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  • 1.
    Sartz, Lotta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Treatment of Acidic and Neutral Metal-Laden Mine Waters with Bone Meal Filters2013In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone meal was used to treat two different mine waters: acidic (pH 4.5) mine water containing high concentrations of Fe and Al and neutral/slightly alkaline (pH 7) mine water. Original primary contaminants in both waters were Pb and Zn. The contaminants were dissolved in the acidic mine water and mostly suspended in the neutral mine water. Flow through the filter treating the acidic mine water was relatively low (0.1 L/min), but increased towards the end of the test period. Removal of Pb and Cu was very good in the acidic mine water (around 80 %); removal of Zn was slightly less (60 %) due to the final pH (approximate to 6-6.5). Flow through the filter treating the neutral mine water was initially significantly higher (5 L/min) and the removal of Pb and Zn was less compared to the acidic mine water (50 % for Pb and 35 % for Zn). The major reason for the difference in metal removal in the two mine waters was the difference in Fe and Al sorption sites, flow rate, and pH; in order for the bone meal to dissolve and form metal phosphate, the pH has to be <7.

  • 2.
    Sartz, Lotta
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Bergskraft Bergslagen AB, Kopparberg, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mixing of acid rock drainage with alkaline leachates: Formation of solid precipitates and pH-buffering2016In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three metal-rich, acidic mine waters (from Bersbo and Ljusnarsberg, Sweden) were mixed with alkaline fly ash leachates in various proportions, representing a pH titration. Changes in pH and the loss of metals in solution due to precipitation of solid phases were tracked. Mineral equilibria and changes in pH and alkalinity were simulated using the geochemical code PHREEQC and the MINTEQv4 database, and the measured and simulated pH responses were compared. The formation of solid precipitates corresponded to fairly well-defined pH-buffering regions, reflecting the mine water compositions (notably the levels of Fe, Al, and Mn). Zn precipitation had a distinct buffering effect at near-neutral pH for the mine waters not dominated by iron. The formation of solid Mg phases (carbonate, as well as hydroxide) was indicated at high pH (above 9), but not formation of solid Ca phases, despite high sulfate levels. The phases that precipitated were various amorphous mixtures, mostly of the metals Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, and Mg. For the Fe-rich mine water, pH was poorly simulated with a simple MIX model, while alkalinity predictions agreed reasonably well with measured data. For the Al-rich mine waters, the simulated pH responses agreed well with the measurements. In an additional step, geochemical simulations were performed where selected proxy phases for major elements were forced to precipitate; this significantly improved the pH and alkalinity predictions. This approach may be more efficient than performing mixing experiments and titrations.

  • 3.
    Åhlgren, Kristina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Grawunder, Anja
    Institute of Geoscience, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.
    Allard, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Remedy by Sweden AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Chemistry of Acidic and Neutralized Alum Shale Pit Lakes 50 Years After Mine Closure, Kvarntorp, Sweden2020In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several large pits were left after alum shale was mined from 1942 to 1966 in the Kvarntorp area of Sweden. Of these, the pit lakes Polen and Norrtorpssjon are the focus of this study. They have elevated levels of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, Mn, Fe, and sulphate, as well as trace elements, from weathering of the exposed shale. Both lakes had a stable pH below 4 until 1996 when the pH in Norrtorpssjon started to increase, exceeding 8 in 2010, due to inflow of leachates from alkaline waste dumped in an adjacent waste deposit, similar to a large scale anoxic limestone drain (ALD). Iron and Al concentrations decreased as the pH increased, indicating formation of particulate species which accumulate as sediments. The Co, Ni, and Zn concentrations also decreased, probably due to association with the solid phases, while Cu was less affected by the increase in pH, possibly due to formation of complexes with dissolved organic matter. Vanadium concentrations show limited solubility, while Mo concentrations increased at higher pH. Uranium concentrations decreased from above 80 mu g/L to below 10 mu g/L before rising to 30-35 mu g/L due to the formation of soluble carbonate complexes at higher pH levels. The elevated levels of Li, Sr, and U indicate that weathering has continued despite the pH change. Both pit lakes are stratified, but no seasonal overturn has been observed. Long-term behaviour of this large-scale ALD and its implications are also discussed.

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