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  • 1.
    Besic, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Punks, Goths, and Other Eye-Catching Peer Crowds: Do They Fulfill a Function for Shy Youths?2009In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 19, no 1, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent peer crowds such as Punks and Goths are mainly identified by their strikingly unusual or even shocking appearances. Although many studies find these crowds, few have tried to explain why some youths take on these startling or shocking appearances. We hypothesized that an off-putting appearance is a way to cope with behavioral inhibition by limiting social contacts. Using data from 1,200 7th - 11th graders, we compared peer crowds characterized by their startling appearance (“Radical” crowds) with three theoretically relevant comparison groups. Results showed that youths affiliating with Radical crowds were more inhibited than other youths, including those in crowds previously shown to be shy or socially anxious. Inhibited Radicals, however, had poorer emotional adjustment than inhibited youths in other crowds. If Radical styles are a way for inhibited youths to cope by limiting social contacts, the strategy does not seem to be beneficial for emotional adjustment.

  • 2.
    Dahl, Viktor
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Peer networks and the development of illegal political behavior among adolescents2014In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 24, no 2, 399-409 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined to what extent peer influence explains the development of illegal political behavior controlling for peer selection, legal political peer influence, and gender effects. Late adolescents who filled out questionnaires at two annual measurements were used in a longitudinal social network approach (N = 1006; Mage = 16.62). Results showed that peers’ involvement in illegal political behavior predicted adolescents’ increases in illegal political behavior. Adolescents did not select other peers with similar illegal political behavior. Nevertheless, adolescents selected peers with similar legal political behavior. Findings were discussed in light of a stage process where adolescents initially chose peers with similar legal political behavior. Subsequently, peers influence adolescents on both legal and illegal political behavior.

  • 3.
    Gustafson, Sigrid B.
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA.
    Stattin, Håkan
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, David
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aspects of  the development of a career versus homemaking orientation among females: the longitudinal influence of educational motivation and peers1989In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 2, no 3, 241-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we propose that, among females, high educational motivation in adolescence is related to a young adult orientation toward career whereas low educational motivation in adolescence is related to a young adult orientation toward homemaking. It is further hypothesized that, particularly for adolescents with low educational motivation, initial orientation is affected by the differential influences of nonconventional peer types: older peers, younger peers, working peers, or a steady boyfriend. Subjects (N = 450) from a Swedish longitudinal study were chosen on the basis of their peer networks at age 15. The results demonstrate (a) that educational motivation at age 15 comprised a valid indicator of career versus homemaking orientation at age 26, and (b) that, with respect to the young adult outcomes, adolescents with low educational motivation are more susceptible to the hypothesized nonconventional peer influences than are their counterparts with high educational motivation. Discussion emphasizes the value of a longitudinal perspective and of specifying conditions under which differential patterns of development might be observed.

  • 4.
    Kerr, Margaret
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Burk, William J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    A reinterpretation of parental monitoring in longitudinal perspective2010In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 20, no 1, 39-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly used measure of parental monitoring is parents’ knowledge of adolescents’ daily activities. This measure has been criticized on the grounds that parents get more knowledge about teenagers’ daily activities through willing youth disclosure than through their own active monitoring efforts, but this claim was based on cross-sectional data. In the present study, we re-examine this claim with longitudinal data over two years from 938 7th and 8th graders and their parents. Youth disclosure was a significant longitudinal predictor of parental knowledge in single-rater and cross-rater models. Neither measure of parents’ monitoring efforts—control or solicitation—was a significant predictor. In analyses involving delinquency, parental monitoring efforts did not predict changes in delinquency over time, but youth disclosure did. We conclude that because knowledge measures do not seem to represent parental monitoring efforts, the conclusions from studies using these measures should be reinterpreted.

  • 5. Määttä, Sami
    et al.
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Achievement orientations, school adjustment, and well-being: A longitudinal study2007In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 17, no 4, 789-812 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to identify the kinds of achievement orientations that adolescents show, and to examine the kinds of antecedents and consequences the use of a particular orientation has. The participants were 734 Swedish adolescents (335 boys and 399 girls) who filled in questionnaires measuring their achievement beliefs and behaviors, depressive symptoms, engagement with school, and norm-breaking behavior. By using clustering-by-cases analysis, five achievement orientation groups were identified: optimism, defensive-pessimism, self-handicapping, and learned helplessness, and a group showing average levels of criteria variables. The results showed further that a decrease in depressive symptoms and an increase in engagement with school predicted a move to the use of optimistic and defensive-pessimistic groups, whereas a reverse pattern predicted a move to the helplessness and self-handicapping groups. Moreover, the optimistic and defensive-pessimistic achievement orientations at Time 1 predicted an increase in engagement with school and a decrease in depressive symptoms later on, whereas self-handicapping and learned helplessness predicted a decrease in engagement with school and increases in depressive symptoms and norm-breaking behavior.

    Individuals show different kinds of achievement-related beliefs and behaviors in academic contexts (Cantor, 1990; Midgley, Arunkumar, & Urdan, 1996). Some people typically become anxious about the possibility of failure, which then leads to task-avoidance (Midgley, Arunkumar, & Urdan, 1996; Miller, 1987). Others are optimistic and, consequently, make an active effort to deal with a situation (Aspinwall & Taylor, 1997; Hokoda & Fincham, 1995). The expectation of failure and subsequent task-avoidant behavior are likely to lead to a low level of academic achievement and poor adjustment (Nurmi, Aunola, Salmela-Aro, & Lindroos, 2003; Nurmi, Onatsu, & Haavisto, 1995), whereas optimism and task-focused behavior contributes to good outcomes and good adjustment (Cantor, 1990; Norem & Cantor, 1986a; Nurmi et al., 2003). Previous research on these kinds of achievement orientations, however, suffers from important limitations. First, only a few studies have examined the various kinds of achievement-related beliefs and behaviors among adolescents (Midgley et al., 1996; Nurmi, Salmela-Aro, & Ruotsalainen, 1994). Second, only a few studies have investigated the question of how liable various achievement orientations are to change during adolescence, and what factors might contribute to such developmental changes. This study aimed at identifying the kinds of achievement orientations that adolescents show, and what are the major antecedents and consequences of particular orientations.

  • 6.
    Skoog, Therése
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The Role of Pubertal Timing in What Adolescent Boys Do Online2009In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 19, no 1, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pubertal timing and boys' Internet use, particularly their viewing of pornography. We used a sample comprising of 97 boys in grade 8 (M age, 14.22 years) from two schools in a medium-sized Swedish town. This age should be optimal for differentiating early, on-time, and later-maturing boys. Boys responded to self-report questionnaires on their Internet use and pubertal timing. Early, on-time, and late-maturing boys did not differ in terms of most Internet activities. However, early maturers reported downloading and viewing pornography more often than the other boys did (p<.001). The findings build on previous research on the link between pubertal timing and sexual behavior in adolescence. Moreover, they help further understanding of the behavioral implications of boys' pubertal timing.

     

     

     

  • 7.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, ASH 347, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, United States.
    Galambos, Nancy L.
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada.
    Adolescents' characteristics and parents' beliefs as predictors of parents' peer management behaviors2003In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 13, no 3, 269-300 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined parents’ reported use of peer management behaviors (i.e., communicating preferences, communicating disapproval, supporting friendships, and information seeking) and linked these behaviors to (a) adolescents’ self-reported psychosocial adjustment and friendships and (b) parents’ beliefs about adolescents’ peer relationships (i.e., perceived efficacy in managing adolescents’ friendships and concerns about adolescents’ friendships). The participants were 269 parents (161 mothers, 108 fathers) and their predominantly White adolescents in Grades 6 and 9 (N = 177). Results suggest that parents may be more apt to use some behaviors (e.g., communicating disapproval and information seeking) when there are indications that their adolescents are engaged in problem behaviors and have friends who are deviant. In addition, parents’ concerns about their adolescents’ friends mediate the relationship between adolescent problem behaviors and parents’ communications of disapproval. Parents’ peer management is promising as a route to understand further the nature of parent-peer linkages.

  • 8.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Marshall, Sheila
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Darling, Nancy
    Oberlin College, Oberlin, USA.
    What's in a name?: distinguishing between routine disclosure and self-disclosure2014In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 24, no 4, 551-563 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of specificity between two types of disclosure has emerged in research on adolescents’ relationship and communication with their parents. Researchers are obscuring the distinctions between self-disclosure and routine disclosure (i.e., disclosure of their whereabouts and activities to parents). In this article, we describe where the problems have arisen and then outline the conceptual differences between the two. Illustrations of how the two types of disclosure overlap or co-occur are provided to demonstrate how fruitful areas for future research can emerge from attending to the distinctions between these two constructs.

  • 9.
    Veenstra, René
    et al.
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Steglich, Christian
    University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Van Zalk, Maarten
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Network–Behavior Dynamics2013In: Journal of research on adolescence, ISSN 1050-8392, E-ISSN 1532-7795, Vol. 23, 399-412 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network–behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudinal social network modeling. First, an overview of mechanisms underlying selection and influence is given. After a description of the shortcomings of previous studies in this area, the stochastic actor-based model is sketched; this is used in this special issue to examine network–behavior dynamics. The preconditions for such analyses are discussed, as are common model specification issues. Next, recent empirical advances in research on adolescence are discussed, focusing on new insights into moderating effects, initiation of behaviors, time heterogeneity, mediation effects, and negative ties.

1 - 9 of 9
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