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  • 1.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala.
    Eriksson, E.
    Department of Bacteriology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala.
    Helmersson, Seved
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala.
    Leffler, My
    Section of Veterinary Service and Food Control, County Administrative Board of Gävleborg, Gävle, .
    Lüdtke, Lena
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala.
    Steen, Margareta
    Section of Veterinary Service and Food Control, County Administrative Board of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sørgjerd, Sölvi
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, SLU, Uppsala.
    Causes behind a human cheese-borne outbreak of gastrointestinal listeriosis2004In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 153-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous paper, we reported an outbreak of gastrointestinal listeriosis due to consumption of fresh cheese made from raw milk and manufactured on a summer farm. The aim of the present study was to investigate why the cheese harbored Listeria monocytogenes. To our knowledge, this is the first documented outbreak of listeriosis caused by raw milk cheese where the human epidemic strain has been cultured from a dairy animal, whose milk has been used for cheese production. The conditions on a summer farm can hardly fulfil the requirements for hygienic and strictly controlled conditions necessary for safe processing of fresh cheese.

  • 2.
    Lopez-Valladares, Gloria
    et al.
    School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts and Meal Science, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden.
    Danielsson Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Implicated food products for listeriosis and changes in serovars of Listeria monocytogenes affecting humans in recent decades2018In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeriosis is a foodborne disease with a high fatality rate, and infection is mostly transmitted through ready-toeat(RTE) foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, such as gravad/smoked fish, soft cheeses, andsliced processed delicatessen (deli) meat. Food products/dishes stored in vacuum or in modified atmospheresand with extended refrigerator shelf lives provide an opportunity for L. monocytogenes to multiply to largenumbers toward the end of the shelf life. Elderly, pregnant women, neonates, and immunocompromisedindividuals are particularly susceptible to L. monocytogenes. Listeriosis in humans manifests primarily assepticemia, meningitis, encephalitis, gastrointestinal infection, and abortion. In the mid 1990s and early 2000s ashift from L. monocytogenes serovar 4b to serovar 1/2a causing human listeriosis occurred, and serovar 1/2a isbecoming more frequently linked to outbreaks of listeriosis, particularly in Europe and Northern America.Consumer lifestyle has changed, and less time is available for food preparation. Modern lifestyle has markedlychanged eating habits worldwide, with a consequent increased demand for RTE foods; therefore, more RTE andtake away foods are consumed. There is a concern that many Listeria outbreaks are reported from hospitals.Therefore, it is vitally important that foods (especially cooked and chilled) delivered to hospitals and residentialhomes for senior citizens and elderly people are reheated to at least 72C: cold food, such as turkey deli meatand cold-smoked and gravad salmon should be free from L. monocytogenes. Several countries have zerotolerance for RTE foods that support the growth of Listeria.

  • 3.
    Lopez-Valladares, Gloria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Goering, Richard V.
    Med Ctr, Sch Med, Dept Med Microbiol & Immunol, Creighton Univ, Omaha CA, USA.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Division of Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Types Belonging to Lineage I (Serovar 4b, 1/2b, and 3b) into PFGE Groups2015In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 447-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 63 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types identified among 427 clinical isolates of Listeria monocytogenes that were characterized in a previous study by serotyping and PFGE (AscI) could be further divided into 17 PFGE groups. While the 63 PFGE types, all part of lineage I, were established based on the number and distribution of all bands in each DNA profile, the 17 PFGE groups were based on the configuration of small bands with sizes L. monocytogenes serovar 4b isolates (n=334) were divided into 8 PFGE groups; the 32 PFGE types of serovar 1/2b isolates (n=90) and the serovar 3b isolates (n=3, 1 PFGE type) were divided into 9 PFGE groups. An association was observed between PFGE groups and serovars. L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to PFGE groups I, J, Q, R, X, Z, o-4, and o-5 all shared serovar 4b, whereas isolates from PFGE groups D, G, O, P, T, U, o-1, o-2, and o-3 shared serovar 1/2b. Small fragments L. monocytogenes isolates. From the results of the present study, a procedure for accelerating the identification of PFGE types when analyzing new PFGE profiles can be suggested. Therefore, we propose a stepwise procedure to PFGE profiling by first identifying the PFGE group using the smaller band patterns <145.5 kb, and then determining PFGE types based on the band patterns >145.5 kb.

  • 4.
    Lopez-Valladares, Gloria
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Goering, Richard V.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Omaha NE, USA.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Lineage II (Serovar 1/2a and 1/2c) Human Listeria monocytogenes Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Types Divided into PFGE Groups Using the Band Patterns Below 145.5 kb2017In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 504 clinical lineage II isolates of Listeria monocytogenes isolated during 1958-2010 in Sweden, 119 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (AscI) have been identified based on the number and distribution of all banding patterns in each DNA profile. In this study, these types were further divided into PFGE groups based on the configuration of small bands with sizes <145.5 kb. The 504 isolates included 483 serovar 1/2a isolates distributed into 114 PFGE types and 21 serovar 1/2c isolates distributed into 9 PFGE types; these were further divided into 21 PFGE groups. PFGE group, that is, configuration of small bands below 145.5 kb, and serovars were correlated. L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to PFGE groups A, B, C, E, F, H, K, L, M, S, V, W, Y, and Ö-6 to Ö-12 shared serovar 1/2a, with one exception. PFGE group E also included two PFGE types sharing serovar 1/2c and four PFGE types belonging to either serovar 1/2a or 1/2c. Isolates belonging to PFGE group N shared serovar 1/2c. In contrast to lineage I isolates, small fragments <33.3 kb were visible in all L. monocytogenes isolates belonging to lineage II. In the results from both the present and previous studies, the genomic region of small bands was genetically more conservative than in large bands. The distribution of these small bands established the relatedness of strains and defined a genetic marker for both lineages I and II, while also establishing their serogroup. The division of L. monocytogenes PFGE types into PFGE groups is advantageous as the profile of every new isolate can be identified easily and quickly through first studying the PFGE group affiliation of the isolate based on the smaller band patterns <145.5 kb, and then identifying the PFGE type based on the band patterns >145.5 kb.

  • 5.
    Parihar, Vishal Singh
    et al.
    Örebro University, Department of Restaurant & Culinary Arts. Department of Clinical Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lopez-Valladares, Gloria
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Peiris, Inoka
    Helmersson, Seved
    Department of Environmental Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Unemo, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andersson, Birgitta
    Department of Bacteriology, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Arneborn, Malin
    The Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and MTC, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Bannerman, Elizabeth
    Centre National des Listeria, Institut de Microbiologie, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo
    ICAR Research Complex for Goa, Old Goa, India.
    Bille, Jacques
    Centre National des Listeria, Institut de Microbiologie, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Hajdu, Lajos
    AstraZeneca AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Jacquet, Christine
    Laboratoire des Listeria, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Johansson, Christina
    The Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and MTC, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Löfdahl, Margareta
    The Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and MTC, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Möllerberg, Gunnel
    The Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and MTC, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Ringberg, Håkan
    Regional Centre for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Malmö, Sweden.
    Rocourt, Jocelyne
    Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Tjernberg, Ingela
    Department of Bacteriology, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ursing, Jan
    Department of Bacteriology, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta
    The Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and MTC, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Tham, Wilhelm
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science. Department of Restaurant and Culinary Arts, Örebro University, Grythyttan, Sweden.
    Characterization of human invasive isolates of Listeria monocytogenes in Sweden 1986-20072008In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 755-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1986, 68% of the Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human cases of invasive listeriosis in Sweden are available for retrospective studies. The aim of the present study was to characterize 601 human invasive isolates of L. monocytogenes in Sweden from 1986 to 2007 by using serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Since 1996, serovar 4b was permanently reduced to the second or third most common serovar in human cases in Sweden. During the latter period, 2000-2007, only 13% belonged to serovar 4b and 71% to 1/2a. The dendrogram, based on pulsovars, reveals two clusters with different serovars. Cluster 1 exhibits serovars 4b and 1/2b, whereas cluster 2 consists of serovar 1/2a. Serovar 1/2a seems to be more heterogeneous than serovar 4b.

  • 6.
    Tham, Wilhem
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Lopez-Valladares, Gloria
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Helmersson, Seved
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Environm Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wennström, Stefan
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Österlund, Anders
    Dept Communicable Dis Prevent & Control, Lulea, Sweden.
    Danielsson-Tham, Marie-Louise
    Örebro University, School of Hospitality, Culinary Arts & Meal Science.
    Occurrence of Genetic Variants of Listeria monocytogenes Strains2013In: Foodborne pathogens and disease, ISSN 1535-3141, E-ISSN 1556-7125, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 825-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes saved from outbreaks of listeriosis, cases of sporadic listeriosis, and similar events do not always belong to a solitary genetic variant. Variants of the same strain may have evolved from a unique clone, and plasmid loss or gain and phage-mediated genetic changes are suggested as the main mechanism. Some of these reports are summarized in this short communication.

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