents (mean age=19 years) at 5 time points during the first year of university. SIENA, a novel multilevel statistical procedure for social network analysis, was used to examine effects of Big Five traits on friendship selection. Results indicated that friendship networks between just-acquainted individuals became increasingly more cohesive within the first 3 months and then stabilized. Whereas individuals high on Extraversion tended to select more friends than those low on this trait, individuals high on Agreeableness tended to be selected more as friends. In addition, individuals tended to select friends with similar levels of Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Openness.

  • 3.
    Van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro University.
    Online and Offline Friendships: The Roles of Social Anxiety and Self-esteemIn: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Van Zalk, M.H.W.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Psychopathic Traits and Antisocial Behaviors in AdolescenceIn: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety2015In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 346-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time.

  • 6.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    van Zalk [Zalk-Selfhout], Maarten
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Social anxiety as a basis for friendship selection and socialization in asolescents' social networks2011In: Journal of personality, ISSN 0022-3506, E-ISSN 1467-6494, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 499-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially anxious children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly socially anxious, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize social anxiety over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated before. We examined this in a sample of 834 youths (339 girls, and 495 boys; M=14.29), followed for three years. We used the social network analysis software, SIENA, to analyze the data. The results showed that youths who were socially anxious were less popular and chose fewer friends in the network. They also tended to choose friends who were socially anxious, and over time they influenced each other into becoming more socially anxious – over and above other effects. Finally, girls' social anxiety was more influenced than boys' by their friends' social anxiety levels. The results showed the significance of looking at socially anxious youths' friendships over time, and embedded in social networks.

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