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  • 1.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: a person-oriented approach2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Edsjö, Lisa
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Westin, Vendela
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Tinnitus and short-term serial recall in stable versus intermittent masking conditions2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 517-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between tinnitus and short-term memory performance in varying background sounds is not well understood. In the present study a sample of 18 persons with tinnitus completed a serial recall test in three conditions, silence, masking and intermittent masking. The performance of a matched control group without tinnitus was also investigated. Based on the literature on the "irrelevant sound effect" we expected that the tinnitus group would perform worse during intermittent masking and that they would score lower overall compared to the control group. Results revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups, nor any group interaction within sound conditions for the serial recall test. Groups did however differ regarding subjective measures of concentration problems, anxiety and depression. Results are discussed in relation to thought suppression and distraction from tinnitus.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Kin
    Malardalen Univ, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Predictors of re-employment: A question of attitude, behavior, or gender?2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 438-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal study examined the predictive value of attitudes, personal-related variables, job search behaviour, and demographic variables on re-employment among 142 assembly workers who had been made redundant. Participants completed a questionnaire within a week after leaving their jobs, and another 15 months later. Results of hierarchical logistic regression revealed that gender (being male), was the strongest predictor of re-employment. Willingness to relocate and desire to change occupation also increased the odds of re-employment 15 months after dismissal. On the other hand - having children at home and anonymous-passive job-search behaviour, which is more prevalent among women, decreased the odds for re-employment. The study is contributing to research by revealing gender differences in job search behaviour and the importance of focusing qualitative differences instead of merely quantitative measures in job-search behaviour. And even more important, despite attitude and job-search behaviour, there is still differences that seems to be related to gender and family responsibility.

  • 4.
    Bilevicute-Ljunger, Indre
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; ME/CFS-rehabilitation, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Maroti, Daniel
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome do not score higher on the autism-spectrum quotient than healthy controls: comparison with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 428-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinically, there is an overlap of several symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including fatigue; brain “fog”; cognitive impairments; increased sensitivity to sound, light, and odour; increased pain and tenderness; and impaired emotional contact.

    Methods: Adults with CFS (n = 59) or ASD (n = 50) and healthy controls (HC; n = 53) were assessed with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a cross-sectional study. Non-parametric analysis was used to compare AQ scores among the groups. Univariate analysis of variance (ANCOVA) was used to identify if age, sex, or diagnostic group influenced the differences in scores.

    Results: Patients with ASD scored significantly higher on the AQ than the CFS group and the HC group. No differences in AQ scores were found between the CFS and HC groups. AQ results were influenced by the diagnostic group but not by age or sex, according to ANCOVA.    

    Conclusions: Despite clinical observations of symptom overlap between ASD and CFS, adult patients with CFS report few autistic traits in the self-report instrument, the AQ. The choice of instrument to assess autistic traits may influence the results.

  • 5.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Vegelius, Jan
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala university.
    Measures of attitudinal polarization1975In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Criteria for measures of attitudinal polarization, i.e. degree of opposition among people on a specific issue, are proposed and some formulas, including the standard deviation, are evaluated in relation to the criteria. The formulas were also tested on empirical data with respect to level, dispersion and agreement of received values. The measures on the whole showed a high degree of agreement. There clearly exist instances where the standard deviation is not an adequate measure of attitudinal polarization. Some guidelines are given for the choice of constant values in one of the proposed formulas. 

  • 6.
    Jalali-Moghadam, Niloufar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    The role of executive functions in bilingual children with reading difficulties2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore the joint effect of reading difficulties (RD) and bilingualism on executive functions, 190 children of four groups of 9-12year-olds (41 bilinguals with RD, 45 monolinguals with RD, 45 bilinguals without RD, and 59 monolinguals without RD) were examined on the Concentration game, Tower of Hanoi, and Stroop as measures of executive functioning tapping into inhibitory/attentional control, working memory and planning ability. The most prominent finding was that in terms of RD, the speed of performances decreased dramatically. This general decrease was more pronounced for bilingual children with RD than for their monolingual counterparts. In conclusion, the findings suggest that while bilinguals gain more from executive functions in normal reading, they lose in terms of RD. Such an outcome confirms that executive functions are essential components of both reading and bilingualism, which depending on whether reading conditions are normal or difficult will produce cognitive advantages or disadvantages. Further, it is argued that dissimilarity between the Farsi and Swedish languages may complicate handling of such a situation.

  • 7.
    Jensen, Eva
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Learning and transfer from a simple dynamic system2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of learning gained from being assisted in completing the task of bringing a predator-prey system into equilibrium by controlling the predator population was investigated. Learning was explored both by post-task questioning and by testing for transfer to another predator-prey task. Participants were 28 undergraduate psychology students, all female. They were randomly and evenly split into an experiment group that was subjected to a learning session with the first task before being tested in the second task, and a control group that only performed the second task. What was most needed in the first task was help in sticking to analytically derived conclusions by resisting “common sense” responses. There was a significant transfer effect on performance to the second task, stemming from learning shown by half the participants in the experiment group. The other half showed hardly any learning. Learning in about half the subjects has proven a stable finding.

  • 8.
    Jungert, T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Träff, U.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy - domain-specific versus cross-domain - in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 440-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the children's skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children.

  • 9.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Shojaei, Razie-Sadat
    Univ Tehran, Dept Psychol, Tehran, Iran.
    Moniri, Sadegheh
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gholami, Ali-Reza
    Univ Tehran, Dept Psychol, Tehran, Iran.
    Moradi, Ali-Reza
    Tehran Teacher Training Univ, Dept Psychol, Tehran, Iran.
    Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed
    Univ Tehran, Dept Psychol, Tehran 14174, Iran.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effect of childhood bilingualism on episodic and semantic memory tasks2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kormi-Nouri, Moniri and Nilsson (2003) demonstrated that Swedish-Persian bilingual children recalled at a higher level than Swedish monolingual children, when they were tested using Swedish materials. The present study was designed to examine the bilingual advantage of children who use different languages in their everyday life but have the same cultural background and live in their communities in the same way as monolingual children. In four experiments, 488 monolingual and bilingual children were compared with regard to episodic and semantic memory tasks. In experiments 1 and 2 there were 144 boys and 144 girls in three school groups (aged 9-10 years, 13-14 years and 16-17 years) and in three language groups (Persian monolingual, Turkish-Persian bilingual, and Kurdish-Persian bilingual). In experiments 3 and 4, there were 200 male students in two school groups (aged 9-10 years and 16-17 years) and in two language groups (Persian monolingual and Turkish-Persian bilingual). In the episodic memory task, children learned sentences (experiments 1-3) and words (Experiment 4). Letter and category fluency tests were used as measures of semantic memory. To change cognitive demands in memory tasks, in Experiment 1, the integration of nouns and verbs within sentences was manipulated by the level of association between verb and noun in each sentence. At retrieval, a recognition test was used. In experiments 2 and 3, the organization between sentences was manipulated at encoding in Experiment 2 and at both encoding and retrieval in Experiment 3 through the use of categories among the objects. At retrieval, free recall or cued recall tests were employed. In Experiment 4, the bilingual children were tested with regard to both their first and their second language. In all four experiments, a positive effect of bilingualism was found on episodic and semantic memory tasks; the effect was more pronounced for older than younger children. The bilingual advantage was not affected by changing cognitive demands or by using first/second language in memory tasks. The present findings support the cross-language interactivity hypothesis of bilingual advantage.

  • 10.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Facial EMG reactions to facial expressions: a case of facial emotional contagion?1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 130-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether subjects exposed to stimuli of facial expressions respond with facial electromyographic (EMG) reactions consistent with the hypothesis that facial expressions are contagious. This study further examines whether males and females differ in facial EMG intensity. Two experiments demonstrated that subjects responded with facial EMG activity over the corrugator supercilii, the zygomatic major, the lateral frontalis, the depressor supercilii, and the levator labii muscle regions to stimuli of sad, angry, fearful, surprised, disgusted and happy faces, that, to large extent, were consistent with the hypothesis that facial expressions are contagious. Aspects of gender differences reported in earlier studies were found, indicating a tendency for females to respond with more pronounced facial EMG intensity.

  • 11.
    Lyxell, Björn
    et al.
     Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping University, Sweden;  Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wass, Malin
     Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping University, Sweden;  Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
     Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Christina
     Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Asker-Arnason, Lena
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Ibertsson, Tina
     Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.  Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
     Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden;  Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cognitive development, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implants2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes some of the results of studies in our laboratory exploring the development of cognitive, reading and prosodic skills in children with cochlear implantation (CI). The children with CI performed at significantly lower levels than the hearing comparison group on the majority of cognitive tests, despite showing levels of nonverbal ability. The differences between children with CI and hearing children were most pronounced on tasks with relatively high phonological processing demands, but they were not limited to phonological processing. Impairment of receptive and productive prosody was also evident in children with CI. Despite these difficulties, 75% of the children with CI reached a level of reading skill comparable to that of hearing children. The results are discussed with respect to compensation strategies in reading.

  • 12.
    Mousavi-Nasab, S. -M. -Hossein
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Sundström, Anna
    Centre for Population Studies/Ageing and Living Conditions, Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of marital status on episodic and semantic memory in healthy middle-aged and old individuals2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the influences of marital status on different episodic and semantic memory tasks. A total of 1882 adult men and women participated in a longitudinal project (Betula) on memory, health and aging. The participants were grouped into two age cohorts, 35–60 and 65–85, and studied over a period of 5 years. Episodic memory tasks concerned recognition and recall, whereas semantic memory tasks concerned knowledge and fluency. The results showed, after controlling for education, some diseases, chronological age and leisure activity as covariates, that there were significant differences between married and single individuals in episodic memory, but not in semantic memory. Married people showed significantly better memory performances than singles in both subsystems of episodic memory, that is, recall and recognition. Also, the rate of decline in episodic memory was significantly larger for singles and widowed than other groups over the 5-year time period in both age groups. The findings demonstrate that the positive relation found between marriage and health can be extended to the relation between marriage and cognitive performance. This effect might be explained by the role played by cognitive stimulation in memory and cognition.

  • 13.
    Munoz, Luna C.
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Frick, Paul J.
    The reliability, stability, and predictive utility of the self-report version of the Antisocial Process Screening Device2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 299-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Antisocial Processes Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), a rating scale developed to assess traits associated with the construct of psychopathy in youth, was tested in a sample of 91 non-referred young adolescents with an average age of 13.38 (SD = 1.75) at the initial assessment. The sample was recruited from a large community-wide screening, where youth with conduct problems and youth high on psychopathic traits were over-sampled. The sample was reassessed three times at yearly intervals. The self-report scores on the APSD showed moderate correlations with parent ratings of psychopathic traits, were moderately stable across 1-2 years, and showed significant correlations with measures of antisocial behavior both concurrently and predictively One major weakness of the self-report ratings was the low internal consistency of the subscales, which were much lower than the internal consistency found on the parent report version of the scale.

  • 14.
    Määttä, Sami
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Nurmi, Jari-Erik
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Achievement strategies in peer groups and adolescents' school adjustment and norm-breaking behavior2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 273-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the extent to which the achievement strategies deployed by adolescents, and those used by their peers would predict adolescents' school adjustment, academic achievement and problem behavior. The participants were 287 14-15-year-old comprehensive school students (121 boys and 165 girls) from a middle-sized town in central Sweden. The results showed that not only the maladaptive strategies used by adolescents, but also those reported by their peers predicted adolescents' norm-breaking behavior, low school adjustment and low level of achievement: high levels of failure expectations and task-avoidance among adolescents' peers were positively associated with adolescents' own norm-breaking behavior, and indirectly via this, also with their maladjustment at school and low grades. These associations were found after controlling for the impact of adolescents' own achievement strategies.

  • 15.
    Mörtberg, Ewa
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 350-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An atypical subgroup of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) with impulsive rather than inhibited traits has recently been reported. The current study examined whether such an atypical subgroup could be identified in a clinical population of 84 adults with SAD. The temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used in cluster analyses. The identified clusters were compared on depressive symptoms, the character dimension self-directedness, and treatment outcome. Among the six identified clusters, 24% of the sample had atypical characteristics, demonstrating mainly generalized SAD in combination with coexisting traits of inhibition and impulsivity. As additional signs of severity, this group showed low self-directedness and high levels of depressive symptoms. We also identified a typically inhibited subgroup comprising generalized SAD with high levels of harm avoidance and low levels of novelty seeking, with a similar clinical severity as the atypical subgroup. Thus, higher levels of harm avoidance and social anxiety in combination with higher or lower levels of novelty seeking and low self-directedness seem to contribute to a more severe clinical picture. Post hoc examination of the treatment outcome in these subgroups showed that only 20 to 30% achieved clinically significant change.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Umeå university.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    Umeå University.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University.
    Dissociative effects of elaboration on memory of enacted and non-enacted events: A case of negative effect1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 225-231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Department of psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Furmark, Catarina
    Department of psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neander, Kerstin
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Adding "Circle of Security-Parenting" to treatment as usual in three Swedish infant mental health clinics: Effects on parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 262-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents effects of adding Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P) to an already established comprehensive therapeutic model for early parent-child intervention in three Swedish infant mental health (IMH) clinics. Parents' internal representations and quality of parent-infant interaction were studied in a clinical sample comprised of 52 parent-infant dyads randomly allocated to two comparable groups. One group consisted of 28 dyads receiving treatment as usual (TAU) supplemented with COS-P in a small group format, and another group of 24 dyads receiving TAU only. Assessments were made at baseline (T1), 6 months after inclusion (T2) and 12 months after inclusion (T3). Changes over time were explored in 42 dyads. In the COS-P group, the proportion of balanced representations, as assessed with Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), significantly increased between T1 and T3. Further, the proportion of emotionally available interactions, as assessed with Emotional Availability scales (EA), significantly increased over time in the COS-P group. Improvements in the TAU-group were close to significant. Limitations of the study are mainly related to the small sample size. Strength is the real world character of the study, where COS-P was implemented in a clinical context not otherwise adapted to research. We conclude by discussing the value of supplementing TAU with COS-P in IMH treatment.

  • 18.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    The Signal-Cognition interface: interactions between degraded auditory signals and cognitive processes2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 385-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hearing loss leads to problems with speech perception; this is exacerbated when competing noise is present. The speech signal is recognized by the cognitive system of the listener; noise and distortion tax the cognitive system when interpreting it. The auditory system must interact with the cognitive system for optimal signal decoding. This article discusses this interaction between the signal and cognitive system based on two models: an auditory model describing signal transmission and degeneration due to a hearing loss and a cognitive model for Ease of Language Understanding. The signal distortion depends on the specifics of the hearing impairment and thus differently distorted signals can affect the cognitive system in different ways. Consequently, the severity of a hearing loss may not only depend on the lesion itself but also on the cognitive recourses required to interpret the signal.

  • 19.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bodin, Lennart
    Division of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Genetic and environmental influences on the association between performance-based self-esteem and exhaustion: A study of the self-worth notion of burnout2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 419-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the self-worth model, burnout is considered to be a syndrome of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) and experiences of exhaustion. Studies have shown that PBSE and burnout indices such as Pines' Burnout Measure (BM) are associated. Whether these variables have overlapping etiologies has however not been studied before. Genetic and environmental components of covariation between PBSE and exhaustion measured with Pines' BM were examined in a bivariate Cholesky model using data from 14,875 monozygotic and dizygotic Swedish twins. Fifty-two per cent of the phenotypic correlation (r = 0.41) between PBSE and Pines' BM was explained by genetics and 48% by environmental factors. The findings of the present study strengthen the assumption that PBSE should be considered in the burnout process as proposed by the self-worth conception of burnout. The present results extend our understanding of the link between this contingent self-esteem construct and exhaustion and provide additional information about the underlying mechanisms in terms of genetics and environment. This finding corroborates the assumed syndrome view on burnout, while it also suggests an altered view of how the syndrome emerges and how it can be alleviated.

  • 20.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of adolescents: a prospective community study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 267-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a subgroup of socially anxious adults who are both anxious and impulsive. To date, however, this subgroup has not been identified in adolescence. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify this subgroup in a sample of adolescents. In addition, we hypothesized that this subgroup would be higher on problem behaviors, and that these processes would be moderated by gender. We used longitudinal data from 714 adolescents who were in the 7th and 8th grades at Time 1. They were followed annually for three years. Cluster analyses identified an anxious-inhibited subgroup as well as an anxious-impulsive subgroup in early adolescence (Time 1). The socially anxious-impulsive adolescent boys were generally higher on both intoxication frequency and delinquency compared with all other adolescents in all clusters at each time point. Findings suggest that social anxiety subgroups may differ on problem behavior, and that early detection of an anxious-impulsive subgroup may be important to prevent maladjustment, especially for adolescent boys.

  • 21.
    van Zalk, Nejra
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Shyness as a moderator of the link between advanced maturity and early adolescent risk behavior2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 341-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced maturity in early adolescence has previously been linked with several risk behaviors. In this study, we examine whether shyness and gender might moderate this link. The participants were 750 early adolescents (Mage = 13.73; 390 girls and 360 boys), followed for one year. We conducted analyses with shyness and gender as moderators of the links between advanced maturity and different types of risk behavior, and between one risk behavior and another. Despite differential patterns for boys and girls, the results suggest that being shy or not being shy modifies the links between advanced maturity and risk behavior primarily for boys. For boys, shyness reduces relationships between advanced maturity and risk behavior, whereas not being shy exacerbates the relationships between advanced maturity and high-risk behavior. Controlling for romantic involvement and peer victimization did not alter the moderating effects, thus failing to support the idea that the weaker links for shy youths were due to shy youths not being drawn into advanced peer groups by romantic partners or peers. Thus, shyness might serve as a buffer against risk behavior in early adolescence.

  • 22.
    Wass, Malin
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping and the Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Department of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Technical Audiology, Linköping University, Swede.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Otolaryngology/Section of Audiology, Linköping University Hospital, Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Cognitive and linguistic skills in Swedish children with cochlear implants - measures of accuracy and latency as indicators of development2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 559-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine working memory (WM) capacity, lexical access and phonological skills in 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) (5;7-13;4 years of age) attending grades 0-2, 4, 5 and 6 and to compare their performance with 56 children with normal hearing. Their performance was also studied in relation to demographic factors. The findings indicate that children with CI had visuospatial WM capacities equivalent to the comparison group. They had lower performance levels on most of the other cognitive tests. Significant differences between the groups were not found in all grades and a number of children with CI performed within 1 SD of the mean of their respective grade-matched comparison group on most of the cognitive measures. The differences between the groups were particularly prominent in tasks of phonological WM. The results are discussed with respect to the effects of cochlear implants on cognitive development.

  • 23. Wångby, Margit
    et al.
    Magnusson, David
    Stattin, Håkan
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Time trends in the adjustment of Swedish teenage girls: a 26-year comparison of 15-year olds2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate stability and change over 26 years in self-reported adjustment of Swedish teenage girls. Data were collected with the same questionnaire from two school-cohorts in a middle-sized Swedish community: 522 girls attending Grade 8 (approximately at age 15) in 1970, and 529 girls attending Grade 8 in 1996. The first cohort was part of the longitudinal research programme Individual Development and Adaptation (IDA). In most domains, adjustment problems were approximately as common in 1996 as in 1970, with two exceptions: more girls reported problems with self-esteem and antisocial problems in 1996. In the antisocial domain, a polarization process was indicated, with an increase also in the number of girls without adjustment problems. In the relational domains, especially peer relations, there was an increase in positive adjustment. The results are discussed in relation to earlier findings and to social changes during the period.

1 - 23 of 23
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