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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Göteborg Pediatric Growth Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden; The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ornhagen, Hans
    Swedish Sports Diving Federation, Idrottshuset, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Bengt M.
    Hyperbaric Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gautham, Raghavendhar
    Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge CA, USA.
    Jendle, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
    In-vitro performance of the Enlite sensor in various glucose concentrations during hypobaric and hyperbaric conditions2012In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1375-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a need for reliable methods of glucose measurement in different environmental conditions. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the performance of the Enlite® Sensor when connected to either the iPro™ Continuous Glucose Monitor recording device or the Guardian® REAL-Time transmitting device, in hypobaric and hyperbaric conditions.

    Methods: Sixteen sensors connected to eight iPro devices and eight Guardian REAL-Time devices were immersed in three beakers containing separate glucose concentrations: 52, 88, and 207 mg/dl (2.9, 4.9, and 11.3 mmol/liter). Two different pressure tests were conducted: a hypobaric test, corresponding to maximum 18000 ft/5500 m height, and a hyperbaric test, corresponding to maximum 100 ft/30 m depth. The linearity of the sensor signals in the different conditions was evaluated.

    Results: The sensors worked continuously, and the sensor signals were collected without interruption at all pressures tested. When comparing the input signals for glucose (ISIGs) and the different glucose concentrations during altered pressure, linearity (R(2)) of 0.98 was found. During the hypobaric test, significant differences (p < .005) were seen when comparing the ISIGs during varying pressure at two of the glucose concentrations (52 and 207 mg/dl), whereas no difference was seen at the 88 mg/dl glucose concentration. During the hyperbaric test, no differences were found.

    Conclusions: The Enlite Sensors connected to either the iPro or the Guardian REAL-Time device provided values continuously. In hyperbaric conditions, no significant differences were seen during changes in ambient pressure; however, during hypobaric conditions, the ISIG was significantly different in the low and high glucose concentrations.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    et al.
    Gothenburg Pediatric Growth Research Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Institute for the Health of Women and Children, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Örnhagen, Hans
    Swedish Sportsdiving Federation, Farsta, Sweden.
    Jendle, Johan
    Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Clinical Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The benefits of continuous glucose monitoring and a glucose monitoring schedule in individuals with type 1 diabetes during recreational diving2008In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 778-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Our objective is to evaluate the Medtronic CGMS continuous glucose monitoring system and plasma glucose (PG) measurement performed in a monitoring schedule as tools to identify individuals with type 1 diabetes at risk when diving.

    METHODS: We studied 24 adults, 12 type 1 diabetes subjects and 12 controls, during 5 recreational scuba dives performed on 3 consecutive days. The CGMS was used by all participants on all the days and all the dives. Comparisons were made between PG performed in a monitoring schedule during the days of diving, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) performed 2 weeks prior to diving, and the CGMS during the study.

    RESULTS: One hundred seventeen dives were performed. Hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dl) was found in six individuals and on nine occasions. However, no symptoms of hypoglycemia were present during or immediately postdiving. In one case, repetitive hypoglycemia prediving gave rise to a decision not to dive. None of the dives were aborted. The number of hypoglycemic episodes, 10 min prediving or immediately postdiving, were related to the duration of diabetes, r = 0.83 and p =0.01, and the percentage of SMBG values below target (<72 mg/dl), r = 0.65 and p =0.02. Moreover, the number of hypoglycemic episodes was also related to the total duration below low limit (<70 mg/dl), measured by the CGMS, r =0.74 and p =0.006.

    CONCLUSION: Safe dives are possible to achieve by well-informed, well-controlled individuals with type 1 diabetes. Using downloaded SMBG, CGMS, and repetitive PG in a monitoring schedule, it is possible to identify those subjects who are suitable for diving.

  • 3.
    Jendle, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    Department of Pediatrics, Hospital of Halland, Kungsbacka, Sweden; Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Continuous Glucose Monitoring Diving and Diabetes: An Update of the Swedish Recommendations2020In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 170-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Divers travel to different countries to explore various diving sites worldwide. In 2005, the Divers Alert Network (DAN) published their guidelines for recreational diving and diabetes mellitus. However, although years have passed, there is still no consensus in the form of international guidelines on diabetes and diving. Large differences are noted with regard to the regulations in different countries. Furthermore, the diabetes technology has evolved rapidly and is not reflected in current international guidelines. This is potentially both a medical and an insurance problem for a diver with diabetes. We present a short summary of the recently updated Swedish recommendations for recreational divers with type 1 diabetes mellitus, focusing on the use of continuous glucose monitoring and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion during such circumstances.

  • 4.
    Jendle, Johan
    et al.
    Endocrine and Diabetes Center, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Medicine and Health, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Peter
    Pediatric Growth Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Institute for the Health of Women and Children, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Impact of high altitudes on glucose control2011In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 1621-1622Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Jendle, Johan H.
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Rawshani, Araz
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ann-Marie
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Avdic, Tarik
    National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gudbjörnsdóttir, Soffia
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; National Diabetes Register, Centre of Registers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Indications for Insulin Pump Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes and Associations With Glycemic Control2016In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1027-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Real-world data regarding indications for use of insulin pump remain sparse. We investigated characteristics among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in relation to indication for use of insulin pump (CSII). Comparison was made with T1D subjects using multiple daily injections (MDI).

    Methods: We included all individuals with T1D who had at least 1 registration in the National Diabetes Register during 2014-2015. Among 46 874 individuals, we excluded 2350 due to missing data. We examined 35 725 on MDI and 8799 on CSII regarding characteristics in relation to insulin delivery method, as well as association between insulin delivery and glycemic control (HbA1c) and presence of albuminuria.

    Results: Unadjusted mean (SD) HbA1c was 63.84 (15.07) mmol/mol (7.99 [1.38]%) and 63.75 (13.19) mmol/mol (7.99 [1.21]%) in the MDI and CSII group, respectively. MDI and CSII users were on average 48.8 and 41.5 years old, respectively. MDI users were on average 26 years old and CSII users 17 years old at the time of diabetes diagnosis. Overall, a higher proportion of CSII users were females (53.5%). As compared with MDI, use of CSII was associated with up to 7.84 mmol/mol (0.72%) lower HbA1c in a multivariable adjusted model. Use of CSII was, however, not associated with risk of having albuminuria.

    Conclusions: CSII was used more frequently in younger individuals, early-onset diabetes, and problematic glycemic control. The use of CSII was associated with lower HbA1c among CSII users except from those who started CSII due to high HbA1c.

  • 6.
    Jendle, Johan
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Rinnert, Kurt
    Stadt Köln, Köln, Germany.
    Westman, Anton
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinemann, Lutz
    Science & Co, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Pilots and Diabetes Technology: Functional Health2017In: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, E-ISSN 1932-2968, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 191-194Article in journal (Refereed)
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