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  • 1.
    Fiedler, Heidelore
    UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (GE), Schweiz, Germany.
    Existierende dioxininventare weltweit und neue methodik zur erstellung von vergleichbaren und vollständigen emissionsinventaren [Existing dioxin inventories worldwide and a new methodology for establishing comparable and complete emissions inventories]2001In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, ISSN 0934-3504, E-ISSN 1865-5084, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 88-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, there are less than 20 inventories to estimate releases of dioxins and furans. According to a recent survey, 12,900 g TEQ of these unwanted byproducts are emitted into the atmosphere by 16 countries. Highest emissions are from the densely populated industrialized countries of the Northern hemisphere - Japan and the United States of America. Whereas the metal producing and recycling industry is the sector with the highest dioxin emissions in Europe, waste incineration is considered to be the major source in many other countries. Measures to reduce dioxin emissions have resulted in strong downward trends, as shown e.g. in Germany and Japan; however, potentials for further reduction have been identified.

    So far, countries have utilized own methods to calculate their dioxin emissions and the majority has addressed releases to air only. The future Stockholm Convention on POPs will require to continuously reduce dioxin emissions. In order to assist countries in inventory making, UNEP has produced the Toolkit, a methodology to establish comparable dioxin inventories that address releases to air, water and land, with products and in residues.

  • 2.
    Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Zooiogie, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Heise, Susanne
    BIS Beratungszentrum für Integriertes Sedimentmanagement an der TU Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg-Harburg, Germany.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Zooiogie, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Heininger, Peter
    Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde, Koblenz, Germany.
    Förstner, Ulrich
    Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, Institut für Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft, Hamburg-Harburg, Germany.
    Wasserrahmenrichtlinie: Fortschritte und Defizite2007In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, ISSN 0934-3504, E-ISSN 1865-5084, Vol. 19, no 1 Suppl., p. 58-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The water protection policy of the European Union sits on new footings since the end of 2000: The Water Framework

    Directive (WFD). By replacing, merging and renewing all parts of the European water protection policy from the 1970s, the WFD provides a consistent, transparent and comprehensive concept of what water management should be in the Europe of the coming decades. The new directive is aimed at a holistic approach towards integrated water protection. It sets ambitious high-quality goals to achieve a good status for European lakes and rivers primarily in ecological terms, gives details about the essential processes as well as instruments, and includes everything into a strict time schedule.

    Aim: This article adresses progress and shortcomings at the implementation of the WFD in general and with reference to two selected case studies (Rivers Elbe and Upper Danube).

    Results and Discussion: After introducing the WFD, its aims and exceptions, a policy summary and background document ‘Environmental objectives und the Water Framework Directive’ and the use of Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for single ‘priority substances’ as well as ‘hazardous priority components’ is discussed. The initial characterization undertaken by the German states revealed that only about 14% of all surface waters are considered to meet the WFD objectives by the year of 2015. Approximately 60% of the water bodies assessed are at risk of failing the WFD objectives, if not systematic efforts are made to improve the quality. Screenings of sources and paths of exposure for ‘priority substances’ and ‘priority hazardous substances’ according WFD identified one distinct pollution source for surface waters: ‘Historical pollution from sediments’. Because of industrial emissions in the past several river catchment areas are expected to fail the standards demanded by the WFD, due to a risk of remobilization of contaminants from sediments. This holds true for the Rhine river with high loads of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as well as for Elbe river, where contaminated sediments can be a severe problem. Therefore, integration of sediments into the holistic river basin management approach and their consideration within the ‘programmes of measures’ scheduled for 2009 is highly recommended. At present, a comprehensive weight-of-evidence study verifies whether the observed fish decline at the Upper Danube. River is caused by ecotoxicological hazard potentials of contaminated sediments.

    Outlook: Combined investigations of sediment contamination and mobility as well as acute and mechanism specific biotests in effect directed analyses/weight-of-evidence studies show grent potential for the assessment of chemically polluted rivers and should be included into the ‘programmes of measures’ within future management concepts.

  • 3. Hollert, Henner
    et al.
    Keiter, Steffen
    Böttcher, Melanie
    Grund, Steffi
    Seitz, Nadja
    Otte, Jens
    Bluhm, Kerstin
    Wurm, Karl
    Hecker, Markus
    Higley, Eric
    Giesy, John
    Takner [Olsman], Helena
    van Bavel, Bert
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Reifferscheid, Georg
    Manz, Werner
    Erdinger, Lother
    Schulze, Tobias
    Luebcke-van Varel, Urte
    Kammann, Ulrike
    Schöneberger, René
    Suter, Marc
    Brack, Werner
    Strähle, Uwe
    Braunbeck, Thomas
    Eine Weight-of-Evidence-Studie zur Bewertung der Sedimentbelastung und des Fischrückgangs in der Oberen Donau [Assessing sediments and fish health using a weight-of-evidence approach : in search for the causes of fish decline in the Danube river]2009In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, ISSN 0934-3504, E-ISSN 1865-5084, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 260-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim Despite intensive and continuous stocking and improvement of water quality since the 1970s, fish populations, especially those of the grayling (Thymallus thymallus), have declined over the last two decades in the upper Danube River (Germany). In order to assess 1) possible links between molecular/biochemical responses and ecologically relevant effects, and 2) if ecotoxicological effects might be related to the decline in fish catches in the upper Danube river, sediment samples and fish were collected at different locations and analyzed using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach with several lines of evidence. The objective of the presentation is to introduce the conceptual framework and to review results of the ongoing study. As previously addressed by Chapman and Hollert (2006) a variety of lines of evidence can be used in WOE studies. Briefly, 1) a comprehensive battery of acute and mechanism-specific bioassays was used to characterize the ecotoxicological hazard potential. 2) Histopathological investigations and the micronucleus assay with erythrocytes were applied, analyzing in situ parameters. 3) Diversity and abundance of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish as well as 4) persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disrupting substances, limnochemical parameters and the concentration of heavy metals were recorded. To identify organic contaminants a spotential causes of sediment toxicity assays, 5) effect directed analysis was applied. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

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