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  • 1.
    Aunola, Kaisa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä.
    Adolescents' achievement strategies, school adjustment, and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors2000In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 289-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated the relationships between the achievement strategies adolescents deploy in a school context, and their self-esteem, school adjustment, and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. A total of 1,185 14-15 yr old adolescents filled in the Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and scales measuring school adjustment, depression and externalizing problem behavior. The adolescents' parents were also asked to evaluate their children's achievement strategies, school adjustment, and externalizing problem behavior. Results reveal that low self-esteem was associated with adolescents' use of maladaptive achievement strategies which, in turn, was associated with their maladjustment at school, and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Moreover, the association between adolescents' maladaptive strategies and their externalizing problem behavior was partly mediated via their school adjustment. The results suggest that the achievement strategies adolescents deploy are reflected not only in their school adjustment but also in their overall problem behavior.

  • 2.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Why and when is ethnic harassment a risk for immigrant adolescents´ school adjustment?: understanding the processes and conditions2014In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 1252-1265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnically harassed immigrant youth are at risk for experiencing a wide range of school adjustment problems. However, it is still unclear why and under what conditions experiencing ethnic harassment leads to school adjustment difficulties. To address this limitation in the literature, we examined two important questions. First, we investigated whether self-esteem and/or depressive symptoms would mediate the associations between ethnic harassment and poor school adjustment among immigrant youth. Second, we examined whether immigrant youths' perception of school context would play a buffering role in the pathways between ethnic harassment and school adjustment difficulties. The sample (n = 330; M age  = 14.07, SD = .90; 49 % girls at T1) was drawn from a longitudinal study in Sweden. The results revealed that experiencing ethnic harassment led to a decrease in immigrant youths' self-esteem over time, and that youths' expectations of academic failure increased. Further, youths' relationships with their teachers and their perceptions of school democracy moderated the mediation processes. Specifically, when youth had poor relationships with their teachers or perceived their school context as less democratic, being exposed to ethnic harassment led to a decrease in their self-esteem. In turn, they reported low school satisfaction and perceived themselves as being unsuccessful in school. Such indirect effects were not observed when youth had high positive relationships with their teachers or perceived their school as offering a democratic environment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding underlying processes and conditions in the examination of the effects of ethnic devaluation experiences in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding of immigrant youths' school adjustment.

  • 3.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Youth's Initiations of Civic and Political Discussions in Class: Do Youth's Perceptions of Teachers' Behaviors Matter and Why?2016In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 2233-2245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers are thought to play an important role in fostering youth civic engagement; however, the current literature is limited with regard to providing concrete suggestions as to what teachers can do to promote youth civic engagement and why teachers have an impact on youth. To address these limitations, we simultaneously tested three alternative explanations to identify the critical way(s) in which perceived teachers' behaviors might contribute to youth civic engagement in school. We also investigated the underlying processes that may explain why youth's perceptions of teachers' behaviors matter, by focusing on the mediating roles of young people's feelings about politics and their political efficacy beliefs. The sample included 7th (n = 876, M age  = 13.42, SD = .71; 51 % girls) and 10th grade students (n = 857, M age  = 16.62, SD = .71; 51 % girls) residing in Sweden. Among the different aspects of perceived teacher behaviors, only an engaged and inspiring teaching style fostered youth's initiations of civic and political discussions in class over time among both early and late adolescents. Moreover, youth's feelings about politics significantly mediated the effect of perceived teachers' behaviors on youth civic engagement in class. Contrary to our expectation, youth's political efficacy did not act as a mediator. The present study sheds light on what teachers can do to promote youth civic and political engagement in a school setting.

  • 4.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sun, Shuyan
    Baltimore County, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD, USA.
    Korol, Liliia
    National University of Ostroh Academy, Ostroh, Ukraine.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents' Engagement in Ethnic Harassment: Prejudiced Beliefs in Social Networks and Classroom Ethnic Diversity2018In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1151-1163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on ethnic victimization to date has done little to identify the reasons why adolescents victimize their peers due to their ethnic background. To address this limitation, we examined: (1) the extent to which prejudiced attitudes within adolescents' close and larger social networks determine their engagement in ethnic harassment, and (2) the extent to which classroom ethnic diversity plays a role in any such link. Our sample included 902 Swedish adolescents (M age  = 14.40, SD = .95; 50.3% girls). We found that Swedish adolescents who held negative attitudes toward immigrants or who were surrounded by prejudiced peers were more likely to be involved in ethnic harassment, particularly in classrooms with high ethnic diversity. Adolescents in classrooms with a high anti-immigrant climate were more likely to harass their immigrant peers. These findings suggest that prejudiced beliefs in youth social networks put young people at risk of engaging in ethnic harassment, particularly in ethnically diverse classrooms.

  • 5.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    How do Adolescents' Perceptions of Relationships with Teachers Change during Upper-Secondary School Years?2019In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The student-teacher relationship has mostly been assumed to be static. This approach is limited in providing information on how relationships with teachers evolve over time, and how possible changes affect young people's adjustment. To address this gap in knowledge, the present study examined whether adolescents follow different trajectories in their perceptions of relationship with teachers and whether students on different trajectories differ from each other in their adjustment. The sample included 829 students residing in Sweden (M-age = 13.43, SD = 0.55, 51% girls). Three distinct teacher-relationship trajectories were identified. More than half (66%) of the adolescents (average-stable trajectory) reported an average level of positive relationships with teachers at grade 7, and did not change significantly over the three years. About 24% of the adolescents (high-increasing trajectory) reported a high level of fair and supportive teacher-relationships at T1, and continued to increase in their positive views from grade 7 to grade 9. Ten percent of the adolescents (average-declining trajectory) reported an average level of positive relationships with teachers at grade 7, but showed a decline in their positive views towards teachers over time. Relative to adolescents on an average-stable trajectory, adolescents on a high-increasing trajectory reported greater school satisfaction, higher achievement values, and lower failure anticipation. By contrast, adolescents in the average-declining group reported worsening school adjustment. No significant moderating effects of immigrant status and gender were found. These findings highlight the importance of the association between the continuous experience of supportive and fair teacher treatment and youth adjustment.

  • 6.
    Danielsson, Nanette S.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Harvey, Allison G.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA, United States.
    MacDonald, Shane
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms in adolescence: the role of catastrophic worry2013In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1223-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a common and debilitating disorder in adolescence. Sleep disturbances and depression often co-occur with sleep disturbances frequently preceding depression. The current study investigated whether catastrophic worry, a potential cognitive vulnerability, mediates the relationship between adolescent sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms, as well as whether there are gender differences in this relationship. High school students, ages 16–18, n = 1,760, 49 % girls, completed annual health surveys including reports of sleep disturbance, catastrophic worry, and depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbances predicted depressive symptoms 1-year later. Catastrophic worry partially mediated the relationship. Girls reported more sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and catastrophic worry relative to boys. The results, however, were similar regardless of gender. Sleep disturbances and catastrophic worry may provide school nurses, psychologists, teachers, and parents with non gender specific early indicators of risk for depression. Several potentially important practical implications, including suggestions for intervention and prevention programs, are highlighted. 

  • 7.
    Kakihara, Fumiko
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The relationship of parental control to youth adjustment: Do youths' feelings about their parents play a role?2010In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 1442-1456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that youths interpret parental control and that this may have implications for how control affects youths' adjustment. In this study, we propose that youths' feelings about being over-controlled by parents and feeling connected to parents are intermediary processes linking parental control and youths' adjustment. We used three years of longitudinal data sampled from 1,022 Swedish youths in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade (47.3% girls; 12-17 years old, M age = 14.28 years, SD = .98) who were mainly Swedish in ethnic origin. We tested models linking parental control (i.e., rules, restriction of freedom, and coldness-rejection) to adjustment (i.e., norm-breaking, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem) through youths feeling over-controlled by and connected to parents. The overall model incorporating youths' feelings showed that restrictions and coldness-rejection were both indirectly linked to increases in norm-breaking and depressive symptoms through increases in youths feeling over-controlled. Parental rules still independently predicted decreases in norm-breaking and in self-esteem, and coldness-rejection predicted increases in norm-breaking. In addition, some paths (e.g., feeling over-controlled to self-esteem) depended on the youths' age, whereas others depended on their gender. These results suggest that when youths' feelings are taken into account, all behavioral control is not the same, and the line between behavioral control and psychological control is blurred. We conclude that it is important to consider youths' feelings of being controlled and suggest that future research focus more on exploring this idea.

  • 8.
    Loeber, Rolf
    et al.
    University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Ahonen, Lia
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Street Killings: Prediction of Homicide Offenders and Their Victims2013In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 1640-1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reports on childhood predictors (explanatory, behavioral and offenses) to predict homicide offenders in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Youth Study, and compares these predictors with predictors of homicide victims in the same study. This forms the basis for formulating antecedents that are shared between homicide offenders and homicide victims at a young age (ages 7-11) and antecedents that are not shared or are unique for each. Implications of the research are highlighted for early intervention and for interventions with high-risk offenders.

  • 9.
    Marshalll, Sheila
    et al.
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Non-suicidal self-injury and depressive symptoms during middle adolescence: a longitudinal analysis2013In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1234-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a consistent positive association between non-suicidal self-injury and depressive symptoms. However, the direction of the effects has not been examined. To understand whether non-suicidal self-injury predicts depressive symptoms or vice versa, we examined the relations between non-suicidal self-injury and depressive symptoms across three waves of self-report data collected 1 year apart from 506 Swedish adolescents (47 % girls; M age = 13.21; SD = .57) who were attending 7th grade at the onset of the study. The results suggest that depressive symptoms predict increases in non-suicidal self-injury 1 year later between the first and second waves of the study. Between the second and third waves of the study depressive symptoms and non-suicidal self-injury were significantly correlated indicating co-occurrence with no direction of effect rather than depressive symptoms predicting non-suicidal self-injury or vice versa. Group comparisons revealed no differences for boys and girls. The findings help clarify the relationships between non-suicidal self-injury and depressive symptoms during middle adolescence.

     

     

  • 10.
    Skoog, Therése
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Understanding the Link between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment2016In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 316-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (Mage = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (Mage = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence.

  • 11.
    Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Skoog, Therése
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Early pubertal timing and girls' problem behavior: integrating two hypotheses2011In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1271-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Girls' early pubertal timing has been linked in many studies to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use. The theoretical explanations for these links have often involved the girls' peer relationships, but contexts have also been considered important in some explanations. By integrating two theoretical models, the peer-socialization and the contextual-amplification hypotheses, we propose a contextual framework for explaining the link between early pubertal timing and external problem behavior in girls. We hypothesize that early developing girls engage in unhealthy, dangerous, and risky behavior under contextual conditions that promote access to older friends and opposite-sex relationships. Under other conditions it is less likely. We tested this integrated hypothesis in two studies conducted in Sweden. The first was a cross-sectional study with information about school and free-time friends in a community sample (N = 284). Early pubertal timing was linked to having older, more normbreaking friends outside of school, but not in school, thus suggesting that the school context interferes early-developing girls' selection of older peers. The second study involved both a longitudinal (N = 434) and a cross-sectional sample of girls (N = 634), where we examined a leisure setting that is known to attract delinquent youth. Results showed that early pubertal timing was most strongly linked to delinquency for girls who spent time in this context and were heavily involved with boys and peers. In sum, results from both studies supported our predictions that certain contexts would amplify the peer-socialization effect. Overall, we conclude that the integrated peer-socialization/contextual-amplification model satisfactorily explains the link between pubertal timing and external problem behavior.

  • 12.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Adolescents’ information management: comparing ideas about why adolescents disclose to or keep secrets from their parents2014In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 803-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing that adolescents providing or withholding information about their activities is a strong predictor of parental knowledge, this article compares several ideas about what prompts adolescents to disclose information or keep secrets from their parents. Using a sample of 874 Northern European adolescents (aged 12-16 years; 49.8 % were girls), modified cross-lagged models examined parental monitoring (solicitation and monitoring rules), adolescent delinquency, and perceived parental support as predictors and consequences of adolescents disclosing to parents or keeping secrets, with adolescents' acceptance of parental authority as a moderator. Results suggest that, when adolescents view their parents as supportive, they subsequently disclose more and keep fewer secrets. Engaging in delinquent behavior was related reciprocally to keeping secrets. By comparison, the results generally did not support the idea that adolescents who are monitored provide information to parents, even when they accept parental authority. These results suggest that relationship dynamics and adolescents' delinquent behaviors play an important role in adolescents' information management.

  • 13.
    Trifan, Tatiana Alina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Are adolescents’ mutually hostile interactions at home reproduced in other everyday life contexts?2015In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 598-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children involved in mutually hostile interactions at home are at risk of experiencing adjustment problems in other everyday life contexts. However, little is known about whether the pattern of mutual hostility at home is reproduced by high-conflict youths in other interpersonal contexts. In this study, we examined whether adolescents involved in mutually hostile interactions with their parents encounter similar mutually hostile interactions in other interpersonal contexts. We used a longitudinal design, following mid-adolescents over 1 year (N = 2,009, 51 % boys, Mage = 14.06, SD = 0.73). The adolescents were 7th and 8th grade students in a mid-sized town in Sweden. The results showed that the youths involved in mutual hostility at home were more likely to be involved in mutual hostility at school and in their free-time. A longitudinal relationship between mutual hostility at home and mutual hostility in other contexts was confirmed. Being involved in mutually hostile interactions at home at Time 1 increased adolescents’ likelihood of getting involved in mutually hostile interactions with peers at school and in free-time at Time 2. Overall, the results point to the important role played by experiencing mutual hostility at home in maladaptive behaviors across everyday settings.

  • 14.
    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter
    et al.
    Res Ctr Adolescent Dev, Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work. Ctr Adolescent Res, Univ Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Developmental trajectories of prejudice and tolerance toward immigrants from early to late adolescence2014In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1658-1671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescence is an important period for the development of relationships between immigrants and non-immigrants, yet little is known about how problematic personality traits affect adolescents' relationships with and attitudes toward immigrants. This work identified the roles of intergroup relationships and one dimension of problematic personality traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, in the development of adolescents' tolerance and prejudice. Three annual measurements of a large community sample (N = 1,542) of non-immigrant adolescents (M (age) = 15.31 at first measurement; 50.2 % girls) were used to show that tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants represent two dimensions with distinct developmental trajectories from early to late adolescence. Callous-unemotional traits predicted fewer decreases in prejudice toward immigrants, yet were not directly associated with tolerance. Intergroup friendships predicted stronger increases in tolerance, which, in turn, predicted decreases in prejudice toward immigrants. Thus, tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants seem to be differentially influenced by social experiences and problematic personality traits.

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