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  • 1.
    Carstens, Adam
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Internal Medicine, Ersta Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Dicksved, Johan
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nelson, Ronald
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Carl Mårten
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Andreasson, Anna
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Bohr, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Örebro University Hospital. Department of Gastroenterology.
    Tysk, Curt
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Talley, Nicholas J.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.
    Agréus, Lars
    Division of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Halfvarson, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Gastroenterology.
    The Gut Microbiota in Collagenous Colitis Shares Characteristics With Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Dysbiosis2019In: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN 2155-384X, E-ISSN 2155-384X, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e00065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an aberrant immune response to gut microbiota is important, but the role of the microbiota in collagenous colitis (CC) is largely unknown. We aimed to characterize the microbiota of patients with CC compared with that of healthy control and patients with IBD.

    METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from patients with CC (n = 29), age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 29), patients with Crohn's disease (n = 32), and patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 32). Sequence data were obtained by 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, and the obtained sequences were subsequently taxonomically classified.

    RESULTS: Analysis of similarity statistics showed a segregation between patients with CC and healthy controls with increasing taxonomic resolution, becoming significant comparing operational taxonomic unit data (P = 0.006). CC had a lower abundance of 10 different taxa. Taxa-specific analyses revealed a consistent lower abundance of several operational taxonomic units belonging to the Ruminococcaceae family in patients with CC, q < 0.05 after false discovery rate correction. Loss of these taxa was seen in patients with CC with active disease and/or corticosteroid treatment only and resembled the findings in patients with IBD.

    DISCUSSION: CC is associated with a specific fecal microbiome seen primarily in patients with active disease or ongoing corticosteroid treatment, whereas the microbiome of CC patients in remission resembled that of healthy controls. Notably, the shift in key taxa, including the Ruminococcaceae family, was also observed in IBD. There may be common mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CC and IBD.

  • 2.
    Holster, Savanne
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Carl Mårten
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Repsilber, Dirk
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Salonen, Anne
    Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    de Vos, Willem
    Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
    König, Julia
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    The Effect of Allogenic Versus Autologous Fecal Microbiota Transfer on Symptoms, Visceral Perception and Fecal and Mucosal Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Study2019In: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN 2155-384X, E-ISSN 2155-384X, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e00034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is suggested as a potential treatment for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to study the effect of allogenic and autologous FMT on IBS symptoms, visceral sensitivity, and compositional changes in fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota.

    METHODS: Seventeen patients with IBS were randomized either to receive fecal material from a healthy donor (allogenic) or to receive their own fecal material (autologous). The fecal material was administered into the cecum by whole colonoscopy after bowel cleansing.

    RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the allogenic and the autologous FMT regarding symptom scores. However, symptom scores of patients receiving allogenic fecal material significantly decreased after FMT compared with baseline (P 5 0.02), which was not the case in the autologous group (P50.16). Visceral sensitivity was not affected except for a small beneficial effect on urge scores in the autologous group (P < 0.05). While both fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota of some patients shifted to their respective donor’s fecal microbiota, some patients showed no relevant microbial changes after allogenic FMT. Large compositional shifts in fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota also occurred in the autologous group.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a single FMT by colonoscopy may have beneficial effects in IBS; however, the allogenic fecal material was not superior to the autologous fecal material. This suggests that bowel cleansing prior to the colonoscopy and/or processing of the fecal material as part of the FMT routine contribute to symptoms and gut microbiota composition changes in IBS.

  • 3.
    König, Julia
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Wells, Jerry
    Host–Microbe Interactomics, Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Cani, Patrice D.
    Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, WELBIO—Walloon Excellence in Life Sciences and BIOtechnology, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    García-Ródenas, Clara L.
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    MacDonald, Tom
    Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
    Mercenier, Annick
    Nutrition and Health Research, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Whyte, Jacqueline
    European Branch, The International Life Sciences Institute, Brussels, Belgium.
    Troost, Freddy
    Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Brummer, Robert-Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Human Intestinal Barrier Function in Health and Disease2016In: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN 2155-384X, E-ISSN 2155-384X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id e196Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed. In addition, the effect of the frequently prescribed drugs proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability, as well as commonly used methods to assess barrier function will be reviewed.

  • 4.
    Melinder, Carren
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hiyoshi, Ayako
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hussein, Oula
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Halfvarson, Jonas
    Örebro University, School of Medicine, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ekbom, Anders
    Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Montgomery, Scott
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Physical Fitness in Adolescence and Subsequent Inflammatory Bowel Disease Risk2015In: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN 2155-384X, E-ISSN 2155-384X, Vol. 6, article id e121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Physical fitness may reduce systemic inflammation levels relevant to the risk of symptomatic Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC); we assessed if fitness in adolescence is associated with subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk, independent of markers of risk and prodromal disease activity.

    Methods: Swedish registers provided information on a cohort of 240,984 men (after exclusions) who underwent military conscription assessments in late adolescence (1969-1976). Follow-up started at least 4 years after the conscription assessment until 31 December 2009 (up to age 57 years). Cox's regression assessed the association of physical fitness with CD (n=986) and UC (n=1,878) in separate models, with adjustment including: socioeconomic conditions in childhood; physical fitness, height, body mass index, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in adolescence; and subsequent diagnoses of IBD.

    Results: Low fitness was associated with a raised risk of IBD, with unadjusted hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of 1.62 (1.31-2.00) for CD and 1.36 (1.17-1.59) for UC. The results were attenuated by adjustment, particularly for markers of prodromal disease activity to 1.32 (1.05-1.66) and 1.25 (1.06-1.48), respectively. Raised ESR in adolescence was associated with increased risks for subsequent CD (5.95 (4.47-7.92)) and UC (1.92 (1.46-2.52)).

    Conclusions: The inverse association of physical fitness with IBD risk is consistent with a protective role for exercise. However, evidence of disease activity before diagnosis was already present in adolescence, suggesting that some or all of the association between fitness and IBD may be due to prodromal disease activity reducing exercise capacity and therefore fitness.

  • 5.
    Sen, Partho
    et al.
    Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Carlsson, Cecilia
    Department of Chemistry, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Virtanen, Suvi M.
    Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Faculty of Social Sciences/Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; Center for Child Health Research, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Science Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Simell, Satu
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Hyöty, Heikki
    Fimlab Laboratories, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland; Fimlab Laboratories, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland.
    Ilonen, Jorma
    Immunogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Clinical Microbiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Toppari, Jorma
    Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Institute of Biomedicine, Centre for Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Veijola, Riitta
    Department of Paediatrics, PEDEGO Research Unit, Medical Research Centre, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Children and Adolescents, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Knip, Mikael
    Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Tampere Centre for Child Health Research, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Oresic, Matej
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Persistent Alterations in Plasma Lipid Profiles Before Introduction of Gluten in the Diet Associated With Progression to Celiac Disease2019In: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology, ISSN 2155-384X, E-ISSN 2155-384X, Vol. 10, article id e-00044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic enteropathy characterized by an autoimmune reaction in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals. The underlying causes of autoimmune reaction and its effect on host metabolism remain largely unknown. Herein, we apply lipidomics to elucidate the early events preceding clinical CD in a cohort of Finnish children, followed up in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study.

    METHODS: Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics profiling was applied to a longitudinal/prospective series of 233 plasma samples obtained from CD progressors (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23), matched for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk, sex, and age. The children were followed from birth until diagnosis of clinical CD and subsequent introduction of a gluten-free diet.

    RESULTS: Twenty-three children progressed to CD at a mean age of 4.8 years. They showed increased amounts of triacylglycerols (TGs) of low carbon number and double bond count and a decreased level of phosphatidylcholines by age 3 months as compared to controls. These differences were exacerbated with age but were not observed at birth (cord blood). No significant differences were observed in the essential TGs.

    DISCUSSION: Our preliminary findings suggest that abnormal lipid metabolism associates with the development of clinical CD and occurs already before the first introduction of gluten to the diet. Moreover, our data suggest that the specific TGs found elevated in CD progressors may be due to a host response to compromised intake of essential lipids in the small intestine, requiring de novo lipogenesis.

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