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  • 1.
    Aaboen, Lise
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Laage-Hellman, Jens
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lind, Frida
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Shih, Tommy
    Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Exploring the roles of university spin-offs in business networks2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 59, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies different university spin-off (USO) roles related to resource interaction among business parties. It does so by mapping how USOs become part of business networks in terms of their roles relative to other parties. The theoretical frame of reference focuses on roles and resource interaction based on an industrial network approach to business markets. The empirical research is based onfive cases of USOs representing a variety in terms of technology, degree of newness, sector, and area of application. As a result of the analysis, three different roles are identified: the USO as resource mediator, resource re-combiner and resource renewer. These roles reflect how USOs adapt resources to, or require changes among, business parties' resources. The paper also discusses the main resource interfaces associated with the three roles and related challenges. The paper contributes to previous research through illustrating USOs' roles relative to business parties from a resource interaction point of view, and by pointing to the establishment of new companies in business networks as a way of implementing innovation. Finally, the paper discusses the managerial implications of the research in terms of the USO's need to understand which role to take and how to develop it.

  • 2.
    Bessant, John
    et al.
    Centre for Innovation and Service Research, University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Centre for Innovation and Service Research, United Kingdom and Department of Business Administration, University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, UK.
    Trifilova, Anna
    Centre for Innovation and Service Research, University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom; Faculty of Economics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Framing problems in radical innovation2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 8, p. 1284-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of managing radical innovation is partly about dealing with higher levels of uncertainty as organisations seek to extend their exploration into new technological and market spaces. Innovation management routines for dealing with this differ from those around incremental innovation — the well-established exploit/explore dilemma. But it can be argued that there is a second challenge associated with radical innovation under conditions of discontinuity — when new elements in the environment need to be brought into the organisation's frame for search, selection and implementation. Under these conditions existing routines fail and otherwise successful incumbents experience significant difficulties. This paper explores the challenge of such radical innovation through the lens of the ways in which innovation activity is framed and contributes to the theme of this Special Issue through discussing barriers and enabling routines associated with the search, selection, and implementation processes within organisations.

  • 3. Folgesvold, Atle
    et al.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Department of Innovation and Economic Organization, BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norwa.
    Magic pelagic - An agent-based simulation of 20 years of emergent value accumulation in the North Atlantic herring exchange system2009In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 529-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirically-based simulation of an industrial network modeled as an exchange system. It uses a multi-agent simulation model to test for how variations in uncertainty of the input resource and how the changing demand patterns affect the accumulation and distribution of exchange values in the system as a whole. The empirical material is a case study of an industrial network connecting herring supply with demand. This particular network comprises two separate but related sub-networks, identifiable based on the origin of the herring as coming from either Norwegian or Icelandic catchers. While both target the same potential customers in terms of wholesalers and retailers and ultimately European and Asian consumers, they are distinct in their internal organizing aspects. The results indicate that certain types of internal organizing are more adaptive to changes in conditions and are better suited to absorb these changes. The paper contributes to both a theory and method emphasizing the modeling of emergent nonlinear patterns of networks. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Harrison, D.
    et al.
    Department of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    Hoholm, T.
    Department of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. INTERORG.
    Olsen, P. I.
    Department of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norway.
    Boundary objects in network interactions2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 74, p. 187-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of boundary objects in interaction processes within business networks. From a single case study in the grocery retail industry, we find that such objects are used within interaction processes for collaboration, but are also used extensively for handling conflict, facilitating economic negotiations, and power execution. As such, network-level boundary objects do not require broad consensus by all the involved actors, but instead narrow consensus in a particular interaction process.

  • 5.
    Harrison, Debbie
    et al.
    Norwegian School of Management BI, Oslo, Norway.
    Prenkert, Frans
    Norwegian School of Management BI, Oslo, Norway.
    Network strategising trajectories within a planned strategy process2009In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 662-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how the effects of network connections are considered when strategists conduct a planned strategy process. The single case study underpinning the paper is based on qualitative data collected between June and December 2007, which relates to a seven-month strategising process conducted within a project group. The strategising activity was to consider how to develop the company's position by selecting one of several strategic options. The IMP Actors-Resources-Activities (ARA) model is used as a too] to analyse how the effects of network connections are considered within the process. The result is three overlapping network strategising trajectories' (actor, resource and activity). The dynamics of the trajectories is discussed using a matrix which illustrates how network effects are considered in terms of direct/indirect and isolated/relating. In sum, the paper contributes to the ongoing debates within IMP about strategy by bringing a dynamic process dimension to the study of network strategising. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Tobias
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    On the promise and premises of a Darwinian theory in research on business relationships2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 306-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ‘Darwinism’ and generalizations of Darwin's idea outside the domain of its traditional biological application are advancing. In the field of industrial marketing, this has appeared mostly in the form of an interest in using biological analogies or isolated parts of a fuller Darwinian theory when theorizing about business relationships. In this article, we combine the general advancements of Darwinism in social science with the recent Darwinian-inspired theorizing on business relationships. The article reviews business relationship studies within marketing that explicitly uses Darwinism and results in the identification of six gaps and directions for future research. The most significant implication of the review is that investigations into the evolution of business relationships should account not only for the mechanism of selection but also for the mechanisms of variation and retention, in order to take proper account of the Darwinian explanatory paradigm. By suggesting ‘generalized Darwinism’ as an overriding framework, we argue that it is time to go from merely flirting with some Darwinian ideas to explicitly exploring the promise of using the Darwinianexplanans in research on business relationships. We put forward suggestions on how central Darwinian mechanisms could be warranted and conceptualized in a theory explaining the evolution of business relationships.

  • 7.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Per
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Unraveling firm-level activities for shaping markets2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the marketing literature increasingly construes markets as malleable entities, research studies of ‘market-shaping’ strategies have gained increasing attention in recent years. Those are proactive, deliberate initiatives which a firm takes with the aim of re-shaping an operating environment comprising direct customers, customers' customers, and other actors such as its competitors. Our study derives a theoretical framework for market-shaping from the existing literature and an in-depth case study of one market-leading firm in the steel industry, which has been working actively in the shaping of a market. Analysis of the responses of a range of experienced executive staff to unstructured and semi-structured interviews shows, among other things, that in order to shape the market, the firm performed many individual and aggregated activities at three levels of influence – system, market offer and technology – with various actors in the market in focus. These findings are the basis of a proposed activity framework for the proactive shaping of a market: that is, what firms can do in order to shape an existing market, drive growth and create sustainable competitive advantage.

  • 8.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAWAG, Switzerland, Business Innovation, Environmental Social Science Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    What service transition?: Rethinking established assumptions about manufacturers’ service-led growth strategies2015In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 45, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both academics and practitioners emphasize the importance for product firms of implementing service-led growth strategies. The service transition concept is well established, namely a unidirectional repositioning along a product-service continuum—from basic, product-oriented services towards more customized, process-oriented ones—ultimately leading to the provision of solutions. We challenge this service transition assumption and develop alternative ones regarding how product firms should pursue service-led growth. Using ‘problematization methodology’, and drawing on findings from thirteen system suppliers, we identify three service-led growth trajectories: (1) becoming an availability provider, which is the focus of most transition literature; (2) becoming a performance provider, which resembles project-based sales and implies an even greater differentiation of what customers are offered; and, (3) becoming an ‘industrializer’, which is about standardizing previously customized solutions to promote repeatability and scalability. Based on our critical inquiry, we develop two alternative assumptions: (a) firms need to constantly balance business expansion and standardization activities; and (b) manage the co-existence of different system supplier roles. Finally, we consider the implications for implementing service-led growth strategies of the alternative assumptions.

  • 9.
    Storbacka, Kaj
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    Department of Marketing, University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Nenonen, Suvi
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland; Graduate School of Management, University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zeeland.
    Salonen, Anna
    Department of Information and Service Economy, Aalto University School of Business, Aalto, Finland.
    Solution business models: transformation along four continua2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 705-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a business model perspective, we identify four continua that are of specific relevance for industrial firms transforming toward solution business models: customer embeddedness, offering integratedness, operational adaptiveness, and organizational networkedness. Using these continua, we explore the opportunities and challenges related to solution business model development in two different business logics that are of particular importance in an industrial context: 'installed-base' (IB) and 'input-to-process' (I2P). The paper draws on eight independent research projects, spanning an eleven-year period, involving a total of 52 multinational enterprises. The findings show that the nature and importance of the continua differ between the I2P and IB business logics. IB firms can almost naturally transition toward solutions, usually through increasing customer embeddedness and offering integratedness, and then by addressing issues around the other continua. For I2P firms, the changes needed are less transitional. Rather, they have to completely change their mental models and address the development needs on all continua simultaneously.

  • 10.
    Öberg, Christina
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Centre for Innovation and Service Research, University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Competence integration in creative processes2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on creativity focuses extensively on it as a personal skill or discusses how an organization can contribute to a creative environment for its staff. Rather than referring to the organization as the environment, this paper concerns interorganizational and intraorganizational interaction between different creative individuals who together shape the creative process and output. Specifically, the paper focuses on the integration of new competences into present structures, thereby emphasizing competences in use in creative processes. Two case studies from the advertising sector illustrate the integration of competences obtained through interorganizational interaction and the hiring/development of staff. The paper concludes that the integration of new competence is path dependent. As a new competence is added, the creative process becomes increasingly complex and marked by representation rather than participation in creative processes. An overlap between competences is necessary if they are to add to the output. This paper contributes to research on creativity at interorganizational and intraorganizational levels through exploring differences between competences per se and competences in use in regard to the integration of competence in creative processes. It also contributes to research on advertising through its depiction of competence integration among advertising agencies.

  • 11.
    Öberg, Christina
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    What happened with the grandiose plans?: Strategic plans and network realities in B2B interaction2010In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 39, p. 963-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research concerned with business relationships and organizational levels, respectively, has addressed companies' difficulties in realizing their strategies. Studies of business relationships explain this through actions and reactions among business partners. Organizational studies note gaps between strategic and operational organizational levels in perceptions and goals. This paper combines these perspectives to obtain new insights into why company strategies may not materialize. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss how actor bonds on various organizational levels in business relationships affect strategy realization. The paper shows that actors on similar organizational levels representing different companies may actually share more understandings and activities than actors within the same company. The paper contributes to research on dyadic business relationships by highlighting differences in perspectives on various organizational levels, adds insights into research studying organizations by including a business-relationship aspect, and increases understanding of why strategic plans sometimes fail to succeed.

  • 12.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Lancaster University, Management School, UK.
    Changing network pictures: evidence from mergers and acquisitions2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 926-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A merger or acquisition may cause dramatic changes in a business network, which in turn affect managerial cognition as well as managerial activities. We use the concepts of ‘network pictures’ and ‘networking’ to illustrate and analyse changes in managerial sense-making and networking activities following a merger or acquisition. The paper focuses on acquiring, acquired or merging parties and those companies with which they have direct customer relationships. Based on three case studies comprising seven acquisitions and one merger, we show that following a merger or acquisition managers may need to adapt their previous network pictures in a radical way; these adaptations are, however, not always realized as shifts in network pictures and adjustments in networking activities by all the managers involved. Whereas the merging parties' network pictures and networking activities are largely driven by their perception of customers' needs and developments, it is not certain that the merger or acquisition is enacted accordingly. The paper contributes to a clearer view on the conceptual interdependence of the constructs of network pictures and networking in multi-actor situations and thus it develops a network perspective on mergers and acquisitions.

  • 13.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Manchester IMP Research Group, Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Mouzas, Stefanos
    Management School, Lancaster University, UK.
    Organizational inscriptions of network pictures: A meso-level analysis2012In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1270-1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with organizational inscriptions of managerial cognitions elaborating on the emerging concept of network pictures. While previous studies on network pictures have concentrated on individual managers' cognitive views of business networks, this study operates on a focal company level (meso-level) and is concerned with how managerial cognitions are manifested in organizational artifacts, which in turn guide business activities. The paper presents a typological model of traces of such inscriptions, which, thereby, becomes a means to capture managers' interactive sense-making of a company's network. We identify organizational inscriptions of managerial cognitions in the areas of strategy, organization, systems, processes, and budgets. Using a comparative-static case study involving mergers and acquisitions of a focal company over time, we exemplify the different organizational inscriptions.

  • 14.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Shih, Tommy Tsung-Ying
    Department of Business Administration, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Chou, Hsin-Hui
    Department of Business Administration, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Network strategies and effects in an interactive context2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 52, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper adoptsthe industrial marketing approach to investigate how companies strategize in networks, and to link network strategies to different effects. Based on a case study from the optical recording media industry, the paper finds five types of strategies: complementary, shared, copying, company-rooted, and challenging. Effects indicate how the focal company's strategies triggered reactions of various magnitudes and characteristics. Specifically, effects diverge from intentions among parties not considered in the strategy, and increasingly so the more confronting the strategy is. This implies that the kind of strategy matters for the effects. This paper contributes to the growing interest for strategizing in business networks through introducing a typology of network strategies and effects.

  • 15.
    Öberg, Christina
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Exeter Business School, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Tsung-Ying Shih, Tommy
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Divergent and convergent logic of firms: Barriers and enablers for development and commercialization of innovations2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 419-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and discusses similarities and differences in the priorities, interests, and interactional goals of companies involved in the development and commercialization of innovation. We refer to such priorities, interests, and interactional goals as the logic of firms, and point to how differences among companies in these regards may enable or inhibit the development and commercialization of innovation. A case study in drug development, from a Taiwanese biopharmaceutical, illustrates two types of innovations: generic and novel drug development. Findings suggest how logic places focus on how certain actors may be more motivated toward innovation, but also on how the logic portrayed by actors can promote certain types of innovations (in this case generic ones), while inhibiting others (novel innovations). The paper concludes that companies need to have convergent logic (i.e. have the same priorities and similar or complementary interests and interaction goals) if an innovation process is to be successful. The focus on priorities, interests, and interactional goals of companies in innovation processes complements previous research that has primarily focused on the actual interaction, not what motivates it. The construct of shared logic nets as a means of analyzing convergent logic and gaps between different types of logic help to understand enablers and barriers to innovation.

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