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  • 1.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elert, Niklas
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The economic contribution of high-growth firms: do policy implications depend on the choice of growth indicator?2014In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 337-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies have defined high-growth firms (HGFs) in terms of growth in firm employment or firm sales, and primarily analyzed their contribution to overall employment growth. In this paper we define HGFs using the commonly applied growth indicators (employment and sales), but also add definitions based on growth in value added and productivity. Our results indicate that HGFs in terms of employment are not the same firms as HGFs in terms of productivity, and that their economic contributions differ significantly. Economic policy promoting fast growth in employment may therefore come at the cost of reduced productivity growth. Although HGFs of different definitions may not be the same firms, young firms are more likely to be HGFs irrespective of definition. This suggests that economic policy should focus on the conditions for new firm formation and early growth of firms, rather than target a particular type of HGFs.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson
    The European Institute of Japanese Studies (EIJS), Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden; National Board of Trade Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Subsidy Entrepreneurs: an Inquiry into Firms Seeking Public Grants2019In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the incentives and characteristics of firms that apply for, and eventually receive, one or multiple governmental grants intended to stimulate innovation and growth. The analysis departs from a contest model in which entrepreneurs are free to allocate their effort between production and seeking grants. The results suggest that highly productive entrepreneurs abstain from seeking grants, moderately productive firms allocate a share of their effort to grant seeking, and low-productivity firms allocate most resources to seeking grants. Due to their efforts in seeking grants, these low-productive subsidy entrepreneurs also have a relatively high probability of receiving the grants. Using comprehensive data over grants from the three largest grant-distributing agencies in Sweden, we find concordant evidence of a negative relation between the probability of receiving a grant and firm productivity. As we go from single- to multiple-grant-supported firms, this negative relation becomes more pronounced.

  • 3.
    Hatzigeorgiou, Andreas
    et al.
    The Ratio Institute, Stocholm, Sweden; Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Migrants' Influence on Firm-level Exports2016In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 477-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the role of migrants in trade using a firm-level approach. We exploit a new employer–employee panel for Sweden, which encompasses close to 600,000 full-time employees, approximately 12,000 firms and data for 176 countries for the period 1998–2007. The resulting analysis provides novel firm-level evidence on the trade-migration relationship. Foreign-born workers have a positive association with firm exports. However, immigrants do not have an unconditional positive impact on firm trade. Mainly small firms gain from hiring foreign-born workers, and migrants need to be skilled and recently arrived to have a clear positive impact on firm export performance.

  • 4.
    Henrekson, Magnus
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Johansson, Dan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business. The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Taxation, Labor Market Policy and High-Impact Entrepreneurship2010In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 275-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public policy affects the prevalence and performance of both productive and high-impact entrepreneurship. High-impact entrepreneurship prospers when knowledge is successfully generated and exploited in the economy. This process depends on complementary key actors who use their competencies in what we denote a competence bloc. Although variations in economic contexts make prescribing a general panacea impossible, a number of relevant policy areas that affect key actors can be identified. In this paper this is done in the areas of tax policy and labor market policy. It is shown that high and/or distortive taxes and heavy labor market regulations impinge on the creation and functioning of competence blocs, thereby reducing high-impact entrepreneurship. © 2010 The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Heshmati, Almas
    et al.
    Department Of Food And Resource Economics, College of Life Sciensces and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
    Johansson, Dan
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping university, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms2010In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 10, no 3-4, p. 297-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the effects of effective corporate tax rates on the size distribution of firms. In modelling this relationship we account for conditional variables as well as unobservable time and industry effects. A number of hypotheses are tested concerning heterogeneity in the impact of effective corporate tax rates on the size distributions of firms with regard to firm size class, industry and time. The results are based on data covering the whole Swedish economy for the period 1973–2002. The descriptive results suggest that effective corporate tax rates differ by firm size, industry and over time. Application of t-tests demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between major size classes but not within major size classes: smaller firms report a higher effective corporate tax rate than larger firms. The t-tests also demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between industrial sectors: service sector reports a higher effective corporate tax rate than production sector. The regressions show effective corporate tax rates to have: a negative effect on the size distribution of large firms, negative effect on transportation, financing and service sector and a positive effect on manufacturing, electricity and on production sector. We conclude that effective corporate tax rates affect the size distribution of firms as well as the composition of industries.

  • 6.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Service offshoring and corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?2015In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 363-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze how service offshoring by Swedish firms is affected by corruption in source countries. The results suggest that firms avoid corrupt countries and that corruption reduces the volume of service offshoring. Analyzing firm heterogeneity, we find that large and internationalized firms are the ones that are the most sensitive to corruption. In addition, sensitivity to corruption tends to increase with falling income in source countries. These results suggest that the gains from reduced corruption may be the greatest for poor countries. 

  • 7.
    Lundin, Nannan
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Has import disciplined Swedish manufacuring firms in the 1990s?2004In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 109-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how increased integration and the ongoing enlargement of the EU's internal market affected the performance of Swedish manufacturing firms. The pro-competitive effect of international trade, in term of intensified import competition on domestic firms' market power, has been investigated extensively at the industry-level. In contrast to previous studies, this analysis is based on detailed firm-level information and import data divided into both an EU member group and a group of recently approved EU member candidates. It focuses on how imports from these groups, together with imports from other non-European trading partners, impact on firm-level profitability, while taking firm-specific efficiency effects into account. The findings are that imports from the new EU-candidates, Japan and Asian newly industrialized countries seem to have a disciplinary effect on firm-level profits, whereas imports from EU-member countries only appear to have an impact on firms with large market shares and in highly concentrated industries.

  • 8.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Domestic vs. international spillovers: evidence from Swedish firm level data2006In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 6, no 3-4, p. 277-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the association between total factor productivity growth and the R&D expenditures of Swedish manufacturing firms in the presence of domestic- and international R&D spillovers. The paper assumes that the principal channel of transmission of new technology is through I/O relations. Econometric evidence suggests that international as well as domestic inter-industry R&D spillovers are important determinants of firms’ productivity growth in the long run. The R&D spillovers generated within the industry and following I/O links seem to be of minor importance in explaining productivity growth. It seems likely that within-industry productivity spillovers follow other channels than I/O flows, such as horizontal spillovers through copying of new products and processes, or labour turnover. The use of a convergence parameter is one way to check for such within-industry technology flows. Our results indicate that a catch-up process exists by which the non-frontier firms in the Swedish manufacturing sector absorb knowledge spillovers from the leading firms in the industry. Finally, a firm’s own R&D efforts are found to be more or less positively correlated with the TFP growth, maybe the contribution from R&D efforts in some sense are underestimated.

  • 9.
    Yun, Lihong
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Technical progress and labour demand in Swedish manufacturing firms2008In: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, ISSN 1566-1679, E-ISSN 1573-7012, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 147-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling firms’ sales in the labour demand model, this paper investigates effects of trade and R&D via technical progress on labour demand in a dynamic framework, based on a panel of Swedish manufacturing firms for 1990s. The main results of this study indicate that employment elasticities with respect to different characteristics of firms (wages, total sales, exports and R&D efforts) and industrial import penetration could vary across respective skilled sectors. There is some indication to that import penetration from fourteen ‘old members’ of European Union could induce capital-saving technical progress and result in the rise in demand for labour for firms in medium-low skilled sector, whilst those from the ten ‘new members’ of European Union could induce x-efficiency and labour-saving technical progress for firms in low-skilled sector. Furthermore, the effects of R&D intensity on demand for labour are positive and significant for firms in medium-high-skilled and high-skilled sectors.

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