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  • 1.
    Feng, X. M.
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, J.
    Centre for Human Studies of Foodstuffs, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Swanberg, M.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnow, D.
    Department of Electronics, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Image analysis for monitoring the barley tempeh fermentation process2007In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 1113-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To develop a fast, accurate, objective and nondestructive method for monitoring barley tempeh fermentation.

    Methods and Results: Barley tempeh is a food made from pearled barley grains fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. Rhizopus oligosporus growth is important for tempeh quality, but quantifying its growth is difficult and laborious. A system was developed for analysing digital images of fermentation stages using two image processing methods. The first employed statistical measures sensitive to image colour and surface structure, and these statistical measures were highly correlated (r = 0.92, n = 75, P < 0.001) with ergosterol content of tempeh fermented with R. oligosporus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In the second method, an image-processing algorithm optimized to changes in images of final tempeh products was developed to measure number of visible barley grains. A threshold of 5 visible grains per Petri dish indicated complete tempeh fermentation. When images of tempeh cakes fermented with different inoculation levels of R. oligosporus were analysed the results from the two image processing methods were in good agreement.

    Conclusion: Image processing proved suitable for monitoring barley tempeh fermentation. The method avoids sampling, is nonintrusive, and only requires a digital camera with good resolution and image analysis software.

    Significance and Impact of the Study: The system provides a rapid visualization of tempeh product maturation and qualities during fermentation. Automated online monitoring of tempeh fermentation by coupling automated image acquisition with image processing software could be further developed for process control.

  • 2.
    Goswami, Manish
    et al.
    School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Molecular Biology Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai, India.
    Khan, Faisal Ahmad
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ibrisevic, Admir
    Eskilstuna Strängnäs Energi & Miljö AB, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Development of Escherichia coli-based gene expression profiling of sewage sludge leachates2018In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 1502-1517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: The impact of municipal waste on pathogenic microorganisms released into the environment is a public health concern. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of sewage sludge and antibiotic contaminants on stress response, virulence and antibiotic resistance in a pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of sewage sludge leachates on uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 were determined by monitoring the expression of 45 genes associated with antibiotic/metal resistance, stress response and virulence using RT-qPCR. The E. coli gene expression was validated using sub-inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. E. coli exposed to sewage sludge or sewage sludge-fly ash leachates altered the expression of 5 antibiotic and metal resistance, 3 stress response and 2 virulence associated genes. When antibiotics were combined with sludge or sludge-fly ash the antibiotic-associated gene expression was altered.

    CONCLUSIONS: E. coli treated with two sludge leachates had distinct gene expression patterns that were altered when the sludge leachates were combined with tetracycline, although to a lesser extent with ciprofloxacin.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: The E. coli multigene expression analysis is a potential new tool for assessing the effects of pollutants on pathogenic microbes in environmental waters for improved risk assessment.

  • 3.
    Melin, P.
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hakansson, S.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eberhard, T. H.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Survival of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala after long-term storage in liquid formulations at different temperatures, assessed by flow cytometry2006In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 264-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Investigate the survival of liquid formulations of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala J121 at different temperatures, and develop a system for comparative studies of different storage conditions and formulations.

    Methods and Results: The survival of P. anomala in liquid formulations with lactose, starch and trehalose amendments was measured during prolonged storage at temperatures ranging from -20 to +30 degrees C. The relative survival of the stored cells was rapidly estimated by flow cytometry. After 4 weeks incubation at 4 and 10 degrees C, 75-90% of the cells were viable, with no significant differences between the various formulations. Supplementing the storage buffer with lactose or trehalose increased the survival after longer incubations (8 and 12 weeks) at all temperatures (-20 to 30 degrees C). Trehalose was the most effective protectant at 20 and 30 degrees C (> 20% viable cells after 12 weeks at 20 degrees C). The biocontrol activity was maintained after formulation and prolonged storage of P. anomala.

    Conclusions: The storage potential of liquid formulated P. anomala cells can be increased by supplementation with lactose or trehalose. The combination of a custom made incubation chamber and flow cytometry was suitable to evaluate stability of P. anomala formulations.

    Significance and Impact of the Study: Liquid formulated P. anomala have a long shelf life. The developed test system can be used to study different formulations of other biocontrol agents.

  • 4.
    Olstorpe, M.
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Axelsson, L.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Passoth, V.
    Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effect of starter culture inoculation on feed hygiene and microbial population development in fermented pig feed composed of a cereal grain mix with wet wheat distillers' grain2010In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 129-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Investigating the influence of an added starter culture on the properties of fermented liquid pig feed.

    Methods and Results: Diets of cereal grain blended with wet wheat distillers' grain that were either not inoculated (WWDG), inoculated with a silage starter culture at start (WWDGsc1) or at start and at each backslopping (replacement of 80% the content with fresh mixture, simulating feed outtake, WWDGsc5) were fermented for 5 days, followed by 5 days of daily backslopping. Numbers of undesirable micro-organisms (enterobacteria, moulds) were reduced in all fermentations; particularly enterobacteria in the starter culture inoculated diets. Lactobacillus plantarum present in the starter culture became dominant in diets WWDGsc1 and WWDGsc5. However, Lactobacillus panis that was dominating WWDG was also abundant in WWDGsc1 and WWDGsc5. Yeast populations were not influenced by the starter culture, with Pichia fermentans dominating all fermentations. All diets had similar chemical characteristics with the exception of a significant increase of all tested organic acids in WWDGsc5.

    Conclusions: The addition of a starter culture influences the bacterial population in fermented liquid feed, but there is also a strong impact of the flora already present in the feed ingredients. The yeast population is not influenced by adding a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture. A consortium of LAB and yeast strains adapted to the fermentation should be used as starter culture.

    Significance and Impact of the Study: The results suggest that it is possible to influence the current unpredictable and spontaneous process of feed fermentation when appropriate starter cultures are used. For this purpose, LAB and yeasts with desirable characteristics should be isolated.

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