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  • 1.
    Boysen, Marianne E.
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Karl-Gustav
    Feed Laboratory, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Molecular identification of species from the Penicillium roqueforti group associated with spoiled animal feed2000In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 1523-1526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Penicillium roqueforti group has recently been split into three species, P, roqueforti, Penicillium carneum, and Penicillium paneum, on the basis of differences in ribosomal DNA sequences and secondary metabolite profiles. We reevaluated the taxonomic identity of 52 livestock feed isolates from Sweden, previously identified by morphology as P. roqueforti, by comparing the sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. Identities were confirmed with random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and secondary metabolite profiles. Of these isolates, 48 were P. roqueforti, 2 were P. paneum, and 2 were Penicillium expansum. No P. carneum isolates were found, The three species produce different mycotoxins, but no obvious relationship between mold and animal disease was detected, based on medical records, P. roqueforti appears to dominate in silage, but the ecological and toxicological importance of P. carneum and P. paneum as feed spoilage fungi is not clear. This is the first report of P. expansum in silage.

  • 2.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Karin
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ström, Katrin
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Metabolite profiles of lactic acid bacteria in grass silage2007In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 73, no 17, p. 5547-5552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metabolite production of lactic acid bacteria JAB) on silage was investigated. The aim was to compare the production of antifungal metabolites in silage with the production in liquid cultures previously studied in our laboratory. The following metabolites were found to be present at elevated concentrations in silos inoculated with LAB strains: 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid, benzoic acid, catechol, hydrocinnamic acid, salicylic acid, 3-phenyllactic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, (trans, trans)-3,4-dihydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, p-hydrocoumaric acid, vanillic acid, azelaic acid, hydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, hydrocaffeic acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. Among these metabolites, the antifungal compounds 3-phenyllactic acid and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid were previously isolated in our laboratory from liquid cultures of the same LAB strains by bioassay-guided fractionation. It was concluded that other metabolites, e.g., p-hydrocoumaric acid, hydroferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, were released from the grass by the added LAB strains. The antifungal activities of the identified metabolites in 100 mM lactic acid were investigated. The MICs against Pichia anomala, Penicillium roqueforti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were determined, and 3-hydroxydecanoic acid showed the lowest MIC (0.1 mg ml(-1) for two of the three test organisms).

  • 3.
    Börjesson, Thomas
    et al.
    The Swedish Institute for Food Research, Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stöllman, Ulla
    The Swedish Institute for Food Research, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Volatile Metabolites and Other Indicators of Penicillium aurantiogriseum Growth on Different Substrates1990In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 3705-3710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Penicillium aurantiogriseum Dierckx was cultivated on six agar substrates (barley meal agar, oat meal agar, wheat meal agar, malt extract agar, Czapek agar, and Norkrans agar) and on oat grain for 5 days in cultivation vessels provided with an inlet and an outlet for air. Volatile metabolites produced by the cultures were collected on a porous polymer adsorbent by passing an airstream through the vessel. Volatile metabolites were collected between days 2 and 5 after inoculation. CO2 production was simultaneously measured, and after the cultivation period ergosterol contents and the numbers of CFU of the cultures were determined. Alcohols of low molecular weight and sesquiterpenes were the dominant compounds found. During growth on oat grain the production of 8-carbon alcohols and 3-methyl-1-butanol was higher and the production of terpenes was lower than during growth on agar substrates. The compositions of the volatile metabolites from oat grain were more similar to those from wheat grain, which was used as a substrate in a previous investigation, than to those produced on any of the agar substrates. Regarding the agar substrates, the production of terpenes was most pronounced on the artificial substrates (Czapek agar and Norkrans agar) whereas alcohol production was highest on substrates based on cereals. The production of volatile metabolites was highly correlated with the production of CO2 and moderately correlated with ergosterol contents, whereas no correlation with the numbers of CFU was found. Thus, the volatile metabolites formed and the ergosterol contents of fungal cultures should be good indicators of present and past fungal activity.

  • 4.
    Börjesson, Thomas
    et al.
    SIK - The Swedish Institute for Food Research, Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stöllman, Ulla
    SIK - The Swedish Institute for Food Research, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Volatile Metabolites Produced by Six Fungal Species Compared with Other Indicators of Fungal Growth on Cereal Grains1992In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 2599-2605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six fungal species, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. glabrum, P. roqueforti, Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, and A. candidus, were inoculated on moistened and autoclaved wheat and oat grains. They were cultivated in glass vessels provided with an inlet and outlet for air. Air was passed through the vessels to collect volatile fungal metabolites on porous polymer adsorbents attached to the outlet. Samples were collected at two fungal growth stages. Adsorbed compounds were thermally desorbed, separated by gas chromatography, and identified by mass spectrometry. Differences in the production of volatile metabolites depended more on the fungal species than on the grain type. The fungal growth stage was not an important factor determining the composition of volatiles produced. 3-Methylfuran was produced in similar amounts regardless of the fungal species and substrate (oat versus wheat). The production of volatile metabolites was compared with the production of ergosterol and CO2 and the number of CFU. The production of volatile metabolites was more strongly correlated with accumulated CO2 production than with actual CO2 production and more strongly correlated with ergosterol contents of the grain than with numbers of CFU.

  • 5.
    Dinoto, Achmad
    et al.
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido .
    Marques, Tatiana M.
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido.
    Sakamoto, Kanta
    Creative Research Initiative Sousei (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Fukiya, Satoru
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido.
    Watanabe, Jun
    Creative Research Initiative Sousei (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Ito, Susumu
    Creative Research Initiative Sousei (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Yokota, Atsushi
    Laboratory of Microbial Physiology, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido.
    Population dynamics of Bifidobacterium species in human feces during raffinose administration monitored by fluorescence in situ hybridization-flow cytometry2006In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 72, no 12, p. 7739-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The population dynamics of bifidobacteria in human feces during raffinose administration were investigated at the species level by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with flow cytometry (FCM) analysis. Although double-staining FISH-FCM using both fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and indodicarbocyanine (Cy5) as labeling dyes for fecal samples has been reported, the analysis was interfered with by strong autofluorescence at the FITC fluorescence region because of the presence of autofluorescence particles/debris in the fecal samples. We circumvented this problem by using only Cy5 fluorescent dye in the FISH-FCM analysis. Thirteen subjects received 2 g of raffinose twice a day for 4 weeks. Fecal samples were collected, and the bifidobacterial populations were monitored using the established FISH-FCM method. The results showed an increase in bifidobacteria from about 12.5% of total bacteria in the prefeeding period to about 28.7 and 37.2% after the 2-week and 4-week feeding periods, respectively. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, the Bifidobacterium catenulatum group, and Bifidobacterium longum were the major species, in that order, at the prefeeding period, and these bacteria were found to increase nearly in parallel during the raffinose administration. During the feeding periods, indigenous bifidobacterial populations became more diverse, such that minor species in human adults, such as Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium dentium, and Bifidobacterium angulatum, proliferated. Four weeks after raffinose administration was stopped, the proportion of each major bifidobacterial species, as well as that of total bifidobacteria, returned to approximately the original values for the prefeeding period, whereas that of each minor species appeared to differ considerably from its original value. To the best of our knowledge, these results provide the first clear demonstration of the population dynamics of indigenous bifidobacteria at the species level in response to raffinose administration.

  • 6.
    Druvefors, Ulrika Ädel
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nutrient effects on biocontrol of Penicillium roqueforti by Pichia anomala J121 during airtight storage of wheat2005In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 1865-1869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala inhibits the growth of a variety of mold species. We examined the mechanism underlying the inhibition of the grain spoilage mold Penicillium roqueforti by the biocontrol yeast P. anomala J121 during airtight storage. The biocontrol effect in a model grain silo with moist wheat (water activity of 0.96) was enhanced when complex medium, maltose, or glucose was added. Supplementation with additional nitrogen or vitamin sources did not affect the biocontrol activity of the yeast. The addition of complex medium or glucose did not significantly influence the yeast cell numbers in the silos, whether in the presence or absence of P. roqueforti. Mold growth was not influenced by the addition of nutrients, if cultivated without yeast. The products of glucose metabolism, mainly ethanol and ethyl acetate, increased after glucose addition to P. anomala-inoculated treatments. Our results suggest that neither competition for nutrients nor production of a glucose-repressible cell wall lytic enzyme is the main mode of action of biocontrol by P. anomala in this grain system. Instead, the mold-inhibiting effect probably is due to the antifungal action of metabolites, most likely a combination of ethyl acetate and ethanol, derived from glycolysis. The discovery that sugar amendments enhance the biocontrol effect of P. anomala suggests novel ways of formulating biocontrol yeasts.

  • 7.
    Ericsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Stålhandske, Per
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Bannerman, Elisabeth
    Medical Bacteriology Laboratory, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bille, Jacques
    Medical Bacteriology Laboratory, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Jacquet, Christine
    Centre National de Référence des Listeria, World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Foodborne Listeriosis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Rocourt, Jocelyne
    Centre National de Référence des Listeria, World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Foodborne Listeriosis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Division of Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strains into two groups by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis1995In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 3872-3874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altogether, 133 strains of Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b were investigated, A segment of 2,916 bp containing parts of the two genes inlA and inlB in L. monocytogenes was amplified by the PCR technique. The PCR product obtained was cleaved with the restriction enzyme AluI, and the fragments generated were separated by gel electrophoresis, leading to two distinct groups: PCR-restriction enzyme analysis groups I and II, containing 37 and 96 strains, respectively, The PCR-restriction enzyme analysis method described in this paper could be a useful tool for the subtyping of L. monocytogenes serovar 4b strains.

  • 8.
    Fredlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Blank, Lars M.
    Institute of Biotechnology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sauer, Uwe
    Institute of Biotechnology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Oxygen- and glucose-dependent regulation of central carbon metabolism in Pichia anomala2004In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 5905-5911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the regulation of the central aerobic and hypoxic metabolism of the biocontrol and non-Saccharomyces wine yeast Pichia anomala. In aerobic batch culture, P. anomala grows in the respiratory mode with a high biomass yield (0.59 g [dry weight] of cells g of glucose(-1)) and marginal ethanol, glycerol, acetate, and ethyl acetate production. Oxygen limitation, but not glucose pulse, induced fermentation with substantial ethanol production and 10-fold-increased ethyl acetate production. Despite low or absent ethanol formation, the activities of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase were high during aerobic growth on glucose or succinate. No activation of these enzyme activities was observed after a glucose pulse. However, after the shift to oxygen limitation, both enzymes were activated threefold. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that the tricarboxylic acid pathway operates as a cycle during aerobic batch culture and as a two-branched pathway under oxygen limitation. Glucose catabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway was lower during oxygen limitation than under aerobic growth. Overall, our results demonstrate that P. anomala exhibits a Pasteur effect and not a Crabtree effect, i.e., oxygen availability, but not glucose concentration, is the main stimulus for the regulation of the central carbon metabolism.

  • 9.
    Gkarmiri, Konstantia
    et al.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mahmood, Shahid
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Alström, Sadhna
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Nils
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Finlay, Roger
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Identifying the Active Microbiome Associated with Roots and Rhizosphere Soil of Oilseed Rape2017In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 83, no 22, article id e01938-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA stable isotope probing and high-throughput sequencing were used to characterize the active microbiomes of bacteria and fungi colonizing the roots and rhizosphere soil of oilseed rape to identify taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following (13)CO2 labeling. Root- and rhizosphere soil-associated communities of both bacteria and fungi differed from each other, and there were highly significant differences between their DNA- and RNA-based community profiles. Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the most active bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soil. Bacteroidetes were more active in roots. The most abundant bacterial genera were well represented in both the (13)C- and (12)C-RNA fractions, while the fungal taxa were more differentiated. Streptomyces, Rhizobium, and Flavobacterium were dominant in roots, whereas Rhodoplanes and Sphingomonas (Kaistobacter) were dominant in rhizosphere soil. "Candidatus Nitrososphaera" was enriched in (13)C in rhizosphere soil. Olpidium and Dendryphion were abundant in the (12)C-RNA fraction of roots; Clonostachys was abundant in both roots and rhizosphere soil and heavily (13)C enriched. Cryptococcus was dominant in rhizosphere soil and less abundant, but was (13)C enriched in roots. The patterns of colonization and C acquisition revealed in this study assist in identifying microbial taxa that may be superior competitors for plant-derived carbon in the rhizosphere of Brassica napusIMPORTANCE This microbiome study characterizes the active bacteria and fungi colonizing the roots and rhizosphere soil of Brassica napus using high-throughput sequencing and RNA-stable isotope probing. It identifies taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following (13)CO2 labeling and compares these with other less active groups not incorporating a plant assimilate. Brassica napus is an economically and globally important oilseed crop, cultivated for edible oil, biofuel production, and phytoextraction of heavy metals; however, it is susceptible to several diseases. The identification of the fungal and bacterial species successfully competing for plant-derived carbon, enabling them to colonize the roots and rhizosphere soil of this plant, should enable the identification of microorganisms that can be evaluated in more detailed functional studies and ultimately be used to improve plant health and productivity in sustainable agriculture.

  • 10.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. Coryniformis strain Si3 produces a broad-spectrum proteinaceous antifungal compound2001In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antifungal activity spectrum of Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. coryniformis strain Si3 was investigated. The strain had strong inhibitory activity in dual-culture agar plate assays against the molds Aspergillus fumigatus, A. nidulans, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor hiemalis, Talaromyces flavus, Fusarium poae, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. sporotrichoides, A weaker activity was observed against the yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporobolomyces roseus, and Pichia anomala mere not inhibited, In liquid culture the antifungal activity paralleled growth, with maximum mold inhibition early in the stationary growth phase, but with a rapid decline in antifungal activity after 48 h, The addition of ethanol to the growth medium prevented the decline and gave an increased antifungal activity. The activity was stable during heat treatment and was retained even after autoclaving at 121 degreesC for 15 min. Maximum activity was observed at pH values of between 3.0 and 4.5, but it decreased rapidly when pH was adjusted to a level between 4.5 and 6.0 and was lost at higher pH values. The antifungal activity was fully regained after readjustment of the pH to the initial value (pH 3.6). The activity was irreversibly lost after treatment with proteolytic enzymes (proteinase K, trypsin, and pepsin). The antifungal activity was partially purified using ion-exchange chromatography and (NH,),SO, precipitation, followed by gel filtration chromatography. The active compound(s) was estimated to have a molecular mass of approximately 3 kDa. This is the first report of the production of a proteinaceous antifungal compound(s) from L. coryniformis subsp, coryniformis.

  • 11.
    Olstorpe, Matilda
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lyberg, Karin
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Jan Erik
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Population diversity of Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria in pig feed fermented with whey, wet wheat distillers' grains, or water at different temperatures2008In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 1696-1703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity of populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pig feeds fermented at 10, 15, or 20 degrees C was characterized by rRNA gene sequencing of isolates. The feeds consisted of a cereal grain mix blended with wet wheat distillers' grains (WWDG feed), whey (W feed), or tap water (WAT feed). Fermentation proceeded for 5 days without disturbance, followed by 14 days of daily simulated feed outtakes, in which 80% of the contents were replaced with fresh feed mixtures. In WWDG feed, Pichia galeiformis became the dominant yeast species, independent of the fermentation temperature and feed change. The LAB population was dominated by Pediococcus pentosaceus at the start of the fermentation period. After 3 days, the Lactobacillus plantarum population started to increase in feeds at all temperatures. The diversity of LAB increased after the addition of fresh feed components. In W feed, Kluyveromyces marxianus dominated, but after the feed change, the population diversity increased. With increasing fermentation temperatures, there was a shift toward Pichia membranifaciens as the dominant species. L. plantarum was the most prevalent LAB in W feed. The WAT feed had a diverse microbial flora, and the yeast population changed throughout the whole fermentation period. Pichia anomala was the most prevalent yeast species, with increasing occurrence at higher fermentation temperatures. Pediococcus pentosaceus was the most prevalent LAB, but after the feed change, L. plantarum started to proliferate. The present study demonstrates that the species composition in fermented pig feed may vary considerably, even if viable cell counts indicate stable microbial populations.

  • 12.
    Olstorpe, Matilda
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Growth Inhibition of Various Enterobacteriaceae Species by the Yeast Hansenula anomala during Storage of Moist Cereal Grain2012In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 292-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eleven of 13 Enterobacteriaceae species tested grew in moist stored wheat, highlighting a potential risk of this energy-saving airtight storage method. When Hansenula anomala was coinoculated, all Enterobacteriaceae species were significantly inhibited after 2 months of storage, six of them to below the detection limit.

  • 13.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Johanna
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini form a stable ethanol-producing consortium in a commercial alcohol production process2007In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 73, no 13, p. 4354-4356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethanol production process of a Swedish alcohol production plant was dominated by Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini, with a high number of lactic acid bacteria. The product quality, process productivity, and stability were high; thus, D. bruxellensis and L. vini can be regarded as commercial ethanol production organisms.

  • 14.
    Petersson, S.
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Biocontrol of Mold Growth in High-Moisture Wheat Stored under Airtight Conditions by Pichia anomala, Pichia guilliermondii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (VOL 61, PG 1029, 1995)1995In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 1677-1677Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Petersson, Stina
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Biocontrol of Mold Growth in High-Moisture Wheat Stored under Airtight Conditions by Pichia anomala, Pichia guilliermondii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae1995In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 1027-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pichia anomala inhibits the growth of Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus candidus on agar. In this investigation, antagonistic activity on agar against 17 mold species was determined. The abilities of Pichia anomala, Pichia guilliermondii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibit the growth of the mold Penicillium roqueforti in nonsterile high-moisture wheat were compared by adding 10(3) Penicillium roqueforti spores and different amounts of yeast cells per gram of wheat. Inoculated grain was packed in glass tubes, incubated at 25 degrees C with a restricted air supply, and the numbers of yeast and mold CFU were determined on selective media after 7 and 14 days. Pichia anomala reduced growth on agar plates for ail of the mold species tested in a dose-dependent manner. Aspergillus fumigatus and Eurotium amstelodami were the most sensitive, while Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum were the most resistant. Pichia anomala had the strongest antagonistic activity in wheat, with 10(5) and 10(6) CFU/g completely inhibiting the growth of Penicillium roqueforti. Inhibition was least pronounced at the optimum temperature (21 degrees C) and water activity (0.95) for the growth of Penicillium roqueforti. Pichia guilliermondii slightly reduced the growth of Penicillium roqueforti in wheat inoculated with 10(5) and 10(6) yeast CFU/g, S. cerevisiae inhibited mold growth only weakly at the highest inoculum level. Pichia anomala grew from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/g of wheat in 1 week To reach the same level, Pichia guilliermondii had to be inoculated at 10(4) CFU while S. cerevisiae required an inoculum of 10(5) CFU to reach 10(7) CFU/g of wheat.

  • 16.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparison of methods for estimating the biomass of three food-borne fungi with different growth patterns1993In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 552-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the effectiveness of steps taken to reduce the growth of molds in food and feed, methods that can accurately quantify the degree of fungal contamination of solid substrates are needed. In this study, the ergosterol assay has been evaluated by comparing the results of this assay with spore counts and hyphal length measurements made with a microscope and with CFU counts. Three fungi with different growth patterns during cultivation on a synthetic agar substrate were used in these experiments. For the nonsporulating Fusarium culmorum, there was good agreement between changes in hyphal length, CFU, and ergosterol content. Penicillium rugulosum and Rhizopus stolonifer produced many spores, and the production of spores coincided with large increases in CFU but not with increases in hyphal length or ergosterol content. Spores constituted between 3 and 5% of the total fungal mass. Changes in ergosterol level were closely related to changes in hyphal length. It was concluded that ergosterol level is a suitable marker for use in quantitatively monitoring fungal growth in solid substrates.

  • 17.
    Schnürer, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rosswall, Thomas
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis as a measure of total microbial activity in soil and litter1982In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1256-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectrophotometric determination of the hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was shown to be a simple, sensitive, and rapid method for determining microbial activity in soil and litter. FDA hydrolysis was studied in soil and straw incubated for up to 3h. Hydrolysis was found to increase linearly with soil addition. FDA hydrolysis by pure cultures of Fusarium culmorum increased linearly with mycelium addition both in shake cultures and after inoculation into sterile soil. FDA hydrolys is by Pseudomonas denitrificans increased linearly with biomass addition. The FDA hydrolytic activities in soil samples from different layers of an agricultural soil were correlated with respiration. Acetone was found to be suitable for terminating the reaction.

  • 18.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Broberg, Anders
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kenne, Lennart
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Antifungal 3-hydroxy fatty acids from Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 142003In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 69, no 12, p. 7554-7557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the identification and chemical characterization of four antifungall substances, 3-(R)-hydroxydecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-cis-dodecenoic acid, 3-(R)-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-(R)-hydroxytetradecanoic acid, from Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 14. The concentrations of the 3-hydroxy fatty acids in the supernatant followed the bacterial growth. Racemic mixtures of the saturated 3-hydroxy fatty acids showed antifungal activity against different molds and yeasts with MICs between 10 and 100 mug ml(-1).

  • 19.
    Ström, Katrin
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Broberg, Anders
    Department of Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 393 produces the antifungal cyclic dipeptides cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) and cyclo(L-Phe-trans-4-OH-L-Pro) and 3-phenyllactic acid2002In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 4322-4327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have isolated a Lactobacillus plantarum strain (MiLAB 393) from grass silage that produces broad-spectrum antifungal compounds, active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a dual-culture agar plate assay. Fusarium sporotrichioides and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive among the molds, and Kluyveromyces marxianus was the most sensitive yeast species. No inhibitory activity could be detected against the mold Penicillium roqueforti or the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailiff. An isolation procedure, employing a microtiter well spore germination bioassay, was devised to isolate active compounds from culture filtrate. Cell-free supernatant was fractionated on a C-18 SPE column, and the 95% aqueous acetonitrile fraction was further separated on a preparative HPLC C-18 column. Fractions active in the bioassay were then fractionated on a porous graphitic carbon column. The structures of the antifungal compounds cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro), cyclo(L-Phe-trans-4-OH-L-Pro) and 3-phenyllactic acid (L/D isomer ratio, 9:1), were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography. MIC values against A. fumigatus and P. roqueforti were 20 mg ml(-1) for cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) and 7.5 mg ml(-1) for phenyllactic acid. Combinations of the antifungal compounds revealed weak synergistic effects. The production of the antifungal cyclic dipeptides cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) and cyclo(L-Phe-traps-4-OH-L-Pro) by lactic acid bacteria is reported here for the first time.

  • 20.
    Thisted Lambertz, Susanne
    et al.
    Research and Development Department, National Food Administration, Uppsala; .
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Identification and characterization of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica isolates by PCR and pulse-field get electrophoresis2005In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 71, no 7, p. 3674-3681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 550 to 600 yersiniosis patients are reported annually in Sweden. Although pigs are thought to be the main reservoir of food-borne pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, the role of pork meat as a vehicle for transmission to humans is still unclear. Pork meat collected from refrigerators and local shops frequented by yersiniosis patients (n = 48) were examined for the presence of pathogenic Yersinia spp. A combined culture and PCR method was used for detection, and a multiplex PCR was developed and evaluated as a tool for efficient identification of pathogenic food and patient isolates. The results obtained with the multiplex PCR were compared to phenotypic test results and confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In all, 118 pork products (91 raw and 27 ready-to-eat) were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia spp. were detected by PCR in 10% (9 of 91) of the raw pork samples (loin of pork, fillet of pork, pork chop, ham, and minced meat) but in none of the ready-to-eat products. Isolates of Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 were recovered from six of the PCR-positive raw pork samples; all harbored the virulence plasmid. All isolates were recovered from food collected in shops and, thus, none were from the patients' home. When subjected to PFGE, the six isolates displayed four different NotI profiles. The same four NotI profiles were also present among isolates recovered from the yersiniosis patients. The application of a multiplex PCR was shown to be an efficient tool for identification of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates in naturally contaminated raw pork.

  • 21.
    Unnerstad, Helle
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Ericsson, Henrik
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Alderborn, Allan
    Prosequencing AB, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Mattsson, Jens G.
    Department of Parasitology (SWEPAR), National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pyrosequencing as a method for grouping of Listeria monocytogenes strains on the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the inlB gene2001In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 5339-5342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using pyrosequencing (i.e., sequencing by synthesis) 106 strains of different serovars of Listeria monocytogenes were rapidly grouped into four categories based on nucleotide variations at positions 1575 and 1578 of the inlB gene. Strains of serovars 1/2a and 1/2c constituted one group, and strains of serovars 1/2b and 3b constituted another group, whereas serovar 4b strains were separated into two groups.

  • 22.
    Unnerstad, Helle
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sweden University of Agricultural Sciences, (SLU), Uppsala.
    Nilsson, Inger
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sweden University of Agricultural Sciences, (SLU), Uppsala.
    Ericsson, Henrik
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sweden University of Agricultural Sciences(SLU), Uppsala.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sweden University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala.
    Bille, Jacques
    Medical Bacteriology, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bannerman, Elizabeth
    Medical Bacteriology, University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sweden University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala.
    Division of Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a strains into two groups by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis1999In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 2054-2056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altogether, 100 strains of Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a isolated from humans, animals, food, and the environment were typed by a combination of PCR and restriction enzyme analysis (REA). A PCR product of 2,916 bp, containing the downstream end of the gene inlA (955 bp), the space between inlA and inlB (85 bp), and 1,876 bp of the gene inlB, was cleaved with the enzyme AluI, and the fragments generated were separated by gel electrophoresis. By this method two different cleavage patterns were obtained. Seventy of the 100 strains shared one restriction profile, and the remaining 30 strains shared the second one. No relation was found between the types differentiated by PCR-REA and the origins of the strains.

  • 23.
    Waak, Elisabet
    et al.
    Arla Foods Innovation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prevalence and fingerprinting of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from raw whole milk in farm bulk tanks and in dairy plant receiving tanks2002In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 3366-3370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of Listeria species in raw whole milk from farm bulk tanks and from raw milk in storage at a Swedish dairy plant was studied. Listeria monocytogenes was found in 1.0% and Listeria innocua was found in 2.3% of the 294 farm bulk tank (farm tank) milk specimens. One farm tank specimen contained 60 CFU of L. monocytogenes ml-1. L. monocytogenes was detected in 19.6% and L. innocua was detected in 8.5% of the milk specimens from the silo receiving tanks at the dairy (dairy silos). More dairy silo specimens were positive for both Listeria species during winter than during summer. Restriction enzyme analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were applied to 65 isolates of L. monocytogenes, resulting in 16 different clonal types. Two clonal types were shared by the farm tank milk and the dairy silo milk. All except one clonal type belonged to serovar 1/2a. In the dairy silo milk five clonal types were found more frequently and for a longer period than the others. No Listeria species were found in any other samples from the plant.

1 - 23 of 23
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