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  • 1.
    Almoosawi, Suzana
    et al.
    Brain Performance & Nutrition Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Palla, Luigi
    Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Walshe, Ian
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Vingeliene, Snieguole
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Ellis, Jason G.
    Northumbria Sleep Research Laboratory, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Tyne and Wear, UK.
    Long Sleep Duration and Social Jetlag Are Associated Inversely with a Healthy Dietary Pattern in Adults: Results from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme Y1-42018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited observational studies have described the relationship between sleep duration and overall diet. The present study investigated the association between sleep duration on weekdays or social jetlag and empirically derived dietary patterns in a nationally representative sample of UK adults, aged 19-64 years old, participating in the 2008-2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Survey members completed between three to four days of dietary records. Sleep duration on weekdays was categorized into tertiles to reflect short, normal, and long sleep duration. Social jetlag was calculated as the difference between sleep duration on weekends and weekdays. The association between sleep duration/social jetlag and dietary patterns, derived by principal components analysis, was assessed by regressing diet on sleep, whilst accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for relevant confounders. Survey members in the highest tertile of sleep duration had on average a 0.45 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) -0.78, -0.12) lower healthy dietary pattern score, compared to middle tertile (p = 0.007). There was an inverted u-shaped association between social jetlag and the healthy dietary pattern, such that when sleep on weekends exceeded weekday sleep by 1 h 45 min, scores for indicating a healthy dietary pattern declined (p = 0.005). In conclusion, long sleep duration on weekdays and an increased social jetlag are associated with a lower healthy dietary pattern score. Further research is required to address factors influencing dietary patterns in long sleepers.

  • 2.
    Fang, X.
    et al.
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Han, H.
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Li, M.
    Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Liang, C.
    Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Fan, Z.
    Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Aaseth, J.
    Kongsvinger Hospital Division, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Kongsvinger, Norway; Kongsvinger Hospital Division, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Kongsvinger, Norway.
    He, J.
    Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies2016In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidemiological evidence for a dose-response relationship between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is sparse. The aim of the study was to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary magnesium intake with risk of T2D and evaluate the dose-response relationship. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported dietary magnesium intake and risk of incident T2D. We identified relevant studies by searching major scientific literature databases and grey literature resources from their inception to February 2016. We included cohort studies that provided risk ratios, i.e., relative risks (RRs), odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HRs), for T2D. Linear dose-response relationships were assessed using random-effects meta-regression. Potential nonlinear associations were evaluated using restricted cubic splines. A total of 25 studies met the eligibility criteria. These studies comprised 637,922 individuals including 26,828 with a T2D diagnosis. Compared with the lowest magnesium consumption group in the population, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men. A statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was found between incremental magnesium intake and T2D risk. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the risk of T2D incidence was reduced by 8%-13% for per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake. There was no evidence to support a nonlinear dose-response relationship between dietary magnesium intake and T2D risk. The combined data supports a role for magnesium in reducing risk of T2D, with a statistically significant linear dose-response pattern within the reference dose range of dietary intake among Asian and US populations. The evidence from Europe and black people is limited and more prospective studies are needed for the two subgroups.

  • 3.
    Montiel Rojas, Diego
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Centre "L. Galvani", Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Department of Applied Mathematics, Institute of Information Technology, Mathematics and Mechanics (ITMM), Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod-National Research University (UNN), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
    Bazzocchi, Alberto
    Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Battista, Giuseppe
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.
    Department of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Feskens, Edith J. M.
    Department of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Berendsen, Agnes
    Department of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Pietruszka, Barbara
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Warsaw, Poland.
    Januszko, Olga
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Warsaw, Poland.
    Fairweather-Tait, Susan
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Jennings, Amy
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Nicoletti, Claudio
    Gut Health Institute Strategic Programme, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich, UK; Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Anatomy, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Dietary Fibre May Mitigate Sarcopenia Risk: Findings from the NU-AGE Cohort of Older European Adults2020In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 12, no 4, article id E1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sarcopenia is characterised by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical function as well as related metabolic disturbances. While fibre-rich diets can influence metabolic health outcomes, the impact on skeletal muscle mass and function is yet to be determined, and the moderating effects by physical activity (PA) need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to examine links between fibre intake, skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a cohort of older adults from the NU-AGE study. In 981 older adults (71 ± 4 years, 58% female), physical function was assessed using the short-physical performance battery test and handgrip strength. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary fibre intake (FI) was assessed by 7-day food record and PA was objectively determined by accelerometery. General linear models accounting for covariates including PA level, protein intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Women above the median FI had significantly higher SMI compared to those below, which remained in fully adjusted models (24.7 ± 0.2% vs. 24.2 ± 0.1%, p = 0.011, η2p = 0.012). In men, the same association was only evident in those without MetS (above median FI: 32.4 ± 0.3% vs. below median FI: 31.3 ± 0.3%, p = 0.005, η2p = 0.035). There was no significant impact of FI on physical function outcomes. The findings from this study suggest a beneficial impact of FI on skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Importantly, this impact is independent of adherence to guidelines for protein intake and PA, which further strengthens the potential role of dietary fibre in preventing sarcopenia. Further experimental work is warranted in order to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the action of dietary fibre on the regulation of muscle mass.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Halvardsson, Patrik
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Adherence to DASH-Style Dietary Pattern Impacts on Adiponectin and Clustered Metabolic Risk in Older Women2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While dietary patterns are related to the age-related progression of chronic diseases, to what extent different dietary patterns influence inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in older adults remains to be elucidated. Additionally, potential moderating effects by physical activity (PA) become important to clarify. Here, we hypothesize that dietary patterns are linked to inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and that these links are independent of PA. The present study aims to explore links between two dietary constructs and biomarkers of systemic inflammation and metabolic health in older women, while considering time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 112 community-dwelling older women (65-70 years old) was performed. Dietary constructs based on the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) were determined from food records. MVPA was objectively assessed using accelerometry. Metabolic outcomes (waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressures and levels of glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol) and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and adiponectin) were determined using standardized procedures and a clustered metabolic risk score was derived. Adherence to DASH-style diet was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with a lower clustered metabolic risk, where women in the highest adherence group had a significantly (p < 0.05) lower waist circumference and blood glucose level compared to those in the lowest group. Further, a significantly higher (p < 0.05) adiponectin level was observed in the high DASH adherence group compared to those with low adherence. Notably, adjustment by waist circumference did not alter links with either adiponectin or blood glucose level. Importantly, all observed links remained significant after further adjustment for time in MVPA. Finally, no significant associations were observed when the dietary pattern was defined by the DII. The findings of this study demonstrate that DASH-style diets promote a systemic anti-inflammatory environment, while also mitigating clustered metabolic risk in older women. A key finding is that favourable impacts of the DASH-style diet are independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA, which further strengthens healthy eating behaviours as a key target for clinical and public health interventions designed to prevent age-related metabolic abnormalities.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Montiel Rojas, Diego
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Impact of Meeting Different Guidelines for Protein Intake on Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Physically Active Older Women2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of dietary protein intake on muscle mass and physical function in older adults is important for the prevention of age-related physical limitations. The aim of the present study was to elucidate links between dietary protein intake and muscle mass and physical function in older women meeting current guidelines of objectively assessed physical activity. In 106 women (65 to 70 years old), protein intake was assessed using a 6-day food record and participants were classified into high and low protein intake groups using two Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) thresholds (0.8 gkg(-1) bodyweight (BW) and 1.1 gkg(-1) BW). Body composition, aerobic fitness, and quadriceps strength were determined using standardized procedures, and self-reported physical function was assessed using the SF-12 Health Survey. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry and self-report. Women below the 0.8 gkg(-1) BW threshold had a lower muscle mass (p < 0.05) with no differences in physical function variables. When based on the higher RDA threshold (1.1 gkg(-1) BW), in addition to significant differences in muscle mass, women below the higher threshold had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher likelihood of having physical limitations. In conclusion, the present study supports the RDA threshold of 0.8 gkg(-1) BW of proteins to prevent the loss of muscle mass and emphasizes the importance of the higher RDA threshold of at least 1.1 gkg(-1) BW to infer additional benefits on constructs of physical function. Our study also supports the role of protein intake for healthy ageing, even in older adults meeting guidelines for physical activity.

  • 6.
    Paramel Varghese, Geena
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada.
    D’Souza, K.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada.
    Kienesberger, P.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada.
    Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling in Obesity and Insulin Resistance2018In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 399Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although simple in structure, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lipid that profoundly influences cellular signaling and function upon binding to G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). The majority of circulating LPA is produced by the secreted enzyme autotaxin (ATX). Alterations in LPA signaling, in conjunction with changes in autotaxin (ATX) expression and activity, have been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory disorders including obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes our current understanding of the sources and metabolism of LPA with focus on the influence of diet on circulating LPA. Furthermore, we explore how the ATX-LPA pathway impacts obesity and obesity-associated disorders, including impaired glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling in Obesity and Insulin Resistance
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