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  • 1.
    Arunachalam, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ravi, Vinayakumar
    Center for Artificial Intelligence, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
    Krichen, Moez
    Faculty of CSIT, Al-Baha University, Saudi Arabia ReDCAD Laboratory, University of Sfax, Tunisia.
    Alroobaea, Roobaea
    Department of Computer Science, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
    Alqurni, Jehad Saad
    Department of Education Technologies, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia .
    Analytical Comparison of Resource Search Algorithms in Non-DHT Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks2021In: Computers, Materials and Continua, ISSN 1546-2218, E-ISSN 1546-2226, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 983-1001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key challenges in ad-hoc networks is the resource discovery problem. How efficiently & quickly the queried resource/object can be resolved in such a highly dynamic self-evolving network is the underlying question? Broadcasting is a basic technique in the Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs), and it refers to sending a packet from one node to every other node within the transmission range. Flooding is a type of broadcast where the received packet is retransmitted once by every node. The naive flooding technique floods the network with query messages, while the random walk scheme operates by contacting subsets of each node's neighbors at every step, thereby restricting the search space. Many earlier works have mainly focused on the simulation-based analysis of flooding technique, and its variants, in a wired network scenario. Although, there have been some empirical studies in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, the analytical results are still lacking, especially in the context of mobile P2P networks. In this article, we mathematically model different widely used existing search techniques, and compare with the proposed improved random walk method, a simple lightweight approach suitable for the non-DHT architecture. We provide analytical expressions to measure the performance of the different flooding-based search techniques, and our proposed technique. We analytically derive 3 relevant key performance measures, i.e., the avg. number of steps needed to find a resource, the probability of locating a resource, and the avg. number of messages generated during the entire search process.

  • 2.
    Arunachalam, Ajay
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ravi, Vinayakumar
    Center for Artificial Intelligence, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
    Krichen, Moez
    Faculty of CSIT, Al-Baha University, Saudi Arabia ReDCAD Laboratory, University of Sfax, Tunisia.
    Alroobaea, Roobaea
    Department of Computer Science, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
    Rubaiee, Saeed
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Mathematical Model Validation of Search Protocols in MP2P Networks2021In: Computers, Materials and Continua, ISSN 1546-2218, E-ISSN 1546-2226, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 1807-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadcasting is a basic technique in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), and it refers to sending a packet from one node to every other node within the transmission range. Flooding is a type of broadcast where the received packet is retransmitted once by every node. The naive flooding technique, floods the network with query messages, while the random walk technique operates by contacting the subsets of every node's neighbors at each step, thereby restricting the search space. One of the key challenges in an ad-hoc network is the resource or content discovery problem which is about locating the queried resource. Many earlier works have mainly focused on the simulation-based analysis of flooding, and its variants under a wired network. Although, there have been some empirical studies in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, the analytical results are still lacking, especially in the context of P2P systems running over MANET. In this paper, we describe how P2P resource discovery protocols perform badly over MANETs. To address the limitations, we propose a new protocol named ABRW (Address Broadcast Random Walk), which is a lightweight search approach, designed considering the underlay topology aimed to better suit the unstructured architecture. We provide the mathematical model, measuring the performance of our proposed search scheme with different widely popular benchmarked search techniques. Further, we also derive three relevant search performance metrics, i.e., mean no. of steps needed to find a resource, the probability of finding a resource, and the mean no. of message overhead. We validated the analytical expressions through simulations. The simulation results closely matched with our analyticalmodel, justifying our findings. Our proposed search algorithm under such highly dynamic self-evolving networks performed better, as it reduced the search latency, decreased the overall message overhead, and still equally had a good success rate. 

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    Mathematical Model Validation of Search Protocols in MP2P Networks
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