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  • 1.
    Baskaran, Preetisri
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekblad, Alf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Soucémarianadin, Laure N.
    CNRS, Laboratoire de Géologie de l'ENS, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France; Umeå University, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schleucher, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Björn D.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nitrogen dynamics of decomposing Scots pine needle litter depends on colonizing fungal species2019In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 95, no 6, article id fiz059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal ecosystems plant production is often limited by low availability of nitrogen. Nitrogen retention in below-ground organic pools plays an important role in restricting recirculation to plants and thereby hampers forest production. Saprotrophic fungi are commonly assigned to different decomposer strategies, but how these relate to nitrogen cycling remains to be understood. Decomposition of Scots pine needle litter was studied in axenic microcosms with the ligninolytic litter decomposing basidiomycete Gymnopus androsaceus or the stress tolerant ascomycete Chalara longipes. Changes in chemical composition were followed by 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy and nitrogen dynamics was assessed by the addition of a 15N tracer. Decomposition by C. longipes resulted in nitrogen retention in non-hydrolysable organic matter, enriched in aromatic and alkylic compounds, whereas the ligninolytic G. androsaceus was able to access this pool, counteracting nitrogen retention. Our observations suggest that differences in decomposing strategies between fungal species play an important role in regulating nitrogen retention and release during litter decomposition, implying that fungal community composition may impact nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem level.

  • 2.
    Björk, Robert G.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ernfors, Maria
    Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sikström, Ulf
    Forestry Res Inst Sweden Skogforsk, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Dept Forest Ecol & Management, Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats X.
    Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rutting, Tobias
    Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Contrasting effects of wood ash application on microbial community structure, biomass and processes in drained forested peatlands2010In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 550-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of wood ash application on soil microbial processes were investigated in three drained forested peatlands, which differed in nutrient status and time since application. Measured variables included the concentrations of soil elements and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), net nitrogen (N) mineralization, nitrification and denitrification enzyme activity, potential methane (CH(4)) oxidation, CH(4) production and microbial respiration kinetics. Wood ash application had a considerable influence on soil element concentrations. This mirrored a decrease in the majority of the microbial biomarkers by more than one-third in the two oligotrophic peatlands, although the microbial community composition was not altered. The decreases in PLFAs coincided with reduced net ammonification and net N mineralization. Other measured variables did not change systematically as a result of wood ash application. No significant changes in microbial biomass or processes were found in the mesotrophic peatland, possibly because too little time (1 year) had elapsed since the wood ash application. This study suggests that oligotrophic peatlands can be substantially affected by wood ash for a period of at least 4 years after application. However, within 25 years of the wood ash application, the microbial biomass seemed to have recovered or adapted to enhanced element concentrations in the soil.

  • 3.
    Fransson, Petra M. A.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Ulltuna, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma M.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen influence exudation of soluble organic compounds by ectomycorrhizal root systems2010In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 186-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Root and mycelial exudation contributes significantly to soil carbon (C) fluxes, and is likely to be altered by an elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and nitrogen (N) deposition. We quantified soluble, low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic compounds exuded by ectomycorrhizal plants grown under ambient (360 p.p.m.) or elevated (710 p.p.m.) CO2 concentrations and with different N sources. Scots pine seedlings, colonized by one of five different ectomycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungi, received 70 μM N, either as NH4Cl or as alanine, in a liquid growth medium. Exudation of LMW organic acids (LMWOAs), dissolved monosaccharides and total dissolved organic carbon were determined. Both N and CO2 had a significant impact on exudation, especially of LMWOAs. Exudation of LMWOAs was negatively affected by inorganic N and decreased by 30–85% compared with the organic N treatment, irrespective of the CO2 treatment. Elevated CO2 had a clear impact on the production of individual LMWOAs, although with very contrasting effects depending on which N source was supplied.

  • 4.
    Rangel, Ignacio
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ganda Mall, John Peter
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Roger, Willén
    Department of Pathology and Cytology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Fei
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hultgren-Hörnquist, Elisabeth
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Degree of colitis correlates with microbial composition and cytokine responses in colon and caecum of Gαi2-deficient mice2016In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 92, no 7, article id fiw098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An altered immune response and gut microbiota have been associated with the pathology of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). However, there is limited knowledge of how inflammation is associated with changes in the microbiota. We studied the microbiota in the intestine and faeces as well as the cytokine gene expressions in caecum and colon of a mouse model (Gαi2(-/-)) of colitis, and analysed them in relation to the degrees of inflammation in the colon. The degree of colitis was associated with general changes in the complexity of the microbiota and was corroborated by quantitative analyses of the Bacteroides and Lactobacillus High gene expression levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ in colon and caecum were detected in Gαi2(-/-) mice with moderate and severe colitis. High IL-27 gene expression in the colon of mice with moderate and severe colitis and in the caecum of mice with moderate colitis was also detected. Negative correlations between IL-27 and Bacteroides and Lactobacillus and between IFN-γ and Lactobacillus were detected in caecum. This research indicates that the degree of colitis in IBD correlates with the gene expression of cytokines and with disturbances in the gut microbiota. Furthermore, the caecum could have an important role in the pathology of IBD.

  • 5.
    Wall, Rebecca
    et al.
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Gerald
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland; Department of Microbiology,.
    Hussey, Séamus
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Ryan, Tony
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Murphy, Brendan
    Erinville Hospital and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College, Cork, Ireland.
    Ross, Paul
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Stanton, Catherine
    Teagasc, Moorepark Food Research Centre, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland; Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Genomic diversity of cultivable Lactobacillus populations residing in the neonatal and adult gastrointestinal tract2007In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cultivable Lactobacillus population in adult and infant faecal material to identify strains shared across a number of individuals. A range of lactobacilli isolated on Lactobacillus-selective agar from faeces of 16 infants and 11 adults were genetically fingerprinted and further characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The relatedness of all the Lactobacillus strains isolated to known species was also determined both genetically and phenotypically. This study revealed that the human intestine is initially colonized by only a few (1-2) different cultivable strains whereas in adults the pattern becomes more complex with a higher diversity of strains. The adult samples contained three genetically distinct Lactobacillus strains in some cases, while infant samples generally harboured only one dominant Lactobacillus strain. Moreover, the species in general appeared to differ with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei found mainly in adults, whereas Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius were more commonly isolated in infant samples. The data reaffirm the differences in Lactobacillus populations both between individual subjects and between the infant and adult, with an overall change in the diversity and complexity from early stages of life to adulthood.

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