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  • 1.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. Ratio, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Female Top Management in Family Firms and Non-family Firms: Evidence from Total Population Data2018In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, no 3, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit information on ownership, management and kinship to study the representation of women in top management teams in Swedish family and non-family firms among domiciled limited liability firms over the years 2004 to 2010. The share of female top managers is analysed across listed and non-listed firms as well as across industries. We then estimate the likelihood that a woman is elected into the top management team in family and non-family firms using a probit regression model where we control for firm- and individual-level characteristics, including the gender distribution of the firm and kinship relations to existing board members and firm owners. We find that non-listed family firms are more likely to appoint female top managers, whereas we find no differences among listed firms. Moreover, we find that the gender composition and kinship structures of firms influence the appointment of female top managers.

  • 2.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using self–employment as proxy for entrepreneurship: some empirical caveats2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 290-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self–employment is the most frequently used measure of entrepreneurship. However, its definition varies between countries, which makes comparisons difficult. We present an analysis of Swedish self–employment data and show that even within one country, the depicted development differs greatly depending on the source used. Unlike previous claims in cross–country studies, we find that there is no basis for categorising Sweden as having increased its self–employment rate more than others. This demonstrates a need to carefully specify the characteristics of the data, and their advantages and disadvantages, before drawing conclusions about the frequency of entrepreneurship in different countries.

  • 3. Hills, Gerald E.
    et al.
    Hansen, Davíd J.
    Hultman, Claes M.
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    A value creation view of opportunity recognition processes2005In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 404-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunity recognition is an important part of value creation processes and vice-versa.  A qualitative study, involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews of 59 firm-owners/founders in the U.S. and Sweden was conducted to better understand how entrepreneurs and SME owners engage in opportunity recognition and marketing practices. The findings revealed evidence of: planning to be opportunistic, a propensity to take action, opportunities perceived incrementally over years, instantaneous opportunity evaluation, first customer testing rather than formal market research, both Kirznerian alertness and Schumpeterian new combinations, job dissatisfaction and industry experience preceding opportunity recognition, support for the Bhave model, variations in the level of search, entrepreneurs taking “ownership” of ideas that were not originally theirs, use of supply and demand in recognizing opportunities and contingent opportunity recognition.

  • 4.
    Kremel, Anna
    et al.
    Society and Engineering, School of Business, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Department of Business, Economics and Law, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Department of Tourism Studies and Geography, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Business networks at start-up: Swedish native-owned and immigrant-owned companies2014In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 307-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the differences between native Swedish and immigrant entrepreneurs’ business networks at start-up  stage. The study is based on a database consisting of 261 immigrant- and  2,463 native-owned companies, applying several univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Immigrant entrepreneurs’ business networks are less likely to include mainstream contacts at the start-up stage than native born entrepreneurs. Thus, ethnicity is an important variable explaining differences in such networks at the start-up stage. A combination of both mainstream and immigrant networks has the potential to give rise to more growth for immigrant-owned businesses. As a result, these businesses may have potential to create new jobs for unemployed immigrants. This study provides a deeper understanding of how ethnicity may influence the entrepreneurs’ use of business networks. It may lead to policy makers considering access to mainstreaming networks as an important issue in the social and economic integration.

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