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  • 1.
    Chaillou, Thomas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Skeletal Muscle Fiber Type in Hypoxia: Adaptation to High-Altitude Exposure and Under Conditions of Pathological Hypoxia2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1450Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle is able to modify its size, and its metabolic/contractile properties in response to a variety of stimuli, such as mechanical stress, neuronal activity, metabolic and hormonal influences, and environmental factors. A reduced oxygen availability, called hypoxia, has been proposed to inducemetabolic adaptations and loss ofmass in skeletal muscle. In addition, several evidences indicate that muscle fiber-type composition could be affected by hypoxia. The main purpose of this review is to explore the adaptation of skeletal muscle fiber-type composition to exposure to high altitude (ambient hypoxia) and under conditions of pathological hypoxia, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic heart failure (CHF) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The muscle fiber-type composition of both adult animals and humans is not markedly altered during chronic exposure to high altitude. However, the fast-to-slow fiber-type transition observed in hind limb muscles during post-natal development is impaired in growing rats exposed to severe altitude. A slow-to-fast transition in fiber type is commonly found in lower limb muscles from patients with COPD and CHF, whereas a transition toward a slower fiber-type profile is often found in the diaphragm muscle in these two pathologies. A slow-to-fast transformation in fiber type is generally observed in the upper airway muscles in rodent models of OSAS. The factors potentially responsible for the adaptation of fiber type under these hypoxic conditions are also discussed in this review. The impaired locomotor activity most likely explains the changes in fiber type composition in growing rats exposed to severe altitude. Furthermore, chronic inactivity and muscle deconditioning could result in the slow-to-fast fiber-type conversion in lower limb muscles during COPD and CHF, while the factors responsible for the adaptation of muscle fiber type during OSAS remain hypothetical. Finally, the role played by cellular hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), and other molecular regulators in the adaptation of muscle fiber-type composition is described in response to high altitude exposure and conditions of pathological hypoxia.

  • 2.
    de Asis Fernandez, Fran
    et al.
    Departament of Health, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Hook Breathing Facilitates SaO(2) Recovery After Deep Dives in Freedivers With Slow Recovery2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate recovery from hypoxia, many freedivers use a breathing method called "hook breathing" (HB) after diving, involving an interrupted exhale to build up intrapulmonary pressure. Some divers experience a delay in recovery of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) after diving, interpreted as symptoms of mild pulmonary edema, and facilitated recovery may be especially important in this group to avoid hypoxic "blackout." We examined the influence of HB on recovery of SaO(2) in freedivers with slow recovery (SR) and fast recovery (FR) of SaO(2) after deep "free immersion" (FIM) apnea dives to 30 m depth. Twenty-two male freedivers, with a mean (SD) personal best in the discipline FIM of 57(26) m, performed two 30 m deep dives, one followed by HB and one using normal breathing (NB) during recovery, at different days and weighted order. SaO(2) and heart rate (HR) were measured via pulse oximetry during recovery. The SR group (n = 5) had a faster SaO(2) recovery using HB, while the FR group (n = 17) showed no difference between breathing techniques. At 105 s, the SR group reached a mean (SD) SaO(2) of 95(5)% using HB, while using NB, their SaO(2) was 87(5)% (p < 0.05), and 105-120 s after surfacing SaO(2) was higher with HB (p < 0.05). In SR subjects, the average time needed to reach 95% SaO(2) with HB was 60 s, while it was 120 s at NB (p < 0.05). HR was similar in the SR group, while it was initially elevated at HB in the FR group (p < 0.05). We conclude that HB efficiently increases SaO(2) recovery in SR individuals, but not in the FR group. The proposed mechanism is that increased pulmonary pressure with HB will reverse any pulmonary edema and facilitate oxygen uptake in divers with delayed recovery.

  • 3.
    Konz, Tobias
    et al.
    Nestlé Research, Vers-Chez-Les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre “L. Galvani”, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Goulet, Laurence
    Nestlé Research, Vers-Chez-Les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Bazzocchi, Alberto
    Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Battista, Giuseppe
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Nicoletti, Claudio
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Section of Anatomy, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; Gut Health Institute Strategic Programme, Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ostan, Rita
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre “L. Galvani”, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Goy, Michael
    Nestlé Research, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Monnard, Caroline
    Nestlé Research, Vers-Chez-Les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Martin, Francois-Pierre
    Nestlé Research, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Feige, Jerome N.
    Nestlé Research, EPFL Innovation Park, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Institute of Neurological Sciences (IRCCS), Bologna, Italy.
    Rezzi, Serge
    Nestlé Research, Vers-Chez-Les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Sex-Specific Associations of Blood-Based Nutrient Profiling With Body Composition in the Elderly2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intake of adequate amounts and types of nutrients is key for sustaining health and a good quality of life, particularly in the elderly population. There is considerable evidence suggesting that physiological changes related to age and sex modify nutritional needs, and this may be related to age-associated changes in body composition (BC), specifically in lean and fat body mass. However, there is a clear lack of understanding about the association of nutrients in blood and BC parameters in the elderly. This study investigated the relationships among blood nutrients (amino acids, fatty acids, major elements, trace-elements, and vitamins), BC and nutrient intake in a population of 176 healthy male and female Italian adults between the ages of 65 and 79 years. 89 blood markers, 77 BC parameters and dietary intake were evaluated. Multivariate data analysis was applied to infer relationships between datasets. As expected, the major variability between BC and the blood nutrient profile (BNP) observed was related to sex. Aside from clear sex-specific differences in BC, female subjects had higher BNP levels of copper, copper-to-zinc ratio, phosphorous and holotranscobalamin II and lower concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and proline. Fat mass, percentage of fat mass, percentage of lean mass and the skeletal muscle index (SMI) correlated the most with BNP in both sexes. Our data showed positive correlations in male subjects among ethanolamine, glycine, albumin, and sulfur with SMI, while palmitoleic acid and oleic acid exhibited negative correlations. This differed in female subjects, where SMI was positively associated with albumin, folic acid and sulfur, while CRP, proline and cis-8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid were negatively correlated. We investigated the influence of diet on the observed BNP and BC correlations. Intriguingly, most of the components of the BNP, except for folate, did not exhibit a correlation with nutrient intake data. An understanding of the physiological and biochemical processes underpinning the observed sex-specific correlations between BNP and BC could help in identifying nutritional strategies to manage BC-changes in aging. This would contribute to a deeper understanding of aging-associated nutritional needs with the aim of helping the elderly population to maintain metabolic health.

  • 4.
    Montiel Rojas, Diego
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Ponsot, Elodie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Brummer, Robert Jan
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Fairweather-Tait, Susan
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Jennings, Amy
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Berendsen, Agnes
    Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Pietruszka, Barbara
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Madej, Dawid
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Caumon, Elodie
    Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Meunier, Nathalie
    Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Malpuech-Brugere, Corinne
    Unité de Nutrition Humaine, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine d’Auvergne, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Guidarelli, Giulia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Center “L. Galvani” (CIG), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    Bellaria Hospital, Institute of Neurological Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Short Telomere Length Is Related to Limitations in Physical Function in Elderly European Adults2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to explore the potential influence of leucocyte telomere length (LTL) on both a single indicator and a composite construct of physical functioning in a large European population of elderly men and women across diverse geographical locations. A total of 1,221 adults (65-79 years) were recruited from five European countries within the framework of NU-AGE study. The physical functioning construct was based on the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Handgrip strength was used as a single indicator of muscle function and LTL was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Women had significantly longer (p < 0.05) LTL than men. Participants in Poland had significantly shorter LTL than in the other study centers, whereas participants in the Netherlands had significantly longer LTL than most of the other centers (p < 0.01). An analysis of LTL as a continuous outcome against physical functioning by using linear models revealed inconsistent findings. In contrast, based on an analysis of contrasting telomere lengths (first vs. fifth quintile of LTL), a significant odds ratio (OR) of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1 -2.6; p < 0.05) of having functional limitation was observed in those belonging to the first LTL quintile compared to the fifth. Interestingly, having the shortest LTL was still related to a higher likelihood of having physical limitation when compared to all remaining quintiles (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.1; p < 0.05), even after adjustment by study center, age, sex, and overweight status. Collectively, our findings suggest that short LTL is an independent risk factor that accounts for functional decline in elderly European populations. The influence of LTL on functional limitation seems driven by the detrimental effect of having short telomeres rather than reflecting a linear dose-response relationship.

  • 5.
    Santoro, Aurelia
    et al.
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre “L. Galvani”, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Bazzocchi, Alberto
    IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Guidarelli, Giulia
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Ostan, Rita
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre “L. Galvani”, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Giampieri, Enrico
    Department of Physics, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Mercatelli, Daniele
    IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.
    Scurti, Maria
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Institute of Neurological Sciences (IRCCS), Bologna, Italy.
    Berendsen, Agnes
    Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Surala, Olga
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Warsaw, Poland.
    Jennings, Amy
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Meunier, Nathalie
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Caumon, Elodie
    CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Gillings, Rachel
    Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Capel, Frederic
    Unité de Nutrition Humaine, INRA, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Cashman, Kevin D.
    Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Pietruszka, Barbara
    Department of Human Nutrition, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Warsaw, Poland.
    Feskens, Edith J. M.
    Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    De Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.
    Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Battista, Giuseppe
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Salvioli, Stefano
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; C.I.G. Interdepartmental Centre “L. Galvani”, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Franceschi, Claudio
    Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Institute of Neurological Sciences (IRCCS), Bologna, Italy.
    A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Body Composition Among Healthy Elderly From the European NU-AGE Study: Sex and Country Specific Features2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body composition (BC) is an emerging important factor for the characterization of metabolic status. The assessment of BC has been studied in various populations and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, endocrine diseases as well as physiological and paraphysiological conditions such as growth and aging processes, and physical training. A gold standard technique for the assessment of human BC at molecular level is represented by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is able to precisely assess the body mass (and areal bone mineral density-aBMD) on a regional and whole-body basis. For the first time, within the framework of the NU-AGE project, BC has been assessed by means of a whole-body DXA scan in 1121 sex-balanced free-living, apparently healthy older adults aged 65-79 years enrolled in 5 European countries (Italy, France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Poland). The aim of this analysis is to provide a complete profile of BC in healthy elderly participants from five European countries and to investigate country- and sex-related differences by state-of-the-art DXA technology. To compare BC data collected in different centers, specific indexes and ratios have been used. Non-parametric statistical tests showed sex-specific significant differences in certain BC parameters. In particular, women have higher fat mass (FM) (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 67%, p < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Lean Mass index: by -18%, p < 2.2e-16) than men. On the other hand, men have higher android FM than women (Android/gynoid FM ratio: by 56%, p < 2.2e-16). Interesting differences also emerged among countries. Polish elderly have higher FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 52%, p < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by -23%, p < 2.2e-16) than elderly from the other four countries. At variance, French elderly show lower FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by -34%, p < 2.2e-16) and higher lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by 18%, p < 2.2e-16). Moreover, five BC profiles in women and six in men have been identified by a cluster analysis based on BC parameters. Finally, these data can serve as reference for normative average and variability of BC in the elderly populations across Europe.

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